Cellular respiration is divided into two parts of metabolism. The first half is about the cell breaks down molecules into energy, or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) while the second half of metabolism involves the use of that cellular energy to build molecules such as tissues and organs, and it is referred to as anabolism.
Cellular respiration also is called oxidative metabolism because it uses a set of chemical reactions to change the oxidative state of the initial products. In animals and simpler organisms, respiration involves glucose and oxygen. The oxygen does not come into play until the end, when free electrons need something to which to bind. Carbon dioxide and water are the byproducts of the reaction. Oxidative metabolism begins with the breakdown of organic nutrients such as carbohydrates, sugars, proteins, vitamins and fats. Glucose, a simple sugar, is the most common nutrient to be broken down in a process known as glycolysis, or glucose metabolism.
ATP commonly is known as the fuel and currency of the cell because of the vital function it plays, according to Estrella Mountain Community College. Without this material, cells, tissues and bodily systems would be unable to sustain themselves. In addition to its role as a fuel, ATP is also recyclable. Once a cell uses the ATP molecules produced through cellular respiration, ADP and phosphate molecules are leftover byproducts. ADP and phosphate molecules are two of the materials needed to manufacture ATP, so leftover byproducts from one respiration cycle can be picked up and used within the next respiration cycle.
In the citric acid cycle, oxidation of the carbon atoms results in the production of carbon dioxide and energy. There are two pyruvate molecules input into the mitochondria from one glucose metabolism reaction, so the TCA cycle involves two cycle turns for completion. Each turn produces one ATP, and so at the completion, two ATP are produced. Oxidative metabolism is an efficient process in that it produces numerous byproducts, known as reaction intermediates, for instance, FMOC-L-Phenylalanine(an pharmaceutical intermediate, other names such as FMOC-PHE or FMOC-Phenylalanine), that are almost immediately used for anabolism after catabolism is complete.
Oxidative metabolism is affected by diseases such as type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes prevents glucose from entering the cell, and if it is left untreated, there will be no glucose available for normal production of energy via glycolysis. The body will then resort to the breakdown of fatty acids to fuel itself. The breakdown of fatty acids results in an acidic byproduct known as ketone bodies. If let untreated, the quantity of ketone bodies acidifies the potenz hydrogen (pH) of the blood and leads to the life-threatening condition ketoacidosis.