Neodymium Super Strength Magnets

 

Today, we have wind turbines and electric cars. The most used metal in these wind turbines and electric cars is called as neodymium. It is a rare metal but is widely used. Here is an overview of the chemistry and applications of the lanthanide which is a rare earth element neodymium and is a constituent of super-strength magnets that are used to miniaturise electric motors.

 

Neodymium has a chemical symbol Nd and is an element with the atomic number of 60 which means that the nucleus of each atom has 60 protons. As a pure substance, it has a silvery-grey colour and is one of the most reactive lanthanides. It quickly tarnishes in the presence of air and is found in nature as an ore in minerals such as monazite and bastnasite.

 
It is the largest constituent of a new type of high-strength magnets that are used to increase the power and also to reduce the size and weight of electric motors. This makes the electric motors indispensible especially for the new generation of hybrid and electric cars, the miniaturisation of hard disk drives, and also for the construction of wind turbines, which also depend on strong magnetic fields to generate electricity.

 

Neodymium is also an important constituent of the alloy of rare earth metals which is known as “mischmetal” and is used in the flint mechanism of many cigarette lighters.It was first commercially used in the pigmentation of glass. This glass was produced by the inclusion of neodymium oxide and appeared lavender in colour in daylight or incandescent light, but pale blue under fluorescent light. If gold or selenium is also added to the glass, red colours result.

 

The commercial demand for neodymium has dramatically increased over the recent years due to the discovery of super-strength magnets which is made from an alloy of neodymium with iron and boron (Nd2Fe14B). The alloy was discovered in 1982, by General Motors, Sumitomo Special Metals and the China Academy of Science. This was done in response to the high price of samarium-cobalt magnets which were the first type of rare earth magnets to be commercialised.


Folic Acid & Vitamin B9

Folic acid is also known as folacin, vitamin M and vitamin B9 and is an essential component in a large number of biochemical processes in the human body. Would you like to have a memory like you had seven years ago? A study conducted by a group of Dutch researchers found that folic acid helpful in improving the memory of a person. Let us find out how this important acid came into being and how it is important in our day-to-day life.

Folic acid is a large organic molecule which has a complicated structure. Its empirical formula is C19H19N7O6. It is not biologically active by itself, but it becomes active when it is converted to dihydrofolic acid and then tetrahydrofolate in the liver.

The chemical is defined as a vitamin because it is a vital component in our diet that we must obtain from food. It is particularly necessary for pregnant women soon after conception because without folic acid the embryo may develop neural tube defects and other developmental disorders. In the late 1990s, US scientists realized that despite the availability of folate in foods and in supplements, there was still a challenge for people to meet their daily folate requirements, which is when the US implemented the folate fortification program.

The function of the folate molecules produced from folic acid is to help in the transfer of one-carbon units (methylation) in a variety of reactions that are critical to the metabolism of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins.

So, the synthesis of DNA from its precursors is dependent on the presence of folate molecules as co-enzymes. They are also necessary in order to prevent the changes to DNA molecules which could lead to the formation of cancers. Folates are also necessary for the formation of several important amino acids like methionine. This helps in preventing a build up of homocysteine which is a precursor of methionine, and a risk factor for heart disease.

So, make sure you include the main sources of this essential nutrient which include green leafy vegetables, sprouts and asparagus. Besides these, legumes such as beans, peas and lentils are also good sources of folic acid and citrus fruit juices and fortified grain products such as cereal, pasta and bread. Folic acid can also be taken as a supplement in tablet form.

New Process Doubles Production of Alternative Fuel

A new discovery should make the alternative fuel butanol more attractive to the biofuel industry. University of Illinois scientist Hao Feng has found a way around the bottleneck that has frustrated producers in the past and could significantly reduce the cost of the energy involved in making it as well.

“The first challenge in butanol production is that at a certain concentration the fuel being created becomes toxic to the organism used to make it (Clostridium pasteurianum and other strains), and that toxicity limits the amount of fuel that can be made in one batch. The second issue is the high energy cost of removing butanol from the fermentation broth at the high concentrations used by the industry. We have solved both problems,” he said.

In the study, funded by the Energy Biosciences Institute, Feng’s team successfully tested the use of a non-ionic surfactant, or co-polymer, to create small structures that capture and hold the butanol molecules.

“This keeps the amount of butanol in the fermentation broth low so it doesn’t kill the organism and we can continue to produce it,” he said. This process, called extractive fermentation, increases the amount of butanol produced during fermentation by 100 percent or more.

But that’s only the beginning. Feng’s group then makes use of one of the polymer’s properties—its sensitivity to temperature. When the fermentation process is finished, the scientists heat the solution until a cloud appears and two layers form.

“We use a process called cloud point separation,” he said. “Two phases form, with the second facing the polymer-rich phase. When we remove the second phase, we can recover the butanol, achieving a three- to fourfold reduction in energy use there because we don’t have to remove as much water as in traditional fermentation.”

A bonus is that the co-polymers can be recycled and can be reused at least three times after butanol is extracted with little effect on phase separation behavior and butanol enrichment ability. After the first recovery, the volume of butanol recovered is slightly lower but is still at a high concentration, he said.

According to Feng, alternative fuel manufacturers may want to take another look at butanol because it has a number of attractive qualities. Butanol has a 30 percent higher energy content than ethanol, lower vapor pressure, and is less volatile, less flammable, and mixes well with gasoline, he noted.

Natural Home Cleaning

 

If you’re trying to reduce the level of toxic chemicals in your life, you’ve probably considered “going green” with your cleaning method. The interest in natural cleaning products has grown substantially in the last 20 years and has spawned a competitive industry. As in other “green” areas, a .,bandwagon effect has inspired some conventional companies to bring out lines that. are fragrance free.

 

Basics
A natural cleaning agent is made of organic matter, either from an animal, plant or mineral, as opposed to synthetic agents that are usually based on petroleum. They contain no harmful ingredients such as perchloroethylene and toluene, which are both considered human carcinogens.  Switching to natural products is not just better for the environment, doing so can have real health benefits for you and your family. Planet Green reports that there are 17,000 petrochemicals available as home cleaning supplies, only 30 percent of which have been tested for human and environmental safety.

 

Effects
Vinegar works best for cleaning surfaces and glass, while baking soda will scour tubs, de-grease ovens and lift carpet odors. These ingredients are biodegradable in the sense that their components do not harm the environment when they are incorporated back into the food chain. There is no lingering “fresh” odor, which is important to people with fragrance allergies. Also, they do not produce harmful fumes, chemical burns or nausea from accidental contact, and they do not impact the central nervous system.

 

Home Products
Both vinegar and baking soda work as very versatile green cleaners that can clean almost anything. The main difference between a commercially available natural cleaning product and a homemade cleaning solution is the lack of surfactants. Vinegar works best for cleaning surfaces and glass, while baking soda will scour tubs, de-grease ovens and lift carpet odors. Mix either substance with warm water to make an all-purpose, non-toxic cleaner.

 

In fact, you can mix baking soda, vinegar, borax, washing soda, essential oils and soap to effectively clean and deodorize your entire house. When you have dry cleaning, take it to a “green cleaner” who doesn’t use Perchloroethylene (C2Cl4 and the CAS number is 127-18-4), also called perc. If you do take your clothes to a conventional dry cleaner, air them outdoors before wearing or storing them.

 

Considerantions
Many dish soaps are made with phosphates, which can increase algae growth in our waterways. If you’re worried about your indoor air, don’t use a commercial air filter. Instead, get a broad-leaf green plant to filter the air naturally, and open the windows when you can.  


The Role Of Unique Properties Of Graphene

New research by Columbia Engineering demonstrates remarkable optical nonlinear behavior of graphene that may lead to broad applications in optical interconnects and low-power photonic integrated circuits. With the placement of a sheet of graphene just one-carbon-atom-thick, the researchers transformed the originally passive device into an active one that generated microwave photonic signals and performed parametric wavelength conversion at telecommunication wavelengths.

They have engineered a graphene-silicon device whose optical nonlinearity enables the system parameters (such as transmittance and wavelength conversion) to change with the input power level. Using different optical frequencies to tune the radio frequency, they found that the graphene-silicon hybrid chip achieved radio frequency generation with a resonant quality factor more than 50 times lower than what other scientists have achieved in silicon. The researchers also were able to observe that, by optically driving the electronic and thermal response in the silicon chip, they could generate a radio frequency carrier on top of the transmitted laser beam and control its modulation with the laser intensity and color.

Until recently, researchers could only isolate graphene as single crystals with micron-scale dimensions, essentially limiting the material to studies confined within laboratories. “The ability to synthesize large-area films of graphene has the obvious implication of enabling commercial production of these proven graphene-based technologies,” explains James Hone, associate professor of mechanical engineering, whose team provided the high quality graphene for this study. “But large-area films of graphene (is an allotrope of carbon) can also enable the development of novel devices and fundamental scientific studies requiring graphene samples with large dimensions. This work is an exciting example of both-large-area films of graphene enable the fabrication of novel opto-electronic devices, which in turn allow for the study of scientific phenomena.”

And now, the recent excellent work done by this group of Columbia researchers demonstrates that graphene is also unique electro-optical material for ultrafast nonlinear optical modulation when it is combined with silicon photonic crystal structures. This opens an important doorway for many novel optoelectronic device applications, such as 

Three Types Of Surgical Gloves

Surgical gloves are much like doctors’ examination gloves, except they are of higher quality and are more expensive. They provide comfort and tactile sensitivity while providing barrier protection to surgeons and nurses during operating procedures. Choosing the right surgical glove can be an ordeal looking at the plethora of options available.

History
In 1894, William Stewart Halsted pioneered the widespread use of rubber gloves during surgery. Halsted was the first surgeon-in-chief and first professor of surgery at the Johns Hopkins Hospital within the university of the same name in Baltimore. He is often called the father of American surgery and the father of surgical rubber gloves. The first known use of them was by a German physician carrying out a gynecological operation in 1758. At this time, surgeons routinely operated in their everyday clothes with no more than an already bloodstained apron over the top.

In the 1840s, anatomists and pathologists began using rubber ones when they were conducting dissections. By January 2008, Johns Hopkins Hospital had phased out the use of latex surgical ones. As reported at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons in New Orleans, some surgeons believe that latex-free surgical products may be more likely to perforate during operations.

Latex Gloves
The latex glove, made from natural rubber latex, is a long-standing, popular choice.It provides excellent tactile sensitivity, allowing the surgeon to feel his way through the procedure. Latex also makes for a comfortable product. They are also highly elastic, making them easy to put on. Today, there are many options available due to improved technology. For instance, surgical products with polymer inner coating are available to provide ease of donning ones even if hands are damp or dry.

Polyisoprene Gloves


Polyisoprene
(C5H8, CAS No. is 9003-31-0)surgical ones are made from synthetic polyisoprene which provide similar properties to latex (natural rubber). Of all material used to make surgical gloves, polyisoprene() is the most expensive material. In fact, polyisoprene has a molecular structure that is very similar to natural rubber. Polyisoprene is regarded as a “latex” product without the harmful protein found in latex which is responsible for latex allergies. Like other surgical materials, this product are available with polymer inner coating so donning gloves are easier even when hands are damp or dry.

Neoprene Gloves
Neoprene is also a synthetic material. It is often the choice for surgical gloves when latex is not an option. However, while it is a suitable substitute for latex in many respects, it is not as elastic. Like latex and polyisoprene ones, neoprene types are available with a polymer coating on the inside to make donning the gloves easier.

The Output Growth Of European Chemicals Will Shut Down Because Of Debt Crisis

CEFIC, the European Chemical Industry Association, said last week, due to the European debt crisis, the production of chemicals in Europe in 2012 will stop growing. Before this, the Association had forecast that the output of chemicals in Europe will grow by 1.5 percent this year. However, the European chemicals production increased by 1.3% In 2011.

In fact, this lowered expectations, the output of chemicals will stop growing rather than a negative growth this year, was expected by CEFIC ??based on more optimistic assumptions state. While reaching this conclusion, the CEFIC assumeed that the weak performance of government debt and bank in Europe will not spread in the EU Member States; It also assumeed that the United States and China, two main export markets of European companies, their economies will still have stronger growth.

Just at the end of the first quarter of this year, the head of Europe and the U.S. chemical companies also expected that the demand for chemicals would be stronger in the second half of this year, but now it seems that stronger signs don’t appear. Kevin Swift, the chief economist of American Chemistry Council (ACC), said the recent economic indicators of US. mixed good and bad; while the commercial inventory levels rose, the overall industrial production has dropped in May, and this is a second fall last 3 months.

The analysts of chemical industry also find the decline of various company’s business. Bruce Kasi Man, the chief economist of JP Morgan investment bank will also reduce his expection on the global economy growth in the second half from 2.6% to 2.1%.

Hubert Mann from CEFIC and Kevin Swift from ACC both believe that if the national economic policies can be beneficial to enhance business confidence, manufacturing grows subsequently. In addition, they also expect central banks to take further policy stimulus. Bruce Kasi Man argueed that in the current economic situation, hopes that countries can introduce effective measures is unrealistic.

Pacific Potash Acquired Western Potash Corp’s Assets

Recently, Canadian Pacific Potash Corporation issued a letter to the Western Potash Corp intends to acquire the assets of the Western Potash Corp of Amazon basin in Brazil.

It is reported that Moonraker which is the Western Potash Corp shareholder had decided to sell the 497.5 million shares that he hold to the Pacific Potash Corp. As the equity transaction is completed, the Pacific Potash Company will get the 80% assets of Western Potassium Corp in Brazil, and the Moonraker also will become a wholly owned subsidiary of Pacific Corporation.

The Pacific Company said, to achieve this acquisition, their company has invested a total amount of $ two million these three years, and invested at least $ 300,000 per year.

The Operating Rate Of Global Methanol Equipments Is Expected To Rebound

In 2011, the global demand for methanol totaled about 54 million tons. In the next few years, drived by the rapid development of emerging application areas, the global methanol demand in 2015 will surge to 85 million tons. By then, the overcapacity situation of global methanol is expected to be effective mitigated, and the average operating rate of methanol devices will be back up to about 80% compared to 60% to 65% in the last two years. This information was obtained by the reporter from the recent the General Assembly of China International Nitrogen Fertilizer And Methanol In 2012.

Pang eagle, the senior director of IHS consulting firm, analysized the global methanol market conditions in detail. He pointed out that, from 2008 to 2011 the global methanol production capacity increase at an average annual 10 million tons, while demand growth large far behind the capacity growth. Because of excess capacity, the average operating rate of the methanol plant is maintained at 60% to 65%.The global annual increase of the methanol production capacity is estimated to 3 million tons in 2012 to 2015, at the same time demands for methanol blended gasoline, methanol to dimethyl ether and methanol to olefins and other emerging applications will continue to grow rapidly, especially in the year of 2015, a large number of methanol to olefins projects will put into operation in China, methanol consumption in this field will be more than 15 million tons. The fast growth in demand is expected to make the methanol plant, the average operating rate rose to about 80%.

As for North America region, he said, the methyl tert-butyl ether production in this region is significantly reduced because of the impact of methyl tertiary butyl ether contaminated water events in the past five years, resulting methanol consumption decreased by 30%. Methanol demand and production in the region in the next few years will continue to show weakness stagnation state does not have a big development.

European region about consumed 8 million tons of methanol each year in recent years, leading to the methanol consumption in the region of 2015 to reach about 900 million tons. The region produces methanol by using natural gas as raw material. It doesn’t have the advantages of raw materials, so the production of methanol shows a downward trend, the methanol consumption in the future will rely mainly on imports.

Northeast Asia is the main consuming market of methanol, accounting for more than 60% of the total global consumption. Methanol production and consumption in the region is basically concentrated in mainland China. The methanol consumption situation of the Chinese market is a hot topic of global concern.

Surfactants In Daily Life

In chemistry, the term “surfactant” is used to describe a chemical that reduces the surface tension of another compound and increasing the contact between the liquid and another substance. There are a wide variety of these products, which work with oil, water, and an assortment of other liquids. Many companies manufacture a range of them for various purposes, ranging from soaps to inks. As a result, they are found in a number of everyday household item.

The term is a compound of “surface acting agent”, referring to the fact that a surfactant interacts with the surface of a liquid to change its properties. They work through a process known as “adsorption,” which means that they accrete on the surface of a liquid, creating a film which reduces its surface tension.

Soap, shampoo, hair conditioner and toothpaste all contain surfactants which gently cleanse the scalp, skin, hair and teeth. These compounds create a pleasantly foamy reaction when mixed with water. The suds and bubbles help the water get beneath oil, dirt and debris, allowing the unwanted compounds to be washed away during rinsing. Additionally, the products are found in shaving creams where the decrease in surface tension reduces the friction generated by the razor blade, resulting in a smoother shave.

Dish-washing liquids and dishwasher detergents are two of the most common sources for kitchen surfactants. In these compounds, they create loads of suds and leave dishes sparkling clean by breaking up baked-on grime and dissolving fats and oil.

Surfactants can also work as lubricants, as is the case with shaving a cream, a product which makes it easier to run a razor along the skin to remove unwanted hair. They are also used in sanitizing products, anti-fogging liquids, adhesives, emulsifiers, and fabric softeners, among numerous other substances. Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid(referred to as LABSA, CAS No. 27176-87-0) is a common active agent in the production of surfactants. In some cases, a surfactant may be toxic or pose a health risk, depending on the materials it contains, and it is a good idea to read labels to make sure that it is used properly.

The term “surfactant” is also used in the medical community to refer specifically to a substance secreted by the cells which line the lungs. Pulmonary product makes it easier for people to breathe by reducing surface tension in the lungs. Without the subsatnce in the lungs, people would have trouble breathing, and their breathing would be much noisier.

How To Get Rid Of Mites?

Mites are vermin that feed off the blood of certain animals and can get into homes and cause allergic reactions for many people. They are not known to be biting mites, but they can attack by stripping off layers of skin, creating painful sores and blisters. You can get rid of then through stringent sanitization and cleaning, repairing fissures and holes in floors or walls, and employing the use of chemicals. Fortunately, there are several actions that can be taken to help you accomplish mite elimination.

Since they are too small to be seen with the naked eye, you will likely sense their presence by either feeling them on your skin or having some sort of allergic reaction. The first step to eradicating these household mites is to strip all bedding from your mattress and wash it thoroughly in disinfectant soap and hot water. This should be done biweekly as a preventative measure even if you do not have a bed mite infestation.

The cleaning process, however, is just beginning. Either remove carpeting, or sprinkle carpets with Borax and leave it on overnight. Borax will help to kill mites by dehydrating them. Do just one room at a time so you can close it off to pets and children. After the borax has been left on the carpet over night, vacuum it up and throw out the bag as soon as you are finished. Vacuum curtains, furniture and pet products.

Another important step in wiping out bed mites is a meticulous repairing of any fissures, cracks, or other small openings in walls, flooring, and even furniture. The insects love dark, moist places, and these spots are a preferred nesting place, second only to mattresses and pillows. By going over holes with filler or sealant, you can keep more mites out and focus on destroying the ones that have already infested the area.

In the bedroom, use non-organic bed linens or linens with a high thread count so mites are not attracted to them. Protect your mattress by using a latex rubber mattress cover and wash all bed linens regularly in hot water.

There are other chemical products on the market which are not considered pesticides and contain benzyl benzoate(also known as Ascabin or Ascabiol, CAS No. 120-51-4) and tannic acid. These two ingredients have shown great success in getting rid of bed mites and their associated allergens. Chemical-free pest control options are also widely available.

While there are many chemicals that you can use to de-mite your house, there are also natural products that help get rid of mites as well. If you choose to go the natural route, stalk up on empty containers and spray bottles and then fill them with products such as tea tree oil, fennel, eucalyptus, mint oil, lemon juice, cedar oil and marigold.

Industrial Uses for Sulphuric Acid

Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is an extremely corrosive liquid that is viscous, colorless and odorless. Since its discovery, it has been employed in a wide variety of uses around the globe. It is a key component in batteries, wastewater treatment, ore production, and fertilizer creation. Sixty-five percent of all fertilizers available on the market today are created from a combination of it and other chemicals.

History
Sulfuric acid was discovered in the 8th century by an alchemist named Jabir Ibn Hayyan. When sulfur compounds are burned, sulfur dioxide gas is left behind. When sulfur dioxide gas is heated to 450 degrees, the combination turns into sulfur trioxide. Jabir Ibn Hayyan mixed sulfur trioxide with water to create sulfuric acid. A century later, Ibn Zakariya al-Razi, a Persian physician and alchemist, continued studying the acid and discovered it had the ability to destroy iron and copper oxide.

Feature
Due to the acid’s unstable properties, it is essential for those combining sulfuric acid with water to add it to the water and not the other way around. If water is poured into sulfuric acid, a volatile explosion of boiling water can be created. Though the acid is non-flammable, it can create hydrogen gas, which is highly volatile.

Uses
Fertilizers
According to Florida State College at Jacksonville, about 65 percent of the world’s sulfuric acid is used to manufacture agricultural fertilizers. To produce ammonium sulfate fertilizers and phosphate fertilizers, the chemical reacts with ammonia to create a form of ammonium nitrate used in the fertilizers. Sulfuric acid(CAS No. 7664-93-9) also converts insoluble calcium phosphate into soluble mixtures of compounds, such as Ca(H2PO4)2 and 2CaSO4.2H2O, which can be crushed and used as “superphosphate” fertilizers.

Batteries
Lead-acid storage batteries for cars and other vehicles are some of the few consumer products that contain sulfuric acid. Often called “battery acid” or “electrolyte,” a generic term used to describe non-metallic substances that conduct electricity when dissolved in water, sulfuric acid is quite dangerous, and should only be handled by trained, authorized professionals. These batteries can weigh upward of 60 lbs., and carrier lifts are often used to move batteries that contain sulfuric acid in auto shops.

Ethanolamine Description

Ethanolamine(C2H7NO), also called 2-aminoethanol or monoethanolamine (often abbreviated as ETA or MEA), is an organic chemical compound that is both a primary amine and a primary alcohol (due to a hydroxyl group), making it useful in a variety of industrial applications. The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) classifies ethanolamine as having an Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) rating at 1,000 parts per million (ppm) concentration for skin exposure or 30 ppm for inhaled concentrations.

It is a toxic, flammable, corrosive, colorless, viscous liquid with an odor similar to that of ammonia. It is also toxic and corrosive upon exposure to human skin, despite being used in various cosmetics such as hair waving agents and soaps. At room temperature, ethanolamine takes on a thick, clear liquid form that is flammable, and has an odor like that of ammonia. Ethanolamine is the second-most-abundant head group for phospholipids, substances found in biological membranes, and is also used in messenger molecules such as palmitoylethanolamide which has an effect on CB1 receptors.

Thye chemical is generally classed as a primary amine chemical but can also be labeled as a primary alcohol, and it is most frequently used as both an agricultural fungicide and microbicide in nations such as New Zealand. The capability of ethanolamine to bind to various other compounds makes it useful as a scrubbing agent to remove highly toxic hydrogen sulphide gas, H2S in crude oil production or carbon dioxide gas, CO2, in various industries. This also makes it useful as a binding agent in dry cleaning, wool treatment, and to enhance the performance characteristics of various paints and polishes.

Aqueous solutions of Ethanolamine (solutions of MEA in water) are used as a gas stream scrubbing liquid in amine treaters. For example, aqueous MEA is used to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas. Aqueous solutions can weakly dissolve certain kinds of gases from a mixed gas stream. The MEA in such solutions, acting as a weak base, then neutralizes acidic compounds dissolved in the solution to turn the molecules into an ionic form, making them polar and considerably more soluble in a cold MEA solution, and thus keeping such acidic gases dissolved in this gas-scrubbing solution.

Since ethanolamine poses serious risks to human health through corrosive skin burns, damage to the eyes, or through inhalation damage to the respiratory tract, it must be handled with caution. Prolonged human exposure to very low concentrations of the compound have also been shown to degrade teeth and jaw bones, as well as lead to respiratory ailments such as bronchial pneumonia, as well as have detrimental effects on the internal organs of the liver and kidneys.

Latex Gloves Description

Chemicals can be highly dangerous. Some are flammable or react violently with other chemicals. Protect your eyes with goggles and your hands with gloves. Latex comes from the rubber tree, which is cultivated in wet tropical environments such as Southeast Asia, West Africa and Brazil. It is then made into various products, the most common being the latex glove. People in the United States use billions of latex gloves per year for different purposes

Latex
Latex is a natural rubber harvested from the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. It is a polymer, made up of extremely large molecules composed of many identical molecular subunits. Starch is a polymer, consisting of repeated subunits of sugar. The molecular subunits in latex are a molecule called isoprene. Latex effectively protects against some chemicals, but there are better choices for certain other chemicals.

Benefits
Latex gloves are cheaper than gloves made from synthetic material. The latex gloves are generally more comfortable to wear than synthetic gloves, and the rubbery nature of the latex allows the glove to be more flexible and less stiff than synthetic materials. This flexibility of movement is more efficient for people who must have have nimble fingers, such as surgeons.

Food Handling
Latex gloves are used in the food service industry to prepare and handle foods in a way that eliminates contamination. A box of latex gloves can generally be found in every kitchen to provide the workers the option of protection. It is also advantageous when a worker has a cut or abrasion and the bandage needs to be covered with something extra that allows a wide range of mobility.

Latex Gloves
Latex gloves offer very good protection (low permeation rate and high breakthrough time) against ethanol, isopropyl alcohol and ethylene glycol, and moderately good protection from methanol and acetone. They offer very poor protection against isobutyl alcohol(also known as Isobutanol or 2-Methyl-1-propanol, C4H10O) and carbon tetrachloride. If you are ever in doubt, glove manufacturers can provide the permeation rate and breakthrough times for a wide array of chemicals so you can determine which gloves are appropriate.

Surgery
The most common place latex gloves are used is in the medical field. They protects the nurses and doctors from potentially harmful bodily fluids. They are unique in that they protect the hands but also allow the ability to grip fine objects such as scalpels and forceps. Latex gloves are also an economical choice, which allows for disposal after every use.

Proline For Human Body

Proline (C5H9NO2, abbreviated as Pro or P) is an alpha-amino acid that is necessary for the functioning of the human body, one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. It is not an essential amino acid, which means that the human body can synthesize it. It is unique among the 20 protein-forming amino acids in that the alpha-amino group is secondary. With the proper diet, both glutamate and, therefore, proline are produced naturally by humans.

Description
It occurs naturally as colorless crystals, and is soluble in water. Unlike most other amino acids, it is also soluble in alcohol. It is also one of only two amino acids — the other being glycine — that does not follow what is known as the Ramachandran Plot. This describes several typical angles which occur in the structure of amino acids, in a protein structure. Both it and glycine have angles that do not conform to the plot. This amino acid was first found in the compound casein in 1901, and its discovery is credited to Hermann Emil Fischer, a German chemist. It occurs naturally as colorless crystals, and is soluble in water. The most common natural sources of this compound are meat and dairy products, as they contain high levels of glutamate.

Benefits
This amino acid is necessary for proper muscle tissue maintenance. Without a sufficient source of glutamic acid, the precursor to proline, the body will consume its own muscle tissue for energy, limiting or completely negating any muscle gains from exercise. Endurance runners and competitive bodybuilders often experience a lack of the acid, which can lead to a decrease in muscle tissue.

One of the most common medical uses of this acid is to treat a serious tissue injury, as additional proline in the body promotes skin regrowth and elasticity. It is also used in treatments for back pain and arthritis, owing to its joint-cushioning effects. In addition, proline(CAS No. 344-25-2) is also assists in breaking down proteins in the body, which allows the formation of new cells. It is also key in maintaining healthy skin as well as its underlying connective tissue. Both it and lysine are essential in the formation of collagen, a substance which cushions joints and helps to heal cartilage.

Considerations
The daily recommended dosage for this amino acid is between 500 and 1,000 milligrams (mg). Research has also shown an increase in effectiveness when it is combined with vitamin C. A person consuming limited amounts of protein, or on a strict vegetarian diet, is at risk of deficiency and should consider a supplement. Proline supplements are most commonly found as part of combination amino acid formulas.

Copper Fact Sheets

Copper — the “Red Metal — is a naturally occurring element.  It is a reddish brown nonferrous mineral which has been used for thousands of years by many cultures. Modern life has a number of applications, ranging from coins to pigments, and demand for it remains high, especially in industrialized nations. Many consumers interact with the metal in various forms on a daily basis.

History And Properties
The name for the metal comes from Kyprios, the Ancient Greek name for Cyprus, an island which had highly productive copper mines in the Ancient world. The atomic number is 29, placing it among the transition metals. The metal is highly conductive of both electricity and heat, and many of its uses take advantage of this quality. Copper can be found in numerous electronics and in wiring.

Archaeological evidence suggests that copper is among the earliest metals used by humans. Numerous digs all over the world indicate that it was used to make utensils, jewelry, and weapons. The metal is highly ductile, meaning that it can be easily worked and pulled into wire.

Uses
In addition to being useful in manufacturing, copper is also a vital dietary nutrient, although only small amounts of the metal are needed for well-being. This metal is a popular metal used in cookware because it is highly conductive, evenly transferring heat through foods. The metal will prevent hot spots that can burn food on one side of the pan. Its cookware is also very attractive and stands out in a kitchen. Some people use copper pots for decoration and not for cooking.

One interesting property is its naturally-occurring germicidal effect. Many pathogens are killed by any alloy containing more than 65 percent within a period of eight hours. Colder temperatures cause this time frame to be extended. This fact is highly useful in settings such as hospitals, which are responsible for many cases of acquired infections each year. By simply covering surfaces with copper(CAS No. 7440-50-8) alloys, the rate of infection can be decreased.

Warnings
In a natural state, copper is rarely found pure. It is compounded with other elements, and the material must be treated before it can be sold. This can lead to serious environmental problems, especially when mining companies engage in unsound practices. The chemicals used to extract it can be toxic, as can the discarded elements and runoff associated with the purification. Many countries attempt to regulate their industries, to prevent widespread pollution and the problems associated with it.

Compositions Of Common Rat Poison

Rats enter homes through toilets and broken drains. Parasites and disease are carried by rats that are transmitted to other animals and to humans. Rat poison is used to kill a variety of vermin that infest homes, buildings, gardens and other locales. There are a number of ingredients of rat poison.

Food Source and Filler
According to the ingredient list in d-Con rat poison, wheat bran and kaolin are listed first, denoting these two ingredients make up the bulk of the recipe. Wheat bran is a food source for rats and kaolin is a filler. Kaolin is one of Georgia’s largest natural resources. It is a white clay rock made up of khandite minerals. Kaolin is commonly used as filler in plastics and rubber. Kaolin adds bulk to the bait pellets.

Anticoagulants
Anticoagulants are another common ingredient in rat poison. Included among the anticoagulants used as ingredients in rat poison are hydroxycoumarins and indandiones. These chemicals block the absorption of vitamin K in the body. The net effect of this process is to inhibit the production of necessary blood clotting factors in the bloodstream. Death occurs after steady ingestion of these elements over the course of a week or even longer.

Sweetener and Solvent
Sucrose is sugar made from sugar cane or sugar beets. The two ingredients of sucrose are glucose and fructose. Rats will eat sweet foods found inside kitchen cabinets. Propylene glycol is a clear, odorless, oily liquid that is derived from petroleum. This solvent easily penetrates the skin. Propylene glycol works to retain moisture content and prevent drying out. It is used in deodorant, antifreeze, floor wax, shampoos and dozens of household items.

Flavor Enhancer and Colorant
Sodium glutamate is an acid isolated from vegetable sources, including wheat gluten, soybeans and casein. It is used to enhance the flavor of foods, according to Cornell College: The Monosodium Glutamate Story. The colorant in rat bait is pigment Green 7(also called as Phthalocyanine Green G, CAS No. 1328-53-6).

Vitamin D
Vitamin D, D1 and D2 are used as ingredients in rat poison. In small doses, these vitamins are beneficial to human beings. However, even small amounts cause death in rats. Death occurs through what is known as hypervitaminosis or vitamin poisoning. A large dose of one or another of these types of vitamin D is necessary to cause harm to a human being. A dose of vitamin D, D1 or D2 causes death in a rat within about 36 hours.

Diclofenac Sodium For Arthritis

Diclofenac sodium is an anti-inflammatory drug used to reduce pain in injury and other conditions like arthritis. It is available by prescription only, and works to reduce swelling, stiffness, and pain that comes from many forms of arthritis such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Its chemical name is 2-(2,6-dichloranilino)phenylacetic acid, and it is marketed under various trade names such as Voltaren, Dicloflex, Votral, Sandoz and Zolterol.

Menstrual cramps are due to contractions of the uterus in response to prostaglandins and other hormones. The cramping is intensified when pieces of tissue or clots pass through the cervical canal. Menstrual cramps are of two types– primary dysmenorrheal and secondary dysmenorrheal. Primary dysmenorrheal is regular monthly cramping experienced by adolescent girls at the onset of menstruation.

Secondary dysmenorrheal is caused by an underlying reproductive system abnormality. Diclofenac sodium is the active ingredient of Voltaren and other non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAID) that are used to manage menstrual cramps. The medication is well tolerated and its effectiveness in terms of menstrual pain management has been documented for three decades. It is used to regulate irregular periods and provide short-term relief for abdominal and pelvic pain associated with menstruation.

As an NSAID, diclofenac sodium works to block the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are chemicals produced naturally by the body as part of the immune system’s response to infection. These chemicals cause swelling, joint pain, stiffness, and even fevers.

Diclofenac sodium(CAS No. 15307-79-6) is used to manage various musculoskeletal complaints, including spondylarthritis arthritis, osteoarthritis arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It addresses and effectively controls a range of other musculoskeletal aches, such as pain in the muscles of the neck, shoulder, deltoid, hip and groin muscles, knee, leg and ankle muscles and those of the foot, thigh, wrist, elbow, and lower back.

Due to the potential risk of life threatening effects and interactions, there are certain people who should not take this medication. Diclofenac sodium should not be taken by anyone who will be undergoing or has already had heart bypass surgery. People with severe kidney problems should not take this medicine. If an allergic reaction to aspirin or other NSAIDs has occurred, taking this medicine can cause another reaction.

Chloroform Fact Sheet

Chloroform is a colorless liquid with a pleasant nonirritating odor and has a chemical formula of CHCl3. Other names for this chemical are trichloromethane and methyl trichloride. In the past, it was used as an inhaled anesthetic during surgery, but it isn’t used that way today. Today, the liquid is used to make other chemicals and can also be formed in small amounts when chlorine is added to water.

Date back to 1847, at that time chloroform was firstly used as an anesthetic. In 1848, a patient died because her heart went into fibrillation while she was chloroformed, and continued use of the drug only cemented the link between chloroform and cardiac events. By the early twentieth century, it had been abandoned in favor of safer and cheaper drugs, and today has been replaced by anesthetics such as halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane, among many others. When a less expensive anesthetic is required, as is the case in some impoverished nations, ether, an older anesthetic, is preferred over the substance.

Chloroform has uses in a number of manufacturing processes and in organic synthesis. It is used as a precursor in the manufacture of Teflon, the widely used non-stick material. The liquid is also used in the bonding of certain plastics.

If exposed to the vapours of Chloroform, an operator will become dizzy and light-headed. Exposure to concentrated vapours will cause an operator to become unconscious. Where ventilation is inadequate, a respirator should be worn. This must have an organic vapour cartridge and the manufacturer should be consulted regarding compatibility.

Chloroform can easily be carried in water, and when it is exposed to oxygen and sunlight, a chemical reaction forms phosgene, a toxic gas. If it is exposed outdoors, the phosgene will break down and ultimately become harmless, but in enclosed spaces, it can be highly dangerous: in addition to use in modern manufacturing processes, phosgene had a historical use as a deadly chemical weapon in both World War I. In groundwater, trichloromethane will build up and take a long time to break down, because it is not readily water-soluble. For this reason, most environmental agencies set safety levels for its content, so that water can be routinely evaluated to see whether or not it poses a threat to consumers.

When using or working with the chemical it is essential that appropriate PPE (Personal Protective Clothing) is used. Protective gloves should be worn when handling the material. Please check with the manufacturer for details of compatibility. Additionally, safety goggles and protective clothing should be worn.

Why Is Gypsum Used In Tofu?

Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. It is a white and smooth powder that is derived from heating gypsum stone. Mined form is crushed, heat-dried and ground to a powder. This powder is used in various industrial, construction and agricultural applications

Properties
One of the most common forms of raw gypsum is a pure white crystal called alabaster. Another form of unprocessed product forms in desert terrain and its crystals resemble the petals of a flower. For this reason, many people refer to this form of calcium sulphate as the ‘desert rose’. Because the calcium and sulphur molecules in calcium sulfate dihydrate are chemically bound to water, it is routinely heated in order to remove 50% to 75% of its original moisture. The resulting powder is considered burnt product, although its white or translucent color does not change.

Used As Fertilizer
Gypsum powder-based fertilizer effectively loosens hard subsoil or layers of clay in the garden. It penetrates the clay matrix and loosens its structure. It improves the composition of soil, prevents water runoff and soil erosion, facilitates water and air movement and root growth, converts salty soil into neutral soil, reduces the bulk compactness of tough soil, controls dust erosion, prevents water logging by improving the drainage capability of soil and renders magnesium harmless.

The calcium content of gypsum balances excess micro-nutrients in soil, such as copper, manganese, zinc and iron. It supplies sulfur, improves the grade of produced fruit and prevents diseases. Otherwise, the chemical is neutral and will not change the pH of the soil.

Used In Tofu
Calcium 
sulfate dihydrate(CAS No. 10101-41-4) is used as a coagulant/solidifier in the production of tofu. Calcium sulfate tofu is high in magnesium, calcium and iron and low in fat. It makes a sweet (or neutral), light and velvety textured tofu. A coagulant is a substance that causes a solid or a liquid to coagulate or thicken.

For Drywall Panels
Another common use for gypsum is the formation of drywall panels. During home construction, drywall panels are nailed into place to form a finished wall. It is naturally resistant to fire and heat, which helps it form a barrier between combustible wooden frames and the room itself. Gypsum drywall boards can also be cut to size without elaborate tools, making an ideal building material.