The Solar Energy Becomes “Green Power” Of Chemical Industry

At present, foreign countries have begun to use water vapor generated by concentrating solar heating to exploit the heavy oil in old oil fields. For example, Chevron carried out a experiment in Kelin Jia Oilfield in California of the USA, installed in over 7000 mirror on heliostats, the sunlight focused into the 100-meter-high spire. In this way, the convergence of high-temperature would turn water in tower into steam, the steam then entered the heat exchanger, and then the water in the oil field turned into steam, brought out more of the remaining oil from the ground.

The solar heating system of this experiment produced 350 barrels of steam per hour, and produced about 5% additional white mineral oil (CAS:8042-47-5). In addition, in California, about 40 percent of the oil is mined by burning natural gas to generate steam, the cost of steam even accounted for 2/3 of the entire production cost. The application of solar energy systems can save  the natural gas resources. Overall, Chevron can produce about 8,000 barrels of oil equivalent daily from the the Kelin Jia oil field.

This is an example of solar energy applying to chemical. Nowdays, the pressure of energy saving and emission reduction is high in China’s chemical industry, the above example gives the whole industry a revelation: as a clean energy, solar energy can become a “green power” in the chemical industry to promote energy conservation.

BASF Cooperates With Oleon In The Production Of Propylene Glycol

Recently, the Oil Products Company Oleon launched bio-based propylene glycol manufacturing factories in Belgium Ertvelde, a total of 120 people participated the activity, including employees of local government officials, the leadership of BASF and Oleon Ertvelde. As the world’s leading factory, the process of production applys a high degree of sustainable technologies.

Traditionally, propylene glycol is derived by the hydrolysis of epoxy propane,  while the new factory produces the chemical by the decomposition of glycerol in the by-product of oil of oil. In addition, using glycerol to produce propylene glycol significantly reduces the production steps, thereby increases the efficiency of the production of bio-based propylene glycol.

BASF is not only studies this glyceryl production with the Oleon company, but also provides a vital catalyst for the production process.

Michael Baier, the BASF catalyst vice president, said: “It’s very honored to cooperate with Oleon, and introduce this new production technology to the chemical market. Regarding glycerol as the starting materials will ensure the sustainability of bio-based propylene glycol production.”

Chris Depreeuw, the regional director of marketing of Oleon Ertvelde, then added: “Oleon already started using green chemistry technologies that was known by most people. The perfect cooperation with BASF allow our company to achieve ecological technology of production of propylene glycol.

 

Is Liquid Soap Healthy?

Different liquid soaps are intended for use in different situations. Antibacterial product is a form of liquid soap which includes ingredients which are designed to fight bacteria. It can be used in the kitchen, office or bathroom. The efficacy of the soap can vary, depending on the ingredients and how it is used, with some killing up to 99% of bacteria, while others tend to be less robust. It is also possible to obtain it from medical suppliers, or to make it at home, for people who are comfortable and familiar with soap making.

People use antibacterial liquid soap on their hands and bodies because they are concerned about the spread of bacteria, or because they want to prevent bacterial infections. On the body, antibacterial liquid soap can prevent Staphylococcus infections of the skin, and it is sometimes used to manage skin conditions like acne and sunburn. In the case of handwashing, the soap reduces the number of bacteria on the hands, making it difficult to spread bacteria through direct contact or the handling of shared objects like doorknobs.

Some liquid soap is designed to be very good for cosmetic uses. Cosmetic liquid soaps can either be labeled for use on a specific part of the body, such as the hands or face, or can be for general-purpose use. This includes soap that has a rough, grainy texture intended to exfoliate the skin. Other cosmetic soaps, such as those made with shea butter, are meant to help tighten the skin.

Some people like to use antibacterial products at home because they are concerned about cleanliness. In fact, the members of a shared household tend to have the same bacteria, so the spread of bacteria is not a major risk unless someone comes home with a bacterial infection which could be spread to other members of the household. For management of skin conditions, however, antibacterial soap can be extremely useful.

Many people feel the best soaps for a household, especially one with children, are soaps that are environmentally friendly. Environmentally friendly soaps can be safer for children and pets than soaps with harsh chemicals, although most liquid soaps are non-toxic. 2-Butoxy ethanol is a primary ingredient of this product.

One advantage to using liquid soap is the fact that it can be poured into a soap dispenser. The widespread use of antibacterial products has raised some concerns among medical researchers. Some people fear that frequent use breeds resistant bacteria, by killing off organisms which are vulnerable and allowing more virulent organisms to flourish. For the reason, it can be a good idea to change brands frequently.

Palladium Jewelry Facts

Palladium is a lustrous silvery white metal with the atomic number 46 and chemical abbreviation of Pd. Because the metal is extremely rare, palladium is considered to be a precious metal, and it can command a high price on the open market. It is used in electronics, jewelry, and certain other industries. The growing popularity of the metal jewelry has led many to wonder about this “new” metal. This sleeper silver-white metal owes its existence to another, better-known precious metal, and its renewed popularity to better technology.

History
The metal was discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston, who named it palladium after the asteroid Pallas. Jewelers used it for jewelry as early as the Victorian era. After World War II, when the war effort called for platinum, the chemical emerged as a viable alternative white metal, especially for use in fine jewelry and wedding jewelry. The re-emergence of platinum for jewelry in the 1980s and 1990s made lower-cost alternative white metals return in popularity as well.

Features
The metal resists tarnish, and is extremely ductile, meaning that it takes readily to working. When palladium is cold worked, the tensile strength greatly increases. The asteroid, in turn, was named for a Greek Goddess of Wisdom. It often occurs in conjunction with platinum, and it is frequently associated with gold, nickel, and copper. Its true, white-silver appearance rarely tarnishes and needs no plating to retain its color.

Market
Palladium
is anything but a newcomer to the jewelry market. Two factors, however, contributed to the disappearance of the substance on the jewelry market during the last half of the 20th century. These were the difficulty to create a palladium alloy for mass-market jewelry, and the increasing popularity of gold jewelry.

White gold, which is actually yellow gold alloyed with other white metals, made a comeback, as did silver. However, the fact that white gold is rarely “white” and retains a yellowish cast unless plated with rhodium, and the fact that sterling silver is neither precious nor as durable as gold or platinum, opened the market for the reappearance of palladium.

SLES: Uses & Hazards

Sodium laureth sulfate is also called sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES). Commercially, it’s available as a mixture of the general formula CH3(CH2)10CH2(OCH2CH2)n-OSO3Na, where “n” varies but represents an average value or a mean. While it is both a detergent and a surfactant, it’s especially known as a foaming agent. The use of sodium laureth sulfate in consumer products, such as toothpaste, is controversial. does not consist of one molecular formula.

Function
Detergent manufacturers use sodium laureth sulfate in products because of two reasons: this chemical can be easily acquired and has a strong amphiphilic base. This means the chemical compounds are compatible with both water and fat. Thus it easily mixes with water and acts a formidable stain exterminator. Sodium laureth sulfate forms the basic ingredients of various surface cleaners. Even cosmetic companies use this chemical in frugal amounts in cosmetic products.

Uses
However, the use of SLES is not limited to detergent cleaners only. Various types of cosmetics like soaps and cleansing milks have sodium laureth sulfate as a component. This chemical makes detergents and cleaning agents powerful and strong on stains and hard grease, also effectively wiping them out of existence if sodium laureth sulfate based cleaners are applied.

SLES can be used to stop several viral infections. Herpis simplex and HIV virus infections can be prevented with SLES. It has been clinically proven that SLES is effective as a microbicide and studies are underway to establish a method which will use this chemical to curb infections. Other than keeping viruses at bay, SLES(CAS No. 68585-34-2) is also prevalent in laxatives, medicine for heart disease and in aspirin.

Effects To Environment
Despite of the above uses, the manufacturing process alters the natural ingredients with ethoxylation. Ethoxylation is a process that uses ethylene oxide, which is a known human carcinogen. The surfactant becomes contaminated with byproducts of the manufacturing process.

According to the David Suzuki foundation, depending on manufacturing processes, sodium laureth sulfate may be contaminated with considerable amounts of 1,4-dioxane. 1,4-dioxane does not degrade easily and may remain in the environment long after it is rinsed down the shower drain.

Methods Of Water Disinfection

Many people in most developing countries suffer from the inadequacy or hazardous condition of public water supplies. A wide variety of known waterborne diseases, including those associated with children’s diarrhea, are rampant. This prompted the establishment of the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. It aims at providing about 90% of the human population with an adequate, safe community water supply by 1990.

Water is important to every living creature; humans need potable water, so if your water source is questionable, you will need to disinfect your water. In situations such as when you are camping, you may need to purify water before drinking it or using it. If you are getting water from a stream, river or some wells, filter the water first to remove sediments and then allow the water to settle before proceeding to disinfect it.

Iodine
Adding either iodine tablets or tincture of iodine to the water is another way to purify it, states the EPA website article Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water. Iodine in tablet form contains the correct dosage to add to drinking water. You can find the tablets at most drug or sporting goods stores. If you are using the tincture, add 5 drops of approved Pharmacopeia tincture for each quart of water. If the water is cloudy, add 10 drops and leave the water to stand for 30 minutes or more. The usual dosage is one tablet per quart of water, but always follow the directions on the label.

Disinfectants
Disinfectants are substances which are capable of killing microorganisms. 2, 2-Dibromo-2-Nitroethanol(DBNE, CAS No. 69094-18-4) belongs to the bromine series compound, is one kind of highly effective anticorrosion disinfectant, widely applies to the industry circulating water and so on. A variety of surfaces can be treated with disinfectants, including textiles, which can be washed in disinfectant solutions, along with floors, counters, and walls made from materials like wood, tile, glass, concrete, and so forth.

Boiling Water
Boiling water kills disease-causing organisms such as giardia lamblia and cryptosporidium. Boiling the water may cause it to taste flat–to make it taste better, pour the water from one container to another four or more times. According to the EPA website article Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water, you should vigorously boil filtered water for one minute before drinking it. If you live above altitudes of one mile, boil the water for three minutes.  Let it stand for two hours or add a pinch of salt per quart.

Are Oil Additives Miracle Cure?

Engine life and performance rely heavily on the lubricating materials used inside engine components. Engine oil additives are sometimes sarcastically referred to as
“mechanic in a bottle”. This term refers to the marketing message, not to mention the belief shared by many people, that oil additives can improve gas mileage, increase horsepower, and fix other engine problems. They are designed to enhance engine performance and protect inner workings; but certainly no miracle cures.

Tests conducted in 1998 by the NASA Lewis Research Center examined the actual effects of oil additives on engine condition and performance using different marketed brands. Bearing surface contact, sedimentation and reduced wear-and-tear effects were the conditions observed during testing. Researchers concluded the overall effects of oil additives could actually be damaging to engine components in the long term, according to Modern Car Care. Ultimately, the question as to whether or not additives do work may depend on a user’s perspective, and the risks he’s willing to take.

For example, many companies make an oil additive that is supposed to stop leaks. This is an exaggeration of the truth. Engine seals often dry up, shrink, and crack with age, causing oil leaks to occur. Oil additives that are meant to stop these leaks are actually formulated to condition or re-moisturize these seals. The idea is that the conditioning will cause the seal to resume its original shape, therefore reversing the cause of the leak.

There are two problems with this theory. One, rubber seals that have already dried up and lost their shape will never be the same again, no matter how much reconditioning additives are used. Furthermore, no matter how well the seals are re-moisturized, cracks that have formed will always be there, necessitating replacement rather than a miracle cure.

Oil additives are made up of synthetic materials designed to reduce the wear and tear on the car engine, according to Modern Car Care, a car care resource site. And while there are many different brands available for use, polytetrafloeraethylene (PTFE) is the common active ingredient used in each brand. 4-Aminophenol(C6H7NO, CAS No. 123-30-8) is another active ingredient used in additives.

Another type of oil additive that is often found on the market is for cleaning sludge and buildup from the inside of an engine. These products often make a number of claims, for instance that they will increase the efficiency of the engine, boost gas mileage, and even increase horsepower. However, no matter how good these oil additives are, they cannot give the car horsepower or gas mileage that it did not have in the first place.

Detergents That Are Eco-Friendly

As interest in green living grows, an increasing array of environmentally-friendly detergents are becoming available. Of the many types, some are more effective than others at cleaning. Many different types of green products are available for the laundry, for hand and machine washing dishes, and for general-purpose cleaning. These products may contain primarily plant-based ingredients, have packaging made from recycled materials or have eliminated some of the potentially harmful chemicals in conventional products.

Environmentally aware consumers and corporations have begun seeking greener alternatives to petroleum-based conventional detergents. In some environmentally-friendly detergent, plant-based ingredients have replaced petroleum-based in some cleaning products. These replacements are more expensive than petroleum but present fewer environmental issues. Both eco-friendly liquid and powered laundry products as well as dish types and all-purpose green cleaners use oils from coconut, palm, corn and other plants instead of petroleum.

Many conventional detergent manufacturers make laundry products free of fragrances and dyes, or have replaced chlorine bleach. As consumer interest and demand for green products has grown, companies have begun to do more than just eliminating problematic ingredients. Eliminating harmful ingredients represents one aspect of the eco-friendly spectrum of products. For example, laundry detergent manufacturers have reduced or replaced phosphates as a water-softening chemical due to their effect on algal growth and oxygen depletion in waterways. Companies offer a spectrum of environmentally-friendly detergents and household cleaning products.

For example, simple green is a common eco-friendly product line available at most supermarket chain stores. The line uses non-toxic, biodegradable and environmentally-friendly ingredients that clean your household surface thoroughly without use of toxic chemically-based cleaning ingredients. The line includes basic all-purpose surface cleaners, toilet and bathtub cleaners, kitchen de-greasing cleaners and products designed to remove pets stains and odors. EDTA disodium salt dihydrate(CAS No. 6381-92-6) is used in the production of various detergents.

In addition to the many types of environmentally-friendly detergents, products that differ completely from conventional detergents are being developed. Anti-bacterial products containing nanoparticles of silver are being researched and developed. Soap nuts, the dried fruits of a tree native to India and Nepal, are a source of natural surfactants called saponins. The hard fruits can be placed in a cotton bag in the washing machine and reused several times. They can also be boiled to create a liquid used in place of all-purpose cleaners.

Chlorogenic Acid In Coffee

Chlorogenic acid (C16H18O9) is an antioxidant and phenolic compound, which, in ways that are not yet fully clear, can modulate and/or suppress the immune response. The acid is a natural compound found in a wide array of plants. It is a polyphenol that is an important intermediary compound in plant metabolism, and also has a broad range of antimicrobial properties. This chemical has also been found to inhibit the release of glucose into the blood, and appears to help people lose weight.

Many of the polyphenols function as antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid is able to neutralize several classes of carcinogenic compounds before they can damage DNA, thus preventing mutations from occurring and causing cancer. It also inhibits oxidation of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or bad cholesterol. Such oxidation can damage the arteries and cause atherosclerosis. Limiting this is thought to help prevent cardiovascular disease.

The primary dietary sources of chlorogenic acid are coffee and tea1, both caffeinated and decaffeinated. Green coffee beans typically contain 6-7% of this component (range: 4-10%); roasted coffee beans contain somewhat less, as the roasting transforms this acid into other molecules, which may still retain the same functions as chlorogenic acid.

A number of population studies identified coffee drinkers, who drank at least five cups a day, as being substantially less likely to get Type 2 diabetes. Further research has suggested the reason for this as being the effects of chlorogenic acid on glucose metabolism. Glucose is stored in the liver in a polysaccharide called glycogen, which is a long, branched chain of insoluble glucose molecules. In a process known as glycogenolysis, the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase releases free glucose into the bloodstream, where it circulates to various organs.

The quantity of this substance in most plants is miniscule. However, a few types of plants accumulate chlorogenic acid(CAS No. 327-97-9), especially in the skin, in quantities sufficient to have a physiological effect on individuals who consume them. If glycogenolysis is inhibited, the body gets its energy from fat cells. This reduces blood glucose levels, helping to reduce the symptoms of diabetes. Also, reducing the number of fat stores should help in losing weight.

While one must always be cautious when using weight loss supplements, there is some data — from the manufacturer — to suggest that this product does result in weight loss. he biological effects of chlorogenic acid have led to its being marketed for weight reduction in Europe. The substance is obtained from green coffee and sold as Svetol, which is typically included as an ingredient in mints, chewing gum, and coffee.

Biotin Benefits

Biotin is a B-complex vitamin, also known as Vitamin B-7, D-Biotin or Vitamin H. It is a water-soluble vitamin that does not get stored in the body like fat-soluble vitamins. So in order for it to work efficiently, it needs to be taken regularly because it is constantly being lost with urination.

History
Biotin was originally discovered in the late 1930s while researching dietary needs of chickens. Researchers were able to determine that a glycoprotein called avidin that is present in eggs can bind with the substance and prevent absorption.

Sources
Biotin can be found naturally in foods including liver, cauliflower, salmon, bananas, egg yolks, carrots, legumes and mushrooms. It is also found in brewer’s and nutritional yeast.

Biotin Deficiency
Since the daily requirements for biotin are small, biological deficiency is rare. Frequent consumption of raw eggs or alcohol can result in biotin deficiencies. Biotin deficiency can lead to hair loss, skin rash, high cholesterol and other cardiovascular problems. Metabolic complications including low blood sugar, high amounts of ammonia in the blood and acidosis can occur.

Benefits
Many health and beauty products that promote hair and nail strength include biotin. However, the usefulness of externally applied products like shampoo is questionable, as it is not easily absorbed through the skin. In order to reap the health benefits of Vitamin B-7, the vitamin must typically be consumed in supplement form.

Hair loss can occur in both men and women. Vitamin B-7 is often used by itself and in conjunction with other vitamin blends for slowing the hair loss process and keeping hair healthier. The only catch is it only helps when biotin deficiency is the underlying reason for the hair loss.

Diabetes is a condition characterized by the pancreas not releasing insulin properly. This leads to sporadic dips and valleys in blood sugar levels. D-Biotin(CAS No. 58-85-5) improves the body’s ability to release insulin in response to elevated blood sugar levels. It also aids the liver in processing glucose, which makes insulin resistance less severe.

Warnnings
Though biotin deficiency is rare, it is serious. Vitamin B-7 deficiency is usually a congenital condition, but it can also be caused by excessive consumption of raw egg white over a period of many months or years. If untreated, Vitamin B-7 deficiency can present serious and potentially fatal neurological symptoms. In early stages, the deficiency is marked by hair and skin conditions including dryness, alopecia, eczema, rashes, and fungal infections. Luckily, the deficiency is easily treated with its supplements.

Chemicals For Pest Control

A pest is a broad term to define any entity that threatens the health or safety of the environment or people. Pesticides are the means of removing, preventing or killing pests. There is a great deal of focus on the use of chemicals in pest control. Part of the concern is the overall residual effects of these chemicals on both human and environmental health.

Economic Advantages
There is a long history of using chemicals for pest control in agriculture. In fact, farmers are the strongest proponents for chemical pest control methods. There are several reasons for this. One of the main advantages of using chemical pest control in agriculture is cost. Protecting large growing areas from pest infestations is an expensive undertaking, and the cost in crop losses due to infestations is enormous as well.

Farmers must spend a significant part of their operating capital each year to control insects, and broadcast spraying of chemicals is still the least expensive method to use. This includes the use of application machinery for the spraying, which only requires a small work force to operate. Both of these aspects do allow farmers to save money each year in their pest control efforts.

Toxicity
Since 1979, the EPA has recorded pesticide usage in the United States. It estimates that more than 300 million pounds of pesticides are applied each year. A look at the 27 most commonly used pesticides reveals some startling facts. Of these 27, 15 are considered carcinogens by the EPA. Others have been associated with genetic disabilities, deaths in children and farm workers, as well as pet deaths.

Risks
The Pesticide Action Network (PAN) provides information about pesticide toxicity. Acetochlor(CAS No. 34256-82-1) is another common pesticide found in its database. It is categorized at the highest level of concern because of its toxicity. Other highly toxic pesticides include malathion, metolachlor and mancozeb. All are in this same high category, and all are among the most commonly used pesticides. Clearly, a balance of the risks and the benefits must be part of the decision to apply these toxic chemicals.

Regulation
Because they are agents of destruction, all pesticides carry some risks. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) established the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the governing agency for the regulation of pesticides. Pesticides must be registered with the agency. Application of pesticides is also regulated at the state level. Illinois, for example, requires individuals to pass an exam before being licensed.

Efficacy Of Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen(C13H18O2) is a drug that belongs to the class of drugs known as NSAIDS, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is a drug which is recommended for mild to moderate pain, soreness, swelling, and fever. This can be risky, as there are dangers to excessive use, and it is possible to overdose on the drug, potentially causing severe health problems. However, when used safely, the drug can be a very effective and useful pain management tool.

Description
The drug was developed in the 1960s by the Boots Chemical Company, and it is marketed under a number of names. Motrin, Nurofen, and Advil are all forms of ibuprofen. The generic name of the drug is a shortening of its chemical name, iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid. The drug is considered a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) medication. Unlike a steroidal drug, it can be safely used in the long term, as it does not carry as many harmful side effects as steroidal drugs do. When pain and inflammation are not severe, the drug can also be perfectly effective.

Function
Scientifically, the way that ibuprofen works is that it inhibits an enzyme known as COX-2. By inhibiting this enzyme, which is the enzyme responsible for feeling pain, the human body does not feel the pain and the muscles do not swell as they would had this drug not been ingested. You can experience pain in virtually any location of your body; therefore wherever the pain is, the enzyme will also be, so you can take it and it will find and numb the pain. Basically, the COX-2 enzyme is blocked when the medication is ingested.

Side Effects
An overdose can result in severe gastrointestinal distress, characterized by nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. By taking low doses of the medicine which conform with the recommended doses on the label, these symptoms can generally be avoided. If you find yourself taking ibuprofen(CAS No. 15687-27-1) for an extended period of time, you should consult a doctor, as you may have a serious condition which requires professional medical attention.

Warnings
Combining aspirin with ibuprofen may also be dangerous; the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) highly recommends discussing its use with a doctor for this reason. Extended or excessive use can carry risks to the heart. It should not be used by people with serious heart conditions before being discussed with a doctor, and most surgeons recommend that it not be used when a patient is about to have heart surgery.

Glycerol Uses

Glycerol(sometimes known as glycerine, glycerin or 1,2,3-Propanetriol) is a simple polyol compound. It is a thick liquid that is colorless and sweet tasting. It has a high boiling point and freezes to a paste. Glycerin’s most common use is in soap and other beauty products like lotions, though it is also used, in the form of nitroglycerin, to create dynamite.

Where we get glycerol has changed over time. In 1889, for example, commercial candlemaking was the only way to obtain the chemical. At that time, candles made from animal fat which served as the source. Extraction is a complicated process and there are various ways of going about it. The simplest way is to mix fat with lye. When the two are mixed, soap is formed and it is then removed. Still, a small amount of glycerol remains in the soap.

Used In Beauty Products
Its ability to absorb and hold moisture makes it perfect for use in many beauty products. It can leave skin dry and irritated in its natural state, but it helps to keep skin soft and healthy when diluted with water and other chemicals. Many soaps, hair gels, facial scrubs, lotions, and shaving creams are made with liquid glycerin. Shampoos and conditioners also commonly contain the substance, as do toothpastes and liquid mouthwashes.

As A Sweetener
In its normal state, liquid glycerol is a colorless, sweet gel. It is commonly used in food laboratories and kitchens as a type of sweetener or preservative. Some cooks and consumers use it as a substitute for table sugar, as it is nearly as sweet as sucrose with fewer calories per serving. Since liquid glycerol is hygroscopic, it helps to preserve moisture in a number of different food products, including cake icing and candy. The compound is also an effective fruit preservative, as it prevents excess water from escaping from fruit through evaporation.

Used In Health Products
When used as a suppository, liquid 1,2,3-Propanetriol(CAS No. 56-81-5) can provide lubrication to dry membranes and act as a laxative by irritating the colon, thus encouraging bowel movements. It is especially useful in cough syrups and expectorants to help sooth sore throats. Many oral gel tablets are comprised partially of glycerin, as it makes pills easy to swallow and allows medicine to be released quickly.

While production levels increase, many researchers and companies are looking for further uses for the substance. Two big areas being investigated are as a 5% additive to chicken and other livestock feed, and as a suitable substitute for the propylene glycol market.

Propionic Acid Description

Propanoic, or propionic acid, is a simple compound often used as a preservative in the feed and food industries. In low doses, manufacturers use the acid as a preservative and as an antimicrobial agent in foods produced for human consumption. These preservative properties of this carboxyl acid also make the compound’s use in foods created for livestock and poultry.

Properties
Propionic acid is a saturated fatty acid with three carbon molecules and is produced naturally by certain bacteria during fermentation. The compound may also be synthetically created using ethylene or natural gas. In their natural state, propionates are a colorless, oily liquid having a pungent odor. When used as a calcium or sodium salt, the acid may be colorless, white and crystallized, or in a powdered form that readily dissolves in water or alcohol.

Structure
Propanoic acid has the following molecular formula: C3H6O2. The three carbons form a chain; the carbon at the end of the chain has an oxygen atom double-bonded to it and an -OH group attached to it as well. This group of atoms or functional group is collectively called a carboxyl group, and compounds like propanoic acid are called carboxylic acids because they are relatively acidic. Acetic acid, also known as vinegar, is another example of a carboxylic acid.

Synthesis
Propanoic acid can be produced in different ways. For one, propanal can be oxidized to yield the carboxylic acid. Just like other carboxylic acids, it could be prepared by adding hot base or acid to propanenitrile followed by an acid-water workup, or by carbonating the Grignard reagent formed from magnesium and 1-bromopropane. It can also be made from propanoic anhydride by hydrolysis or alcoholysis; the hydrolysis would form two molecules of the acid, while the alcoholysis would form an ester and the acid.

Uses
Researchers believe that propionic acid can also inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. Pharmaceutical companies commonly include it as an ingredient in NSAIDS. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and other over-the-counter and prescription anti-inflammatory preparations commonly contain propionic acid(CAS No. 79-09-4) as an ester. In this form, the compound attaches to the medication’s active ingredients.

The acidic properties of propionates provide antimicrobial activity against some bacteria. Propionic acid is more commonly used for fungal and mold growth prevention. Its acidic nature allows it to penetrate the cells of microorganisms, and after gaining entrance into the cytoplasm, the acid decreases the cellular pH. This inhibits normal cell function and growth, causing death. These properties make the substance useful for preserving food products.

Gabapentin Used for Seizures

Gabapentin is a prescription medication used for the treatment of epilepsy and seizures. It was developed by the drug company Pfizer, and first approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1994. Doctors may also prescribe this drug for migraines or chronic pain conditions, but undoubtedly the drug’s most controversial use is in the treatment of bipolar disorder.

Certain medical conditions and treatments can interact with or worsen as a result of taking gabapentin. It is important that you disclose your full medical history to your physician before taking this medicine. Do not take it if you have a history of kidney, heart or liver disease without first discussing your condition with your doctor. It is important that you tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant before taking. It can pass into breast milk and cause negative effects on a breastfeeding child.

There are numerous dosage amounts of gabapentin, and it can often be prescribed in high doses, exceeding 1200 mg. It is not recommended for pregnant or nursing women because effects on the fetus or nursing babies have not been studied significantly. Use in children needs to be watched carefully, as some children may develop memory loss, depression, hyperactivity, mood changes, or challenges concentrating. These symptoms in children necessitates contacting the prescribing physician immediately. There is also some indication that gabapentin may increase risk for suicidal behavior in children, teens, and young adults.

Some medications may interact with gabapentin hydrochloride(CAS No. 60142-96-3). Common drugs include hydrocodone (Vicodin), most antacids, morphine and naproxen sodium (Aleve). Taking these medications doesn’t necessarily mean that a person can’t take it also, but dosages may need to be adjusted, or timing of taking these meds might need to be carefully scheduled.

Certain conditions can worsen as a result of taking gabapentin, and side effects can last for several hours, days, weeks or even longer. Some side effects of the medication can be fatal. It is very important that you seek emergency treatment if you experience any severe side effects as a result of taking gabapentin. There may be evidence that a very small percentage of patients find some benefit from this drug as adjunct therapy for bipolar disorder, but there is little evidence this medicine should be viewed as first, or even second-line treatment for the condition.

How To Dissolve Charcoal?

When wood is anaerobically burn, it turns black as water is driven off leaving charcoal or carbon behind. It is used as fuel, purification and discoloration of liquids and gases. It is produced through slow pyrolysis. Active charcoals are produced by the carbonization of various carbon substrates, such as wood, coal or polymers, which are subjected to an activation treatment giving them a high porosity and adsorbing capacity.

Properties
Charcoal is a form of nearly pure carbon. It is created through burning organic matter in an oxygen deprived inert atmosphere and siphoning or leaching out any impurities. Nutshells, peat, wood or coal can be heated to between 600 and 900 degrees Fahrenheit while surrounded by argon or nitrogen. The end product is either powdered or granulated charcoal (carbon). It has a very high surface area and is extremely porous. A single gram can feature between 300 and 2,000 square meters of surface area.

Uses
Charcoal has been used for generations in many societies as a form of fuel. It is used to cook food and to undertake other operations, such as distillation. It however presents a danger when used in a house without ventilation, as carbon monoxide may build up inside the house and cause the death of people.

Charcoal can be packed into a cylinder or special screen that will not restrict the flow of air or liquid through the filtration device. The ideal application for a filter depends on the specific blend of carbon used (standard, activated or impregnated). The quality and amount of charcoal used affects the efficiency of the filter.

Removing
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It exists as a colorless gas or as a fuming liquid. Hydrogen fluoride also can be released when other fluoride-containing compounds, such as ammonium fluoride(NH4F, CAS No. 12125-01-8), are combined with water. It is used to make refrigerants, electrical components, gasoline, plastics and fluorescent light bulbs. It is also used in the etching of glass and metals.

Dissolving charcoal involves the reaction of the carbon in the charcoal with the hydrofluoric acid to produce carbon fluoride and water. Its ability to dissolve iron oxide as well as silica contaminants has made it to be used in precommissioning boilers that produce steam. Hydrofluoric acid cleans impurities from stainless steel by pickling and similarly this occurs in carbon, which is the element in charcoal. When charcoal is heated at high temperatures, a lot of carbon is emitted and combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.

Function Of PG

Propylene glycol(PG, also known as 1,2-Propanediol), the main ingredient in anti-freeze, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration when used according to FDA regulations. The chemical compound is most commonly used as a food additive. However, large doses can cause seizures in humans and kidney and liver damage in animals.

In Industrial Use
Propylene glycol has a myriad of functions in industrial applications. The textile industry uses it as an intermediary in the production of polyester fiber. The military uses it to form smoke screens for troops. Military and commercial airlines use it as a de-icer for planes, however, ethylene glycol is also used because of its lower cost. PG can be found in liquid detergents, as well as a number of other uses.

As Food Additive
In foods, PG absorbs water and maintains moisture. It dissolves food dyes and flavorings in drinks, and it keeps foods from freezing, such as in breweries and dairies. In food, it would be difficult to consume a dangerous dose, but babies, infants, the elderly and those with certain allergies may be more sensitive to the chemical.

In Medical Uses
In medicines, PG acts as an emulsifier, specifically in topical agents and injectable medicines. It also acts as an excipient, or solvent, for the active ingredients in medications. Newborns have shown adverse reactions to medicines using this chemical.

In Cosmetics
Propylene glycol is often present in cosmetics, hand and body lotions and antiperspirants due to its antimicrobial activity, note Rietschel, Fowler and Fisher. It’s effective against the bacteria E. coli and the fungus candida, or yeast. Tinea versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis also respond to this compound, but only in high concentrations. In beauty products it can help prevent bacterial proliferation for safe application onto the skin. The book also notes that 1,2-Propanediol(CAS No. 57-55-6) is non-comedogenic, meaning it does not clog pores, which can cause acne or other blemishes.

Warnings
The chemical is fairly safe but can irritate your stomach, skin and eyes and catch fire under the right conditions. The information presented here reflects the dangers faced by people who use propylene glycol in industrial quantities and settings. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has determined that the very small amounts of the chemical appearing in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals pose no known health risks to people or animals other than cats.

Alkaline Battery Fact Sheets

The world’s needs for energy are ever larger and more varied as time goes on. One source of energy has developed as a convenient way to power electronic devices, and that is the alkaline battery. The closed circuit created by these two electron flows use up the chemical energy of the electrolyte and produce electrical power in the process. This process is the same, whether it takes place in an alkaline battery or in a zinc-carbon battery.

The alkaline battery is one of the more modern types of battery used, having been introduced first in the 1960s. The very first battery was created by scientist Alessandro Volta in 1800. Volta made his battery by stacking alternating layers of zinc, salt water-soaked blotting paper, and silver. The higher the stack, the higher the voltage produced by this arrangement. This type of battery was known as the voltaic pile. The modern alkaline battery still uses the same fundamental principles as the voltaic pile, namely two different types of metal, separated by a liquid which conducts electricity, with a negative and a positive terminal.

Each alkaline battery has two ends, or terminals — a positive and a negative terminal. Inside the battery, a chemical reaction produces electrons, which gather at the negative terminal of the battery. However, unless the negative terminal is connected to the positive terminal, the chemical reaction stops and no more electricity is produced.

Potassium hydroxide is used as the electrolyte in an alkaline battery, not ammonium chloride or zinc chloride — the electrolytes used commonly with zinc-carbon batteries. Potassium hydroxide is also known as caustic potash or potash lye. While alkaline batteries are ensconced in a casing they are still capable of leaking potassium hydroxide, which is known to cause eye and skin irritation.

Manganese dioxide(MnO2, CAS No. 1313-13-9) is used as the cathode, or negative electrode. It occurs in nature as the mineral pyrolusite, and is typically used in a powder form as well. Graphite is also added to the cathode, to improve conductivity.

When compared with a zinc-carbon battery, its main competitor, an alkaline battery has a higher energy density, as well as a longer shelf-life. However, alkaline batteries have high internal resistance. The faster that an alkaline battery is drained, the lower the capacity or load that the battery can handle.

What Can Ivermectin Be Used For?

Ivermectin(C48H74O14) is a common anti-parasite medication that used to treat parasitic worm infestations in animals and humans. In animals, especially dogs and cats, the medicine is often used to treat and prevent heartworm, and to treat ear mites and some types of mange. Like most other prescription drugs, it can have drug interactions, contraindications, and side effects.

Larval Heartworm
One common use of Ivermectin is in the treatment of larval heartworm. It cannot kill adult heartworm, but it can kill heartworm that is in the larval stage while it circulates in the blood. Ideally, it can be used as a preventative measure against heartworm and should be given to animals regularly. Most commonly drug is given to dogs, cats, and horses in treatment of or preventative measures against heartworm and other parasites.

River Blindness
Another use of the medication is to treat river blindness, also known as onchocerciasis. It generally spreads through the bites of blackflies. It occurs mostly in tropical African countries, though this infestation has been known to occur in the tropical nations of Central and South America as well. River blindness can damage the skin so badly as to disfigure its victims, and is believed to be the second most common cause of infectious blindness in the world.

Intestinal Parasites
Ivermectin is often used to treat intestinal parasites that develop in horses and other large animals. Ivermectin(CAS No. 70288-86-7) will effectively treat nearly all intestinal parasites, with the exception of tapeworms. Symptoms of an animal with an intestinal parasite can include swift loss of weight, diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration. In smaller animals, it is especially important to regularly treat against intestinal parasites before animals begin to show symptoms, as humans are susceptible to these parasites and can obtain them by interacting with pets with intestinal parasites.

Others
Ivermectin is also used to prevent and treat parasites that attack animals externally, such as sarcoptic mange, mites, lice, and others. f a dog or cat frequently scratches his ears, mites may be present. The meidcation can be purchased in chewable form, making it easy for smaller animals to consume, and it should clear up any external parasite problems within a few days.

Starch In Daily Life

Starch is an organic compound that is found extensively in plants. It known for its ability to lend its rigid structure to other materials it comes in contact with, like foods, commercial products and fabric. It is a congealing agent used in cooking to thicken puddings, pie fillings, sauces, gravies and other liquids. The various powders are preferred over flour as a thickener because they are flavorless and dissolve easily in hot and cold liquids.

Basic
The chemical formula for starch is C(6)H(12)O(6). It is a polysaccharide carbohydrate that is found naturally in plants as the material that keeps stems and roots rigid. There is also an especially high amount of the compoundin plant seeds. Starch molecules, called grains, are generally crystal in shape though the specifics vary depending on the particular plant the chemical was harvested from.

Benefits
As a non-food substance, starch is a very versatile compound and is used by humans for a variety of purposes. One of the most common uses is as a clothing stiffener, also referred to as a laundry starch. The vegetable form is combined with water and then applied to the collars and cuffs of shirts before ironing. The water helps the compound sink into the fibers of the fabric, and the heat of the iron makes the compound’s structure become rigid. The result is a stiff edge that holds its shape. Clothing type also helps material resist dirt and sweat staining. Starching collars and cuffs has been widely used in fashion since the seventeenth century.

Types
Cornstarch, also called cornflour, is used by many cooks based on its availability, ease of use and thickening power. Like most starch(CAS No. 9005-25-8) powders, cornstarch works best when it is mixed with an equal amount of cold water to make a slurry and then stirred into the liquid to be thickened. The liquid will thicken after being constantly simmered and stirred for about a minute.

Tapioca is made from the roots of cassava plants and is most commonly sold in pellet form. The tiny round balls in both regular and instant tapioca are soaked before being added to dishes, and it readily thickens any temperature of foods. Since tapioca retains its bulbous shape when hydrated, creates a gelatinous texture and adds high gloss to foods, it is mostly used in puddings and pie fillings.