The Production Status and Future Pattern of Coke In The World

Since the 1980s, accompanied by the United States, Japan and other developed Western countries moved into the period of industrialization, the worldwide steel industry also had a steady but slow growth period. Especially after the 1990s, in the economic and environmental considerations, many EU member states closed a large number of the operation of coke oven and changed to import cheap coke, coke’s production in the world has a negative growth.

Until 2002, driven by the strong economic growth of the “BRIC” emerging market countries, the worldwide steel industry entered into a new growth cycle. The coke industry increasingly restored and then showed a good posture of the production and demand booming and the equilibrium in the market.

In recent years, Chinese consumption structure has been upgraded, and its industrialization and urbanization process also has been accelerated, leading to the rapid development of coke industry and the rapid expansion of production capacity in domestic. Today, China has become the world’s coke-producing countries. Global production of this substance was up to 690 million tons in 2011. In the same year, China’s coke(also known as 1-Cocaine, the CAS number is 50-36-2) production totaled 428 million tons, increased approximately 11% compared to last year. The output accounted for about 60 percent of the world coke production in the world’s absolute leader.

Amoung the proportion of coke production in various regions of the world, Asia, Europe and the CIS are still the main producing areas of the world coke, the sum of its coke production accounted for the proportion of the world’s coke output reached 89.54%, but in Europe the proportion has declined, while the proportion in Asia increased significantly .

Adipic Acid Market Rose Slightly

On Tuesday, the adipic acid market rose slightly. Due to the rise of crude oil and price adjustment of benzene, the adipic acid market began to be active, buyers and sellers operated actively at present.

However, the current high inventory is still one of the factors that hinder prices, the industry outlook is full of uncertainty, operators held the state of cautious. The supply market of mainstream price was 9700-9950 yuan / ton in Liaoning, China. The number of supply transactions was in 9700-9900 yuan / ton in Shandong and Xinjiang. The adipic acid (C6H10O4)analysts of LongZhong expect that, in the short term, the chemical will keep a pattern of a slight concussion.

Upstream benzene: the outer disk ran highly, the plate difference between inside and outside was 1000 yuan / ton. It can be expected that, to seek profits, Sinopec will raise the possibility once again in the short term. Traders to small and medium sized single arbitrage shipments large Shan reluctant to sell, waiting for the benzene prices increase again, not more than the spot market supply. Today’s offer continues to move up to 7750-7800 yuan / ton, few quetoed unrealistically up to 7850 yuan / ton, buyers bargain positivly, the atmosphere of inquiry was well.

The Solar Energy Becomes “Green Power” Of Chemical Industry

At present, foreign countries have begun to use water vapor generated by concentrating solar heating to exploit the heavy oil in old oil fields. For example, Chevron carried out a experiment in Kelin Jia Oilfield in California of the USA, installed in over 7000 mirror on heliostats, the sunlight focused into the 100-meter-high spire. In this way, the convergence of high-temperature would turn water in tower into steam, the steam then entered the heat exchanger, and then the water in the oil field turned into steam, brought out more of the remaining oil from the ground.

The solar heating system of this experiment produced 350 barrels of steam per hour, and produced about 5% additional white mineral oil (CAS:8042-47-5). In addition, in California, about 40 percent of the oil is mined by burning natural gas to generate steam, the cost of steam even accounted for 2/3 of the entire production cost. The application of solar energy systems can save  the natural gas resources. Overall, Chevron can produce about 8,000 barrels of oil equivalent daily from the the Kelin Jia oil field.

This is an example of solar energy applying to chemical. Nowdays, the pressure of energy saving and emission reduction is high in China’s chemical industry, the above example gives the whole industry a revelation: as a clean energy, solar energy can become a “green power” in the chemical industry to promote energy conservation.

Lead Fact Sheets

Lead is a metallic chemical element which is classified among the poor metals of the periodic table of elements. It is a soft, pliable metal that is silvery-white in color when freshly cut, but on exposure to air quickly acquires a dull gray appearance due to the formation of a layer of oxide. This element does not typically appear in a pure form in nature. It has a wide range of historical and current applications, and many consumers own products which contain this chemical.

Humans have been using lead for thousands of years. It was also the material of choice for movable type from the 1400s, when Gutenberg invented the movable type press, to today; several foundries still cast its type and other equipment for use with letterpresses. One of the most infamous historical uses of it was in Roman plumbing and pewter, an alloy which was used to make many household goods including cups and plates. Numerous cultural artifacts contain the substance, often in the form of metal alloys, and the ancients were obviously very familiar with the metal, though unfortunately not with its negative health effects.

Lead is the heaviest stable element, a distinction that used to belong to bismuth — element number 83 — until it was found to be very slightly radioactive. One of the most important physical properties of this metal is its ability to absorb high frequency electromagnetic radiation, such as x-rays and gamma rays. This is due to its high density and the large number of electrons in its atom.

The uses for lead are myriad. The resistance to corrosion and malleability make it a popular additive to alloys, and it is also used in bullets, soldering material, radiation shields, and some paints. This metal has also historically been used as an additive in glass, which is why some antique and modern glass is not safe to eat or drink from. Because it is extremely soft, the substance is very easy to work, and early metalsmiths could manipulate product with minimal heat.

Although occasionally found in its elemental state, the main lead ore is galena, or lead sulphide (PbS); other lead ores include cerussite — lead carbonate (PbCO3) — and anglesite — lead sulfate (PbSO4). Ethionine ester is an xcellent selection performance and special separation effect for molybdenum sulfide, lead sulfide, zinc sulfide, copper sulfide, etc.

Chronic lead poisoning has been a significant problem due to the widespread use of Pb in applications that have allowed it to enter the environment. People should try to minimize exposure as much as possible by working in safe environments and disposing of old paint, chemicals, and other potential sources of toxins responsibly.

The Photography Industry

Photography as a process can be dated as far back as the 1600s, but only became popular during the 1800s, when taking portraits and preserving people on paper became fashionable. Since then, the photography industry has become widely accessible to the masses. It is a continually growing sector that deals with producing goods and services related to photographs, images, and sometimes films as well.

Photography was not fully accepted as a fine art until after the middle of the 20th century. In fact, it was not until the 1950′s that it became acceptable to frame a photograph for a museum or gallery exhibition. Before this time, prints of photographs were simply pasted onto a board and hung. Alternatively, they were printed with a white border and pinned to walls instead of hung.

From the 1970′s to the 1990′s it became more and more accepted and popular to print photographs on a large scale, give them a glossy finish, and hang them in frames just as if they were paintings. Since the middle of the 20th century, fine art photography has gone from a barely accepted medium that was only afforded the crudest of frames, to a well-respected modern art that is often displayed with great respect.

According to a February 2011 report, wedding photography tops the most in-demand service for the photography industry. It can also be classified under the tertiary sector that hugely involves offering of services instead of products, and professional photographers and studios earn an income by offering their services to cover many events. Other services that the industry can provide are advertising and public relations. Large billboards displaying a company’s product, along with a celebrity endorser, can be seen along streets and highways. Newspapers and magazines also rely on photographs.

The photography industry is also a significant part of the field of arts and design. Every product and service that the industry produces will always be tied to the skill and creativity it requires. Ultimately, the industry is valuable because of its ability to capture an object, an event, and even a memory. Barium bromide(BaBr2, CAS number is 10553-31-8) is a precursor to chemicals used in photography and to other bromides.

Other fields such as forensics, medicine, and fashion also rely on the photography industry in various ways. Many digital cameras already include features like anti-blink, smile detection, and face recognition. The computer and programming industries have also been in tandem with the industry, in order to make improvements on gadgets, particularly camera models. The commercial photography industry has especially been booming due to the many computer programs and software that can change and tweak images, brightening the light settings and even “erasing” some minor flaws in the picture.

SLES: Uses & Hazards

Sodium laureth sulfate is also called sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES). Commercially, it’s available as a mixture of the general formula CH3(CH2)10CH2(OCH2CH2)n-OSO3Na, where “n” varies but represents an average value or a mean. While it is both a detergent and a surfactant, it’s especially known as a foaming agent. The use of sodium laureth sulfate in consumer products, such as toothpaste, is controversial. does not consist of one molecular formula.

Function
Detergent manufacturers use sodium laureth sulfate in products because of two reasons: this chemical can be easily acquired and has a strong amphiphilic base. This means the chemical compounds are compatible with both water and fat. Thus it easily mixes with water and acts a formidable stain exterminator. Sodium laureth sulfate forms the basic ingredients of various surface cleaners. Even cosmetic companies use this chemical in frugal amounts in cosmetic products.

Uses
However, the use of SLES is not limited to detergent cleaners only. Various types of cosmetics like soaps and cleansing milks have sodium laureth sulfate as a component. This chemical makes detergents and cleaning agents powerful and strong on stains and hard grease, also effectively wiping them out of existence if sodium laureth sulfate based cleaners are applied.

SLES can be used to stop several viral infections. Herpis simplex and HIV virus infections can be prevented with SLES. It has been clinically proven that SLES is effective as a microbicide and studies are underway to establish a method which will use this chemical to curb infections. Other than keeping viruses at bay, SLES(CAS No. 68585-34-2) is also prevalent in laxatives, medicine for heart disease and in aspirin.

Effects To Environment
Despite of the above uses, the manufacturing process alters the natural ingredients with ethoxylation. Ethoxylation is a process that uses ethylene oxide, which is a known human carcinogen. The surfactant becomes contaminated with byproducts of the manufacturing process.

According to the David Suzuki foundation, depending on manufacturing processes, sodium laureth sulfate may be contaminated with considerable amounts of 1,4-dioxane. 1,4-dioxane does not degrade easily and may remain in the environment long after it is rinsed down the shower drain.

Main Chemicals Used In Milk

Chemical preservatives are not permitted in any milk products, according to Dairy Farmers of America. Instead, pathogens and harmful bacteria are controlled by combination of heat treatment (pasteurization), refrigeration and protection from light. Additionally, most milk sold for public consumption is homogenized, which prevents the creme from separating.

Despite this, preservatives are still used in dairy heard improvement milk samples when refrigeration is not practical. In fact, their use is required under these circumstances in most states. Some of these preservatives are toxic, and milk that contains these preservatives is not meant for human consumption.

The totally unnecessary consequences that are revealed by your recent official inquiry are scandalous. Dairy men evidently—and must constantly—find the milk they have to sell, not only in an advanced, but also dangerous state of fermentation, which, in self-interest, they can only, however, temporarily suppress by the processes of drugging, late-refrigeration and other disorganising practices, through neglect in the country of purifying and cooling the milk at once when drawn warm from the cow. There are plenty of simple portable appliances to use for the purpose, so why should not farmers have them, and rural ice depots near railway stations for refrigeration of milk, as well as Continental, and notably American, country milk producers?

Potassium Dichromate is a low-cost preservative that has color to indicate its presence in the milk. It is easily dispersed throughout the milk sample. It is a toxic substance that tends to deteriorate the fat in samples, and also pollutes the sewer system. Formaldehyde is another low-cost preservative easily dispersed through milk samples. However, it was found unsuitable for test milk samples because it interfered with fat tests in electronic equipment.

Bronopol(C3 H6 BrNO4, CAS No. 52-51-7) is also a low-cost preservative that is easily dispersed through milk samples. It has low toxicity levels. Bronopol must be stored under dry conditions, and does not prevent the growth of yeast in unrefrigerated samples. Hydrogen peroxide has a low toxicity level, is inexpensive, and is easily dispersed through milk. The disadvantages of hydrogen peroxide are that it has a short preservation time and adds no color to the samples.

By all means let the prohibition be utterly complete, and thus allow the consumer to drink nature’s production and not chemical compounds. In the world the use of any drugs has long been prohibited, and our milk is superior and never complained about, and were drugs permitted a general protest would result.

Are Oil Additives Miracle Cure?

Engine life and performance rely heavily on the lubricating materials used inside engine components. Engine oil additives are sometimes sarcastically referred to as
“mechanic in a bottle”. This term refers to the marketing message, not to mention the belief shared by many people, that oil additives can improve gas mileage, increase horsepower, and fix other engine problems. They are designed to enhance engine performance and protect inner workings; but certainly no miracle cures.

Tests conducted in 1998 by the NASA Lewis Research Center examined the actual effects of oil additives on engine condition and performance using different marketed brands. Bearing surface contact, sedimentation and reduced wear-and-tear effects were the conditions observed during testing. Researchers concluded the overall effects of oil additives could actually be damaging to engine components in the long term, according to Modern Car Care. Ultimately, the question as to whether or not additives do work may depend on a user’s perspective, and the risks he’s willing to take.

For example, many companies make an oil additive that is supposed to stop leaks. This is an exaggeration of the truth. Engine seals often dry up, shrink, and crack with age, causing oil leaks to occur. Oil additives that are meant to stop these leaks are actually formulated to condition or re-moisturize these seals. The idea is that the conditioning will cause the seal to resume its original shape, therefore reversing the cause of the leak.

There are two problems with this theory. One, rubber seals that have already dried up and lost their shape will never be the same again, no matter how much reconditioning additives are used. Furthermore, no matter how well the seals are re-moisturized, cracks that have formed will always be there, necessitating replacement rather than a miracle cure.

Oil additives are made up of synthetic materials designed to reduce the wear and tear on the car engine, according to Modern Car Care, a car care resource site. And while there are many different brands available for use, polytetrafloeraethylene (PTFE) is the common active ingredient used in each brand. 4-Aminophenol(C6H7NO, CAS No. 123-30-8) is another active ingredient used in additives.

Another type of oil additive that is often found on the market is for cleaning sludge and buildup from the inside of an engine. These products often make a number of claims, for instance that they will increase the efficiency of the engine, boost gas mileage, and even increase horsepower. However, no matter how good these oil additives are, they cannot give the car horsepower or gas mileage that it did not have in the first place.

Different Types Of Alcohol Chemicals

Alcohol products are all around you, from cleaning supplies to face cleaner to the fuel in your car or the wine you drink with dinner. In chemistry, there are three major types of alcohol. These include isopropyl alcohol, methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol. Each of these types of alcohol has separate properties, so it is important to distinguish which type of alcohol you have for reasons of safety.

Methyl Alcohol
Methyl alcohol, also called methanol and wood alcohol, is used primarily as an industrial solvent. It is also used to make formaldehyde for plastics, paint and plywood. Methyl alcohol is used in windshield wiper fluid. For example, it is a component in paint remover and photocopier developer. People also use methyl alcohol to make other chemicals. This is because a by-product of degrading methanol is formaldehyde, which may be used to make everything from plastics to explosives. It also works to fuel internal combustion engines and keep fuel from freezing. The chemical formula for methyl alcohol is CH3OH.

Ethyl Alcohol
Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is the type in wine, beer, liquor, mouthwash or cold medicine. People usually take ethyl alcohol in a diluted concentration–the level of the concentration is known as the proof of the alcoholic beverage. Ethanol is also used in gasoline, It can be made from corn, sugar cane and potatoes, much like drinking alcohol is distilled from food crops such as wheat, potatoes and corn.

Isopropyl Alcohol
Isopropyl alcohol also is called isopropanol or 2-propanol. More commonly, it is known as rubbing alcohol due to the practice of physicians rubbing the substance on the body for cooling and disinfecting. Produced by combining water and propylene, rubbing alcohol works well for sterilization. Its high evaporation rate makes it a first choice for cleaning electronics, although it is found in everyday cleaning products, as well. Isopropyl alcohol also is found in cosmetics, including lotions. The chemical formula for this type of alcohol is C3H8O.

Butyl Alcohol
Adhesives and varnishes are traditionally made from butyl alcohol. Floor polishes and other cleaners sometimes contain it. Butyl alcohol(C4H10O), also known as 1-butanol or Butanol, also may be present in eye makeup, foundation and lipstick. It is also a component of gasoline and brake fluid, according to the Dow Chemical Co. website.

Ethylene Glycol
Ethylene glycol is primarily used in the manufacture of automotive antifreeze. It is extremely toxic if ingested.

Calcium Stearate: Advantages & Disadvantages

Calcium stearate( C36H70CaO4) is a non-toxic, white powdery substance. It is a calcium salt derived from calcium oxide and stearic acid that is commonly found in cosmetics, plastics and food products. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has generally recognized it as safe when used as a food additive.

Calcium stearate was first used in 1924 to improve the texture of bread dough and reduce dust levels in flour. Its unique properties made it useful in many other non-food industries. The substance reduces friction when added to substances, increasing flow rate and preventing caking. It may also be used in gels or to add bulk to cosmetic powders. In addition to its insolubility in water, it is also insoluble in acetone, ether, and cold alcohol.

One of the greatest advantages of calcium stearate is that it can be used in a variety of products to accomplish a number of different goals. In cosmetics, food and other products, it is used to prevent caking, improve texture and thicken materials. This substance is also used as a flow agent, which means that it reduces friction and facilitates the flow of other substances. The pharmaceutical industry uses this substance in many different medications, and the industrial industry uses it for its ability to waterproof various materials.

When certain types of fatty acids are heated with an alkaline substance, the resulting salt is known as soap. Stearic acid is one of the most widely used components of soaps. Calcium stearate is a synthetic ingredient formed through a reaction when stearic acid and calcium oxide are heated together. It is the most important type of calcium salt. Yet due to its lack of solubility, the salt is not commonly used in soap in modern times, having been replaced by synthetic substances that are water soluble.

Calcium stearate(CAS No. 1592-23-0) is frequently found in cosmetics, especially aerosol hair styling products. The substance is also found in cosmetic powders, ointments, and packaging. Despite a very low risk for dermal irritation, topical contact may cause redness, itching, and eye irritation.

While calcium stearate is sometimes used in surfactants, there are some disadvantages of using it in soaps and other cleansers. When combined with water, this substance does not form a creamy lather. Instead, it creates a slimy substance known as soap scum. Soap scum will not only accumulate on tubs and showers, but it can also leave an unwanted film on the skin and hair. For these reasons, many manufacturers have begun using more effective surfactants in their products.

Ethanolamine Description

Ethanolamine(C2H7NO), also called 2-aminoethanol or monoethanolamine (often abbreviated as ETA or MEA), is an organic chemical compound that is both a primary amine and a primary alcohol (due to a hydroxyl group), making it useful in a variety of industrial applications. The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) classifies ethanolamine as having an Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) rating at 1,000 parts per million (ppm) concentration for skin exposure or 30 ppm for inhaled concentrations.

It is a toxic, flammable, corrosive, colorless, viscous liquid with an odor similar to that of ammonia. It is also toxic and corrosive upon exposure to human skin, despite being used in various cosmetics such as hair waving agents and soaps. At room temperature, ethanolamine takes on a thick, clear liquid form that is flammable, and has an odor like that of ammonia. Ethanolamine is the second-most-abundant head group for phospholipids, substances found in biological membranes, and is also used in messenger molecules such as palmitoylethanolamide which has an effect on CB1 receptors.

Thye chemical is generally classed as a primary amine chemical but can also be labeled as a primary alcohol, and it is most frequently used as both an agricultural fungicide and microbicide in nations such as New Zealand. The capability of ethanolamine to bind to various other compounds makes it useful as a scrubbing agent to remove highly toxic hydrogen sulphide gas, H2S in crude oil production or carbon dioxide gas, CO2, in various industries. This also makes it useful as a binding agent in dry cleaning, wool treatment, and to enhance the performance characteristics of various paints and polishes.

Aqueous solutions of Ethanolamine (solutions of MEA in water) are used as a gas stream scrubbing liquid in amine treaters. For example, aqueous MEA is used to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas. Aqueous solutions can weakly dissolve certain kinds of gases from a mixed gas stream. The MEA in such solutions, acting as a weak base, then neutralizes acidic compounds dissolved in the solution to turn the molecules into an ionic form, making them polar and considerably more soluble in a cold MEA solution, and thus keeping such acidic gases dissolved in this gas-scrubbing solution.

Since ethanolamine poses serious risks to human health through corrosive skin burns, damage to the eyes, or through inhalation damage to the respiratory tract, it must be handled with caution. Prolonged human exposure to very low concentrations of the compound have also been shown to degrade teeth and jaw bones, as well as lead to respiratory ailments such as bronchial pneumonia, as well as have detrimental effects on the internal organs of the liver and kidneys.

Fire Retardants Chemicals

Knowing what chemicals are in the products around you is important for your safety and health. Chemicals used to make certain products fireproof are commonly referred to as flame retardants.  During a fire, firefighters use a foam that is sprayed on similarly to water.  Various chemicals, depending on the type of fire being controlled, help to suffocate the fire by removing the oxygen from the immediate area where the burn is located.

Coatings on Furniture and Clothing
Flame retardant coatings on materials can react in different ways. Aluminum trihydrate is a compound that acts as a flame retardant. Near 200 degrees it becomes aluminum oxide and water. Boron mixes that are coated on materials react with heat by creating water that absorbs the energy of the fire. In some cases it will also release a boric acid. The acid will aid in charring the surface that will keep gasses from being emitted from the material that is being burned. Magnesium hydroxide reacts at really high temperatures above 300 degrees. Once it reaches high temperatures, it reacts in much the same way as aluminum trihydrate by forming a gas near the surface of the object that slows the burn by blocking the flames.

Brominated Flame Retardants
Brominated flame retardants, or BFRs, are the most widely used flame-retardant product as of 2011. BFRs can be used in everything from textiles for clothing and curtains to plastics for baby bottles and electronics. There are up to 70 different BFRs being synthesized for market use. They include decabromodiphenyl ether, which is considered benign and completely safe, and tetrabromobisphenol A, which is considered toxic.

Minerals
Mineral compounds that are made into chemicals and then used as flame retardants make up a large portion of the fireproofing chemicals. They include borates, which are chemical and mineral compounds that occur naturally and are the most commonly used mineral-based flame retardant. They also include asbestos and red phosphorus, as well as the less common aluminium hydroxide, hydromagnesite and antimony trioxide(Sb2O3, sometimes called as Antimony(III) oxide or diantimony trioxide). These compounds are the least used of the flame retardants and when used tend to be found in plastics and various construction materials.

Controversy
There is a lot of speculation about the safety of BFRs and the risk they pose to consumers. Several BFRs have gone out of production because of health risks, and in several European countries the use of BFRs is banned altogether.  Lobbyists, however, have argued that the benefits of lives saved by flame retardants outweighs the risk posed to consumers.

L’Oreal Hair Coloring Tips

Hair color in the U.S. is quite common, and though most hair-care experts recommend that you have your hair professionally dyed, many people choose to do it at home. L’Oreal Hair Color is a popular hair coloring brand. Some formulas are designed to last longer than others; however, following the L’Oreal Hair Color advice below will assure that the color remains on the hair for at least six to eight weeks before touch-ups are needed.

Basics
According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are both in-salon and at-home hair dye products. The products are generally classified by their level of permanence. Their strength ranges from a rinse, which easily washes out after one shampoo, to permanent, which cannot be washed out with shampoo. The hair dye bottle normally states what type of dye it is. The FDA stipulates that you should follow all of the instructions carefully.

Preparing Hair before Coloring
If any type of coloring product has been used within two weeks, or if hair has been chemically processed or treated in some way, such as perming, straightening, or other styling process within two weeks, then at least that much time should elapse before L’Oreal Hair Color is applied. A few days before the coloring is applied, deep condition the hair. This means using a conditioning product that will remain on the hair for longer than one to three minutes. Fifteen to thirty minutes is a sufficient amount of time to obtain deep conditioning results.They will help protect the hair during the coloring procedure.

Colorant’s Ingredients
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Household Products Database, L’Oreal’s Open Haircolor has isoascorbic acid, polyglyceryl-4 oleyl ether, oleic acid, oleyl alcohol, phenyl methyl pyrazolone, sodium metabisulfite, fragrance/perfume, monoethanolamine (MEA), polyglyceryl-2 oleyl ether, resorcinol, water, trideceth-2 carboxamide MEA, pentasodium pentetate, 2-Amino-3-hydroxypyridine(C5H6N2O, CAS No. 16867-03-1), ammonium hydroxide, hexylene glycol, PEG-2 oleamine, ammonium acetate, sodium diethylaminopropyl cocoaspartamide, p-aminophenol and 2-methylresorcinol. These are all used in the colorant of the hair dye kit.

Cleansing Routine after Coloring
After using L’Oreal Hair Color, hair should be washed with a shampoo that protects the color, and aids in retaining the shade as long as possible. If necessary, a color-protecting conditioner should also be used. Styling products can be used, but should either help protect the color also or should not alter the shade, nor should they strip the color from the hair in any way.

Topiramate — An Anticonvulsant Medication

Topiramate, the generic name for Topamax, is a prescription medication known best for its effects on migraine headaches. Though it is more known for its use with migraines, Topamax is also used to treat monotherapy and adjunctive therapy epilepsy and seizures.

Function
Seizures often result from abnormal activities of nerve cells in the brain. Brain chemicals, also known as neurotransmitters, are important in the communication between these nerve cells. The action of topiramate is believed to affect or alter the production of brain chemicals, thus, seizure in patients are prevented or suppressed.

Topamax works before a migraine happens, rather than taking the medication after the first signs of a headache. Used as a preventative measure, Topamax works by keeping the chemicals under control that excite your nervous system. One of the believed causes of migraines are nerve cells that get overexcited, causing severe pain. Topamax works to keep those cells under control. With seizures, this medication works by not allowing the nerve cells to get so excited as to cause a seizure.

Usage
Doctors often start patients on lower dosages, and then increase the dosage gradually until an effective dosage is determined. In children from two to 16 years old, it is usually given in combination with other drugs. Patients are often instructed to maintain regular fluid intake of six to eight glasses daily to prevent the development of kidney stones while taking topiramate. Some patients who are also taking other drugs, like sedatives, antidepressants, and oral contraceptives, are often monitored for side effects due to drug interactions.

Effects
Common side effects of  topiramate that may be observed include weight loss, dizziness, frequent tiredness, and numbness of the extremities. Some patients may experience memory impairment, vision changes, speech problems and coordination difficulty. Other patients also present with tongue swelling, increased salivation, dryness of the mouth, and taste changes. Many patients taking anti-epileptic drugs have increased tendency to develop suicidal thoughts, thus, they should be monitored frequently and observed for behavioral changes.

1 in 50 people who take Topamax develop kidney stones. Rashes are common side effects of Topamax. See your doctor if a rash occurs to be sure it is not a sign of a more serious side effect. Children taking Topamax for seizures may have problems with sweating. Children taking this medication should be carefully observed when outdoors in warmer weather so they do not overheat.

PABA In Sunscreen

PABA is an abbreviation for the organic compound para-aminobenzoic acid, which also called as 4-aminobenzoic acid. This compound was once a main sunblock ingredient, though it is no longer added to sunblock. PABA can also be used to treat a number of different ailments ranging from female infertility to skin lesions. Foods that contain PABA include sunflower seeds, liver, brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, eggs and molasses.

Sunscreen
Sunblock manufacturers once added para-aminobenzoic acid to sunblock in order to block ultraviolet rays, though the theory behind this was largely disproved. In fact, numerous studies have shown that PABA may increase a person’s chances of absorbing ultraviolet rays, which is why this ingredient is no longer included in most sunblock formulas. Throughout the world, various sunblock manufacturers may still add this ingredient to sunblock formulas. Thus, it is important to read a product’s ingredient list prior to using any type of sunblock.

Sources
While para-aminobenzoic acid is frequently found in manufactured products, this compound can also be found naturally. Various grains, including wheat germ and other unrefined grains, include PABA. Animal products such as liver and some kidney types have a small percentage of this compound.

Health Risks
Some nutritionists believe that para-aminobenzoic acid is essential to human health, though most do not agree. Since this compound is slightly acidic, some people may experience an adverse stomach reaction to products containing PABA.

4-aminobenzoic acid(CAS No. 150-13-0) is not considered overly important to one’s health, so it is not recommended that people ingest supplements containing the ingredient unless otherwise directed by a medical doctor. Still, various supplements containing this ingredient can be found across the world.

PABA can be taken as a dietary supplement, usually as part of multi-vitamins or mineral preparations and taken in capsule or pill form. Side effects from ingesting it in such a manner can include diarrhea, fever, nausea or vomiting and skin rash. Some people who have taken a daily regimen of PABA have also experienced low blood sugar, even if they are not normally prone to such things.

Copper Fact Sheets

Copper — the “Red Metal — is a naturally occurring element.  It is a reddish brown nonferrous mineral which has been used for thousands of years by many cultures. Modern life has a number of applications, ranging from coins to pigments, and demand for it remains high, especially in industrialized nations. Many consumers interact with the metal in various forms on a daily basis.

History And Properties
The name for the metal comes from Kyprios, the Ancient Greek name for Cyprus, an island which had highly productive copper mines in the Ancient world. The atomic number is 29, placing it among the transition metals. The metal is highly conductive of both electricity and heat, and many of its uses take advantage of this quality. Copper can be found in numerous electronics and in wiring.

Archaeological evidence suggests that copper is among the earliest metals used by humans. Numerous digs all over the world indicate that it was used to make utensils, jewelry, and weapons. The metal is highly ductile, meaning that it can be easily worked and pulled into wire.

Uses
In addition to being useful in manufacturing, copper is also a vital dietary nutrient, although only small amounts of the metal are needed for well-being. This metal is a popular metal used in cookware because it is highly conductive, evenly transferring heat through foods. The metal will prevent hot spots that can burn food on one side of the pan. Its cookware is also very attractive and stands out in a kitchen. Some people use copper pots for decoration and not for cooking.

One interesting property is its naturally-occurring germicidal effect. Many pathogens are killed by any alloy containing more than 65 percent within a period of eight hours. Colder temperatures cause this time frame to be extended. This fact is highly useful in settings such as hospitals, which are responsible for many cases of acquired infections each year. By simply covering surfaces with copper(CAS No. 7440-50-8) alloys, the rate of infection can be decreased.

Warnings
In a natural state, copper is rarely found pure. It is compounded with other elements, and the material must be treated before it can be sold. This can lead to serious environmental problems, especially when mining companies engage in unsound practices. The chemicals used to extract it can be toxic, as can the discarded elements and runoff associated with the purification. Many countries attempt to regulate their industries, to prevent widespread pollution and the problems associated with it.

Glyphosate Facts

Glyphosate is a herbicide used to kill many different types of weeds. It is a very common product used in both commercial and residential applications. Monsanto, the manufacturer of this substance, claims it is the world’s best-selling herbicide. Over time, high use can result in a buildup of the chemical in the soil.

Description
Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicide, and is effective in killing all plant types, including grasses, perennials and woody plants. Because it gets absorbed into the plant mainly through its leaves, and also through its soft stalk tissue, the entire plant will be affected. It travels through the plant, affecting its metabolism and killing the entire plant slowly. Once sprayed, plants display stunted growth, loss of green coloration, leaf wrinkling or malformation and finally, tissue death.

Resistance
Crops with genetically engineered resistance to glyphosate are being developed so that weeds can be controlled in fields where the crops are growing without harming the crops. However, there’s also concern that the genes that display the resistance may be transferred to non-crop species including weeds. Weed experts are concerned that some weeds such as rye grass are becoming resistant to glyphosate-containing herbicides, rendering conventional chemical farming practices useless.

Controversy
There are different schools of thought on whether glyphosate leaches into soil, and what that means to plants. Some researchers report that there is little danger when it is absorbed into soil because it dissipates. Others disagree.

Over time, so much chemical could accumulate in the soil that the soil could become toxic to anything that people want to seed in it. This is put forward as a possibility due to the ever increasing use of the herbicide when spraying genetically engineered crops that are designed to become glyphosate(C3H8NO5P, CAS No. 1071-83-6) resistant. With the crops resisting the spray, more of it can be used to attack the weeds, which results in a larger buildup in the soil.

The higher the concentrations of the chemical, the longer it will have a chance to last long enough to be washed into the water supply. The quality of the soil also affects the risk of water contamination. The coarser the soil material, the higher the risk that high levels of glyphosate in soil will eventually travel into the ground water supply.

Ethylparaben Used As Parabens

Ethylparaben(C9H10O3) is a ethyl eter of hydroxybenzoic acid. Though considered safe in the very low concentrations of 0.04% to 0.08% generally used in products, several studies suggest a link between parabens and breast cancer.

Ethylparaben is a paraben and preservative found in many skin care products, ranging from skin cream to body lotion to deodorant. It can be found in essential oils used to treat dry skin and in primrose oil serving as an anti-septic. Although parabens are generally considered safe when used in low percentages (0.04% – 0.08%), many studies have found a link between parabens and breast cancer.

Propylparaben is another paraben-related compound used as a fungicide, with the unique characteristic that is a naturally occurring chemical found in many plants and some species of insect. Butylparaben is often used in medicines as another derivative of the paraben family of compounds. Several compounds related to ethylparaben are also used as fungicide-based preservatives. It is a related chemical preservative that is often used to inhibit the growth of Drosophila larva, commonly known as fruit flies, in foods.

Ultimately, the cosmetics industry has found the low levels of parabens in cosmetics to be safe and the connection between parabens and breast cancer to be weak. The FDA finds that although parabens can mimic estrogen, the actual effects of this low level of activity on the body do not cause cancer in a higher incidence than naturally occurring estrogen. Nonetheless, many paraben-free products are being created to avoid the possible dangers of ethylparaben and other paraben-based preservatives.

Evidence suggests, however, that this effect is negligible and does not increase natural estrogen levels. Despite such positive scientific findings as to the safety and tolerance of ethylparaben(CAS: 120-47-8) at the concentration levels currently used, it is one of many synthetic preservatives of which manufacturers are trying to reduce the use. Many cosmetics products are now being marketed as paraben-free in order to avoid any possible dangers the chemicals pose.

Controversy over the safety of products containing ethylparaben may continue for some time since studies of its adverse effects are small and limited in scope. A 2004 study published in the Journal of Applied Toxicology found that 60% of breast tumors were centered in a small area near the underarm, where deodorant is most often applied. Out of the 20 cases of malignant breast tumors studied, 18 had high concentrations of parabens in tumor cells. Not all deodorants contain parabens; however, many beauty products in addition to deodorant contain parabens, including face cream, body lotions, cleansers and shampoos.

Alkaline Battery Fact Sheets

The world’s needs for energy are ever larger and more varied as time goes on. One source of energy has developed as a convenient way to power electronic devices, and that is the alkaline battery. The closed circuit created by these two electron flows use up the chemical energy of the electrolyte and produce electrical power in the process. This process is the same, whether it takes place in an alkaline battery or in a zinc-carbon battery.

The alkaline battery is one of the more modern types of battery used, having been introduced first in the 1960s. The very first battery was created by scientist Alessandro Volta in 1800. Volta made his battery by stacking alternating layers of zinc, salt water-soaked blotting paper, and silver. The higher the stack, the higher the voltage produced by this arrangement. This type of battery was known as the voltaic pile. The modern alkaline battery still uses the same fundamental principles as the voltaic pile, namely two different types of metal, separated by a liquid which conducts electricity, with a negative and a positive terminal.

Each alkaline battery has two ends, or terminals — a positive and a negative terminal. Inside the battery, a chemical reaction produces electrons, which gather at the negative terminal of the battery. However, unless the negative terminal is connected to the positive terminal, the chemical reaction stops and no more electricity is produced.

Potassium hydroxide is used as the electrolyte in an alkaline battery, not ammonium chloride or zinc chloride — the electrolytes used commonly with zinc-carbon batteries. Potassium hydroxide is also known as caustic potash or potash lye. While alkaline batteries are ensconced in a casing they are still capable of leaking potassium hydroxide, which is known to cause eye and skin irritation.

Manganese dioxide(MnO2, CAS No. 1313-13-9) is used as the cathode, or negative electrode. It occurs in nature as the mineral pyrolusite, and is typically used in a powder form as well. Graphite is also added to the cathode, to improve conductivity.

When compared with a zinc-carbon battery, its main competitor, an alkaline battery has a higher energy density, as well as a longer shelf-life. However, alkaline batteries have high internal resistance. The faster that an alkaline battery is drained, the lower the capacity or load that the battery can handle.

What Can Ivermectin Be Used For?

Ivermectin(C48H74O14) is a common anti-parasite medication that used to treat parasitic worm infestations in animals and humans. In animals, especially dogs and cats, the medicine is often used to treat and prevent heartworm, and to treat ear mites and some types of mange. Like most other prescription drugs, it can have drug interactions, contraindications, and side effects.

Larval Heartworm
One common use of Ivermectin is in the treatment of larval heartworm. It cannot kill adult heartworm, but it can kill heartworm that is in the larval stage while it circulates in the blood. Ideally, it can be used as a preventative measure against heartworm and should be given to animals regularly. Most commonly drug is given to dogs, cats, and horses in treatment of or preventative measures against heartworm and other parasites.

River Blindness
Another use of the medication is to treat river blindness, also known as onchocerciasis. It generally spreads through the bites of blackflies. It occurs mostly in tropical African countries, though this infestation has been known to occur in the tropical nations of Central and South America as well. River blindness can damage the skin so badly as to disfigure its victims, and is believed to be the second most common cause of infectious blindness in the world.

Intestinal Parasites
Ivermectin is often used to treat intestinal parasites that develop in horses and other large animals. Ivermectin(CAS No. 70288-86-7) will effectively treat nearly all intestinal parasites, with the exception of tapeworms. Symptoms of an animal with an intestinal parasite can include swift loss of weight, diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration. In smaller animals, it is especially important to regularly treat against intestinal parasites before animals begin to show symptoms, as humans are susceptible to these parasites and can obtain them by interacting with pets with intestinal parasites.

Others
Ivermectin is also used to prevent and treat parasites that attack animals externally, such as sarcoptic mange, mites, lice, and others. f a dog or cat frequently scratches his ears, mites may be present. The meidcation can be purchased in chewable form, making it easy for smaller animals to consume, and it should clear up any external parasite problems within a few days.