More Further Facts About Perfume

Perfume is a magic thing to make women and men become charming. It creates an atmosphere of beauty around its wearer, and can be a delight to those near her. It is also an investment in future happiness. However, few people know the details about perfumes.

History
They were first used in ancient Greece and Egypt, and for thousands of years they were made from natural materials such as flowers, plant oils, resins and roots, and oils from the scent glands of such animals as the musk deer. The foundations of modern synthetic perfumes originated during the 19th century with advances in organic chemistry. Synthetic scent compounds are less expensive than organic ingredients, and are used instead of, or in combination with, natural oils.

Ambergris
Ambergris is a substance that is found in the digestive tract of sperm whales, and it has a musky, floral scent. Ambergris, also referred to as amber, was historically a popular fragrance ingredient. Ambergris is now reproduced synthetically.

Ingredients
A perfume consists of 78 to 95 percent ethyl alcohol. The staying power of a scent compound in a perfume depends on its rate of evaporation. Modern perfumes contain many synthetic compounds that are altered to give them unique characteristics such as increased odor. Popular synthetic scents used in perfume include benzyl acetate, a synthetically produced jasmine scent, Galaxolide, a synthetic musk-like scent, and ethyl linalool, a lavender scent.

Healthy Problems
There are more than 3,000 base ingredients that manufacturers draw on to make a perfume. Many compounds in perfumes are synthetic such as galaxolide (a synthetic musk) and diethyl phthalate, a plasticizing agent. These chemical compounds are used to make a fragrance’s scent last longer. Phthalates can accumulate in the body’s fatty tissue, and the use of some phthalates has been banned in Europe because of fears of damage to reproductive health.

Omkar Expands Its India API Production

India’s Omkar Speciality Chemicals forays into API business and has acquired LASA Laboratory on Oct 18,2012. Recently, the company is again expanding its API and intermediate manufacturing in Badlapur, Maharashtra, this time with an investment of nearly $5 million in an API plant.

API is the largest segment of the specialty chemicals industry.  The growth of API market in India is likely to add pressure on the production capacities. This will result in an increased scope and revenue for OSCL. Increased restrictions on the production cost have forced the API manufacturers from developed countries to shift their manufacturing base to the emerging economies like India, China and Eastern European countries like Hungary and Poland. This has helped emerging countries to make their global presence felt in the API market.

The acquisition of Lasa Labs in April 2012 has enabled OSCL to gain a portfolio of 10 APIs like Albendazole, Closental and Flucanazole. Though most of the APIs are generic, they still offer incremental market opportunity for OSCL. For instance, Albendazole is estimated to have a global annual demand of about Rs 1.7 billion.

The company will invest 25 crore ($4.67 million) to expand the production capacity to 1,950 metric tons from 1,700 metric tons now at one facility, an expansion it says will be online in 8 or 9 months, the Business Standard reports. “There is tremendous pressure from customers as well, both domestic and global, for supply of products,” Chairman Pravin Herlekar tells the newspaper.

Herlekar said the company also is looking at building capacity with some acquisitions. “Having a stronghold in Hyderabad, a hub of pharmaceutical and biotech industry, we are considering having a manufacturing base here via the inorganic growth route,” he said.

The company next month will bring online additional capacity at another plant in that area. It now will be able to produce up to 2,800 metric tons of intermediates (such as 3-Fluoro-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile, the CAS number is 149793-69-1) for anti-cholesterol, anti-depression and cardiovascular drugs. The company in April acquired Lasa Labs, which has a plant that makes APIs for the veterinary drug industry.

Pharma industry in India is growing at a reasonable pace. This is on account of population growth and the changing life styles of people. The drug for applications on anti-diabetic, anti-cholestrol, anti-hypertension, anti-asthematic, etc., has been constantly in demand. Interestingly, the Indian pharma industry is expected to do well on the back of growing global demand for generics drugs.

Rilpivirine Used For HIV

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) requires a complicated treatment regimen to keep in check. Rilpivirine (TMC278, trade name Edurant) is one of the drugs that can be used as part of a treatment program. It is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) made by the New Jersey based Tibotec Therapeutics.

As of 2011, HIV was not curable, but it could be controlled through drugs. The virus can replicate itself enough, in the absence of antiviral drugs, to cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Rilpivirine targets one of the enzymes that the virus produces for this process. It is suitable as a primary treatment for new HIV diagnoses.

It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in May 2011. Edurant is approved for people living with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy for the first time. It is not approved for people living with HIV who have already used antiretrovirals.

Edurant works by blocking HIV’s reverse transcriptase enzyme. After HIV’s genetic material is deposited inside a cell, its RNA must be converted (reverse transcribed) into DNA. NNRTIs stop this process and prevent HIV from infecting the CD4 cell and producing new virus particles. HIV mutates easily and gains resistance to the antiviral drugs, so rilpivirine is never used alone. Instead, it forms part of a treatment regimen that includes other drugs. This combination of drugs might be able to prevent the amount of viral particles in the body from increasing and therefore halt the progression of the disease.

Several medicines, such as the antibiotic rifampin, the steroid dexamethasone or the herbal product St. John’s wort are not safe to take with this drug. Patients who have also suffered from depression or mental illness should inform their doctors prior to taking the drug. Kidney, liver or heart trouble are also important for a doctor to know before he or she can prescribe the drug.

The Rilpivirine (4-Aminobenzonitrile is one of its intermediates) dose is one 25 mg tablet taken by mouth once a day. It should be taken with a high-fat meal (e.g., breakfast and dinner). Some medicines, such as antacids, can interfere with the action of this medication, so these should be taken at different times to the drug.

Side effects such as gastrointestinal issues are possible, and these can be severe. It can cause depression or mood changes. Be sure to contact your health care provider immediately if you are feeling said or hopeless, feeling anxious or restless, or have thoughts of hurting yourself (suicide) or have tried to hurt yourself.

A Kind Of Medication Used To Treat HIV

Raltegravir (also known as Isentress) is the generic name of HIV-1 integrase strand-transfer inhibitor with potent antiretroviral activity. While it does not cure the disease, it can help slow the spread of the virus throughout the body.

The medication works by blocking the formation of the virus. In a body wherein HIV is present, there is also an enzyme called HIV integrase. This enzyme is in part responsible for the replication of the virus; raltegravir and the brand name medications that it is a component of act on these enzymes. The drug works against HIV’s integrase protein, blocking its ability to integrate its genetic code into human cells. By interfering with the function of them, it in turn helps slow reproduction and the spread of the virus through the body.

Raltegravir, formerly known as MK-0518, is the first licensed integrase inhibitor. It was given marketing approval in the US in 2007 and in Europe in early 2008 for use by treatment-experienced patients. Raltegravir’s approval was based upon the results from the BENCHMRK I and II studies that showed it had a durable anti-HIV effect in patients with limited treatment options.

Available in tablet form, it is generally administered with other medications. When first starting a treatment plan, raltegravir may contribute to some side effects. Side effects that are generally mild include gastrointestinal distress, such as vomiting, stomach cramps, nausea and diarrhea. Some individuals also may experience fatigue, headache, and may acquire a pale complexion. These generally go away as the body adjusts to the medication, but they should be reported if they do not.

Many medical professionals will require regular consultations with a patient while he or she is taking raltegravir (the CAS number for its intermediate is 888504-27-6). As it interferes with the way HIV replicates and spreads through the body, it may effect other areas of the body over time. A doctor may request that the patient take regular blood tests and undergo routine lab work in order to see how his or her body is reacting to long-term administration of the drug.

Even though an individual may feel better, he or she should continue taking the medication for the best management of the virus and its symptoms. Although the administration of raltegravir can help alleviate some of the symptoms of HIV, it does not cure the disease.  Those receiving treatment can still spread the disease and can be susceptible to some of the illnesses associated with it.

History of Lipsticks

Lipsticks are known as a woman’s best friend. No matter what, you are sure to find one of these hidden in every woman’s handbag or closet. We have seen it on almost every woman. We place it on our lips and it does make us more attractive, sophisticated in fact more woman. It is one of things we declare that we are ready to become women.

This cosmetic has been with mankind for quite a while. However, one thing to be noted here is that it did not begin in the early twentieth century or the century before that. The origins of lipstick lie in the mists of time; in the beginnings of human civilization in fact. Let us find out more about this.

Ancient Egyptians also extracted red dye from fungi called as fucus-algin and added 0.01% iodine, and some bromine mannite. However this resulted in serious illness. Cleopatra made her lipstick from crushed carmine beetles, which gave a deep red pigment, and ants for a base.

During the Islamic Golden Age, the notable cosmetologist, Arab Andalusian Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) invented solid lipsticks, which were perfumed sticks rolled and pressed in special moulds.

By the end of the 19th century, Guerlain, a French cosmetic company, begin manufacturing lipstick. In 1884, the first commercial lipstick was invented, by perfumers in Paris, France. It was covered in silk paper and was made from deer tallow, castor oil, and beeswax.

Later in the same century, lipstick was coloured with carmine dye. Carmine dye was extracted from Cochineal, scale insects that lived on cactus plants. Cochineal insects produced carminic acid which was used to deter other insects. Carminic acid was mixed with aluminium to make the carmine dye.

By the middle of the 1930s lipstick became available in various colours. During the 1940s the rotating push up lipstick was invented. By the end of World War II, lipstick had become one of the most widely used cosmetics.

Lipstick today is made out of many ingredients. There are now in organic types made of castor oil, beeswax (its CAS number is 8012-89-3) and other various natural oils. To many, the history of lipstick seems to have gone full circle.

The history of lipstick has been noted for various innovations in ingredients and contents. There many types of lipsticks today.

Russia Will Officially Accession To the WTO After A Month

Russian State Duma agreed Russia’s accession to the WTO Agreement by a simple majority on July 10, which means that Russia will officially become a WTO member a month later.

The result of voting on that day is 238 votes in favor, 208 votes against and 1 abstention. The Russian State Duma has 450 seats, the WTO accession agreement requires at least 226 votes to pass. After 18 years of arduous negotiations,  the Working Group of Russia’s accession to the WTO passed the final text of Russia’s WTO accession agreement on November 10, 2011. The same year, the Eighth Ministerial Meeting of WTO formally approved Russia’s accession to the WTO on December 16.

Recently, the caucus of the State Duma had a fierce debate on the approval of Russia’s accession to the WTO agreement. Since concerned about the entry of Russia will damage the profits of their own enterprises, the Russian Communist caucus opposed the approval of its agreement. Fair Russia party thought that Russia has not well prepared for the entry of WTO, suggested a delay of several years of WTO accession. However, due to support the ratification of the WTO accession agreement, the United Russia party to occupy a simple majority of seats in the State Duma, the agreement has been finally passed.

Under the relevant provisions, Russia will become a WTO member 30 days later after its own legislative body approving the accession to the WTO agreement formally become a WTO member.

Detergents That Are Eco-Friendly

As interest in green living grows, an increasing array of environmentally-friendly detergents are becoming available. Of the many types, some are more effective than others at cleaning. Many different types of green products are available for the laundry, for hand and machine washing dishes, and for general-purpose cleaning. These products may contain primarily plant-based ingredients, have packaging made from recycled materials or have eliminated some of the potentially harmful chemicals in conventional products.

Environmentally aware consumers and corporations have begun seeking greener alternatives to petroleum-based conventional detergents. In some environmentally-friendly detergent, plant-based ingredients have replaced petroleum-based in some cleaning products. These replacements are more expensive than petroleum but present fewer environmental issues. Both eco-friendly liquid and powered laundry products as well as dish types and all-purpose green cleaners use oils from coconut, palm, corn and other plants instead of petroleum.

Many conventional detergent manufacturers make laundry products free of fragrances and dyes, or have replaced chlorine bleach. As consumer interest and demand for green products has grown, companies have begun to do more than just eliminating problematic ingredients. Eliminating harmful ingredients represents one aspect of the eco-friendly spectrum of products. For example, laundry detergent manufacturers have reduced or replaced phosphates as a water-softening chemical due to their effect on algal growth and oxygen depletion in waterways. Companies offer a spectrum of environmentally-friendly detergents and household cleaning products.

For example, simple green is a common eco-friendly product line available at most supermarket chain stores. The line uses non-toxic, biodegradable and environmentally-friendly ingredients that clean your household surface thoroughly without use of toxic chemically-based cleaning ingredients. The line includes basic all-purpose surface cleaners, toilet and bathtub cleaners, kitchen de-greasing cleaners and products designed to remove pets stains and odors. EDTA disodium salt dihydrate(CAS No. 6381-92-6) is used in the production of various detergents.

In addition to the many types of environmentally-friendly detergents, products that differ completely from conventional detergents are being developed. Anti-bacterial products containing nanoparticles of silver are being researched and developed. Soap nuts, the dried fruits of a tree native to India and Nepal, are a source of natural surfactants called saponins. The hard fruits can be placed in a cotton bag in the washing machine and reused several times. They can also be boiled to create a liquid used in place of all-purpose cleaners.

Weed Killers That Contain Triclopyr

Weeds are one of the most common problems faced by gardeners and homeowners. They appear in unwanted places–woods, parks, agricultural areas and private lawns–growing quickly and interfering with the growth and propagation of desirable plants. Not all herbicides are created equal. Some herbicides kill indiscriminately, while others target certain plants.

Triclopyr, registered for use in 1979, targets broadleaf weeds and woody brush without killing grasses and conifers. Herbicides containing triclopyr are particularly useful over large areas such as golf courses and roadsides, where targeting individual weeds would be inefficient.

Effectiveness
Triclopyr weed killers eliminate unwanted weeds and plants. Their efficiency is unaffected by rain or watering. Ortho weed killers eliminate thistle, English daisies, spurges, chickenweed, plantain, clovers, dandelions, henbits, wild onions and numerous other weeds.

Application
Triclopyr weed killers are sold in concentrated form (they require additional dilution) and in ready-to-spray bottles. They are most effective when applied in temperatures between 45 degrees Fahrenheit and 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Appropriate safety precautions are required during application. It is recommended you wear gloves, goggles and a face protection.

Dow AgroSciences Multiple Formulation Products
Dow AgroSciences manufactures three products that combine triclopyr with additional active ingredients. Access herbicide contains picloram in addition to triclopyr. Crossbow specialty herbicide is a formulation of triclopyr and 2,4-D ester. Confront specialty herbicide uses a combination of triclopyr and clopyralid. According to the product profiles on the Dow AgroSciences website, Access herbicide is for use in commercial and industrial areas; Crossbow specialty herbicide is for use in livestock grazing areas; and Confront specialty herbicide is for weed control in parks and golf courses.

Scotts Miracle-Gro Company Products
While the Dow AgroSciences tridopyr products are labeled for use in commercial and industrial applications, there are other products suitable for home use. According to the Scotts Miracle-Gro Company’s website, it makes two products that contain triclopyr and are recommended for home use. Ortho Weed-B-Gon contains 8 percent triclopyr in the form of triethylamine(also known as TETN or Triethyl Amine, CAS No. 121-44-8) salt. Weed-B-Gone kills broadleaf weeds without harming certain lawn grasses.

Ortho MAX Poison Ivy and Tough Brush Killer contains 0.7 percent triclopyr and is formulated to kill woody plants and vines. According to the product labeling, Ortho MAX Poison Ivy and Tough Brush Killer is effective on plants such as poison ivy, poison oak and kudzu.

Purchase Information
These weed killers are available online, at local gardening retailers and the nursery section of large department stores.

Barbiturates Information

Barbiturates are a class of drugs which have historically been used as sedatives and anesthetics. It produce a calming effect by acting on your central nervous system, thus controlling convulsions, causing you to get drowsy and inducing sleep. A lot of people turn to drugs to cope with stress, anxiety, seizure disorders and insomnia. There are a lot of medications that have barbiturates in them. You may have taken barbiturates and not even been aware of it.

History
Barbiturates, derived from barbituric acid, were introduced in the early 1900s. In those days, science and medicine were not very advanced, and many people became addicted to the drug. Barbiturates have since been replaced by benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines are more widely used and preferred because tolerance develops more slowly, reduces the risk of a lethal dose and has a wider therapeutic index.

Function
These drugs are formulated on a base of barbituric acid, which acts on the central nervous system. In low doses, barbiturates can have a sedative effect, which is one reason they were historically used to address anxiety and sleeplessness. These drugs are also used in the control of seizures, as their depressive effect on the central nervous system appears to help with controlling seizures. In higher doses, barbiturates cause a loosening of inhibitions, and they can have an anesthetic effect.

Types
Some examples of barbiturates include sodium pentathol, phenobarbital, and secobarbital, primodone and butalbital.Barbiturates are not illegal, as long as you have a prescription. Drugs that are prescribed for people suffering from headaches, seizures, insomnia or gastro-intestinal complications all have barbiturates in them and could cause you to flunk a drug test. Diethyl malonate(CAS No. 105-53-3) is used in the production of these drugs.

Warning
The reduction in prescriptions of barbiturates has radically lowered rates of abuse, and has contributed to a significant decline in deaths or serious injuries due to overdose. However, individuals who abuse drugs can still seek out alternatives, which may be more or less dangerous than this class of drugs. People who are attempting to curb abusive habits may opt to attend a residential treatment facility so that they can be helped with their addiction and the unpleasant side effects associated with the cessation of drug use.

Alendronate Sodium For Bones In A Body

Alendronate sodium(C4H12NNaO7P2.3(H2O)), also known as alendronic acid, is a drug that is used in the treatment and prevention of the degenerative bone disease osteoporosis in women and men. This medication also is used in the treatment of a bone-weakening condition called Paget’s disease. There is also a very specific way to take the drug as well as important side effects to note.

Function
These drugs work by reducing the rate at which bone material is absorbed from bones. Bone is not a static material; it is in constant turnover, with cells called osteoblasts depositing new bone and cells called osteoclasts absorbing bone. Bisphosphonates reduce bone absorption by causing osteoclasts to die prematurely. This helps prevent loss of bone density caused by osteoporosis and reduces the risk of bone fractures. This medication can help to strengthen the bones in a body. It has Vitamin D that absorbs calcium, which is needed to make bones strong.

Fosamax
Fosamax is the brand name of the most popular alendronate sodium. It is such a popular brand that many people actually refer to it as Fosamax. Possible side effects are the same as alendronate sodium and it is advised that Fosamax not be used by those who have an esophagus disorder, can not stand or sit up for 30 minutes, kidney disease or a low amount of blood calcium.

Usage
Like many other medications, it has some specific directions that must be followed when taking the daily dose. First, it must be taken first thing upon waking in the morning, along with a glass of plain water. The second important aspect of taking this medication is that at least 30 minutes must elapse between taking alendronate sodium(CAS No. 121268-17-5) and eating or drinking. This includes taking any other medications, particularly antacids and calcium supplements. Finally, someone who is using this medication should not lie down for at least 30 minutes after taking a dose.

Adverse Effects
Even when taken correctly, alendronate sodium can cause some unpleasant side effects. The most common side effect for women is abdominal pain. Others include pain in muscle, bone or joint, nausea, dyspepia, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence, headache, acid regurgitation. For men the most common side effect of this medicine is acid regurgitation.

Fenfluramine — Past Popular Weight-loss Drugs

Fenfluramine was a weight-loss drug that was introduced to the market in the early 1970s under the brand names Pondimin, Ponderax, and Adifax.  It quickly became one of the most popular weight-loss drugs of the day because of its claimed effectiveness. However, in 1997, the discovery of a link between fenfluramine use and heart disease led to a world-wide ban.

History
Pondimin began marketing in the United States in 1973. Prior to Pondimin’s introduction, most diet pills were amphetamine-based. Pondimin was considered an improvement, as it did not lend itself to the same kind of user abuse that amphetamines were known for. Later, it was combined with the drug phentermine to create the appetite suppressant drug combination fen-phen. In 1997, the results of a Mayo Clinic study appeared in the Aug. 28, 1997 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine and noted a suspected correlation between pulmonary hypertension and appetite-suppressing drugs.

Function
The compound 3-trifluoromethyl-N-ethylamphetamine works in the brain performing different functions to fool the neurological system into weight loss. The chemical, fenfluramine, is an anorectic that releases an elevated amount of serotonin into a person’s system and suppresses the appetite of the user. The amphetamine in the combination helps to increase the metabolic rate so that the user burns calories faster, which also assists in weight loss.

Side Effects
Shortly after the introduction of fenfluramine, it was combined with another popular weight-loss drug known as phentermine. The combination of the two drugs, called Fen-phen, was supposed to cancel out the side effects of the other. The side effects of phentermine included difficulty sleeping, nervousness, irritability, and agitation. The combination of these two drugs proved problematic for a number of people primarily due to this medication. 3-Bromobenzotrifluoride (with the CAS number 401-78-5, has the IUPAC name of 1-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzene) is mainly used in the production of weight-loss drugs fenfluramine and so on.

Banned
In 1997, Pondimin and Redux were banned from the U.S. market due to its connection with heart disease. Other countries have since followed suit, and fenfluramine is currently banned world-wide. According to the New York Times, there have been about 40,000 lawsuits lawsuits filed against its manufacturer, American Home Products Corp. AHP changed its name to Wyeth in 2002. In 1999, American Home Products Corp. agreed to a $3.75 billion settlement.

Fine Chemical Introduction

The chemical industry is a central part of modern business and manufacturing. It produces a massive range of different substances that are used in almost all fields, from commercial sales to medicine. The chemical industry is a central part of modern business and manufacturing. It produces a massive range of different substances that are used in almost all fields, from commercial sales to medicine.

Specialty chemicals, often called fine chemicals, are produced by the chemical industry in smaller quantities and tend to cost far more money.  They are substances that are produced in commercial facilities for use in specialized applications. They take the form of pharmaceutical ingredients, biocides, and specialized chemicals used for technical applications.

As new medications are brought to the consumer market, their chemical makeup is changed often. These newer drugs are manufactured in relatively small quantities. The active ingredients are assembled in one factory, and then combined with the inert components that make up the medication. The final step is to formulate the drug into pills, capsules, or caplets in individual doses.

Biocides are another type of fine chemicals. They may be used commercially or in the home to kill living organisms. Chlorine is another examples of a biocide, since it is used to kill bacteria in swimming pools. Biocides may be added to water to kill algae in swimming pools or at industrial locations. Chlorine is also used by water treatment plants to kill microscopic organisms present in the water.

The third class of fine chemicals are a class of specialized products used for various commercial purposes. Unlike other forms of fine chemicals that are sold at a set price per mass, this type is priced according to performance-in-use characteristics. They include inks, chemicals used for processing photographs, and special coatings. Industrial additives are also included in this category. (S)-(+)-2-Phenylglycinol (C8H11NO, CAS No. 20989-17-7) is an intermediate used in this type of fine chemicals.

It may be consequences for the environment when using these fine chemicals. The label on the product should set out exactly how the product should be disposed of with the minimum of environmental impact, and they should be followed to the letter. Local municipalities should be able to provide information about whether these products must be taken to a hazardous waste disposal facility.

Uses Of Acetone

Ketones are a very diverse group and contain a large number of disconnected substances like sugars, pheromones, polymers and solvents. Acetone(sometimes also called as 2-Propanone or dimethylketal) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is considered to have low toxicity, though improper use of it can cause serious problems. There are a number of uses for this chemical, including in chemicals, solvents and nail polish remover.

Properties
It is a colorless liquid that both evaporates and auto-combusts at relatively low temperatures. It is heavier than air, so the vapor will move along surfaces rather than float. This makes it especially dangerous as the vapor can move to an ignition source and travel back to the liquid.

The chemistry of acetone seems a lot more complex than it actually is. The center of the substance is a carbonyl group; this is simply a carbon and oxygen atom that are double joined with one another. Next, the carbonyl group is bonded to two CH3 molecules, which means a molecule comprised of one carbon and three hydrogen atoms. This simple construction gives it a wide range of properties and makes it easy to transform into other materials.

Uses
When the liquid is used as a solvent, it means the role is to dissolve some other chemical or chemicals. Hazardous or dangerous spills of oil, gas or paint can be dissolved with a solvent such as acetone. Electricians may use it as a degreaser. Chemical laboratories may use this compound to clean glass containers and utensils. The pharmaceutical industry relies heavily on the uses of it as a solvent in the formulation of new drugs.

Formulation and production of other chemicals can account for up to 75 percent of all uses of acetone(No. 67-64-1). It is used in the manufacture of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and bisphenol-A (BPA). Additionally, acetone cyanohydrin is formulated with the substance and aids in the production of MMA and methacrylic acid.

Beyond chemicals and solvents, other uses for acetone exist in the production of cosmetics and household and personal care products. Nail polish remover may be the most commonly known use  as a cosmetic product. Household cleaning solutions, rubber cement and de-gumming agents typically include an acetone component.

Tramadol Medication For Pain Relief

Tramadol is a German invented pain reliever created in the 1970s. Individuals who are in serious pain are often given opiate narcotics like tramadol for relief. Most often it is prescribed to treat pain associated with various forms of neuralgia. Other conditions for which this medicine might be used are called off-label or investigational and these include restless legs syndrome, migraines, withdrawal of other more addictive medications, fibromyalgia, and obsessive compulsive disorder.

The drug comes in capsules, tablets, suppositories, and in injectable forms. Some preparations of the medication include other analgesics like acetaminophen or anti-inflammatory agents like aspirin. Recommended dose is usually no more than 400 mg per day. It is especially important to use this medication exactly as prescribed, for the length of time prescribed. It should never be shared with others or used in a manner unadvised by a physician.

The medication may be a preferred drug for people suffering from chronic pain conditions because it tends to be well tolerated without huge risk of addiction or serious side effects when used appropriately. Ultram is a central nervous system depressant and it shouldn’t be used in combination with other things that can depress the central nervous system.

Narcotic analgesics are also effective in treating chronic pain. For example, both osteoarthritis and more commonly rheumatoid arthritis may be treated with narcotics. The usage of these medications in arthritis is limited, however, as elderly patients are more prone to serious side effects from the drugs. As such, tramadol therapy for arthritis generally combines relatively low doses of the medication with anti-inflammatory pain relievers such as ibuprofen.

If you take this medication at night, it may reduce the symptoms of restless leg syndrome. Patients who have this condition experience aches or tingling sensations that primarily affect the lower legs. As frequent movement of the legs is often necessary for relief, this illness can cause severe sleep disturbances. Tramadol can both mask the physical symptoms of the syndrome and encourage sleep. 3-Bromoanisole(sometimes the chemical names are 1-Bromo-3-methoxybenzene or 3-Methoxy-1-bromobenzene, CAS No. 2398-37-0) is one of the most active intermediate of the drug.

When individuals using narcotic drugs, special precautions should be taken. These substances can impair thinking and motor functions, making driving dangerous. Often, those driving under the influence of narcotics face the same consequences as drunk drivers. Alcohol use also should be avoided during treatment as it magnifies the sedative effect of both substances. This combination can lead to serious breathing difficulties.

Antihistamines Information

An antihistamine is a type of drug used to fight allergic reactions. It encompasses a broad class of drugs that can treat conditions ranging from minor to life threatening. Different antihistamines are used for different types of reactions.

How Does It Work?
Histamines are a type of chemical in the body that are produced by the basophils and mast cells as a response to the invasion of foreign organisms. These chemicals are part of the body’s immune system and are the triggering mechanisms against foreign invaders. Allergies such as rashes, sneezing, runny nose and other forms of allergic reactions are caused by the actions of histamines in the body.  Antihistamines serve to block the effects of histamines. They do so by blocking histamine receptors. When the histamine receptors are blocked, histamines can no longer perform their functions, and allergic reactions are stopped or at least minimized.

What Different Types Does It Have?
Sedating and non-sedating medications are two different types, they may work differently in blocking the actions of histamines and thus may have different effects on the body. Antihistamines are available alone, but are often combined with cough, cold and flu medicines. If you have flu, cold or allergy symptoms avoid doubling up on medication that may contain antihistamines. Excessive use of antihistamines can increase the intensity of unpleasant side effects, such as those mentioned above, and can lead to sinus infections. If in doubt about whether a medication contains antihistamines, ask a physician or pharmacist.

How About Its Effects?
While sedating antihistamines have been used by many and have been proven to be effective in stopping or at least reducing the allergic reactions of histamines, they may have side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, upset stomach, nervousness and restlessness. This is because sedating antihistamines may also affect the brain. On the other hand, non-sedating types do not have these side effects and are therefore considered safer. One of the drug’s active ingredient is N,N-Dimethylformamide, a chemical compound having the formula C3H7NO and is called DMF for short.

What Should I Note?
Those taking antihistamines are advised not to drive, as intake of the drug may cause severe drowsiness, thus resulting in accidents. Antihistamines can affect the brain and may also affect normal body. If such reactions occur, consulting a physician is strongly advised.

Common Types Of Hair Dyes

Hair dye has become an almost indispensable product for many different men and women. Many ladies and girls have their hair dyed on a regular basis through a salon or at home. However, apparently women don’t like their hair because more women are changing the color of their hair than ever before. But is this obsession with finding the perfect color bad for our hair? The answer is: It depends.

Permanent Dyes
A permanent dye is the longest lasting type of dye. However, these dyes are also the harshest on your hair. The dye uses ammonia and hydrogen peroxide to expand the hair molecules so that they are too big to be washed out. These dyes last until the new hair roots grow in. When you use it, it creates a new color base for your hair, and then re-dyes it to the new color. For this reason, the same base color looks different on other people.

Semi-permanent Dyes
Semi-permanent dyes are the kind that most people use when they visit the hair salon. They are a little less harsh than the permanent dyes, but they last longer than the temporary dyes. These dyes contain ammonia or hydrogen peroxide, and it is possible to get a lighter shade with these dyes. When the dye is placed in the hair, the dye penetrates the hair shaft, and then bonds with the hair molecules already there. This dye usually lasts for about a month.

Temporary Dyes
A temporary die is usually sprayed on, or it can be applied in a gel or mousse. When the hair gets wet, the dye runs out of the hair. This can be very messy. The reason that this happens is that there is no bonding of molecules with this kind of dye.

Common Ingredients
Ammonia and hydrogen peroxide are the main components that keep the hair dye bonded to the hair. They are able to seep inside the hair follicles, taking the dye with them. That is how the dye stays on the hair for longer periods of time. However, there has been some research to suggest that certain chemicals in hair dye can lead to certain cancers.1-Fluoro-4-nitrobenzene (also known as 4-Fluoronitrobenzene or p-fluoronitrobenzene, the CAS number is 350-46-9) is also used in hair dyes.

Long-Term Damage
The FDA has backed off of approving coal tar dyes; if the box has the patch test instructions, that’s all it needs. The problem with continued use however, is that someone can develop an allergy later on in life. Another problem to the hair emerges when women have their hair straightened and colored, too. Also, overuse of dyes, dye sitting too long to develop, and other variables can damage hair. This will typically mean breaks in the shaft of the hair.

Herbicides That Contain 2,4-D

To kill broadleaf weeds without damaging your grass, you will need to use a broadleaf herbicide. Many types of broadleaf herbicide are available. The active ingredient in these herbicides is often listed as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(C8H6Cl2O3, is callled 2,4-D for short). It is a selective broad leaf herbicide used to control several plant species, including bitterweed, Texas blueweed, broomweed, wild buckwheat and burdock.

Escalade low odor herbicide is specially formulated to be an effective weed killer without producing a strong, unpleasant smell. It is especially effective against clover, but will work against all broadleaf weeds. The active ingredients are fluroxypyr; 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid, also known as Dicamba; and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Like spotlight,

Spotlight is a fast-working herbicide that does not damage cool-season or warm-season grasses. This herbicide is highly effective at killing clover and other problematic weeds. It can be used year-round on any kind of turf. Spotlight’s active ingredient is fluroxypyr, which disrupts the nuisance plant’s water intake process.

Trimec plus herbicide is effective not only against broadleaf weeds, but also against several grassy weeds, and is effective against many types of plants, including clover. It is safe to use on turf consisting of bluegrass, ryegrass, zoysiagrass and fescue. The active ingredients in Trimec Plus include monosodium acid methanearsonate; 2,4-D; propionic acid; and dicamba. Do not use it in areas where crabgrass, goosegrass, or dallisgrass is desired; it may also kill many garden plants.

The active ingredients of broadleaf weed control are 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; propionic acid; and Dicamba. It is effective against a wide variety of broadleaf weeds, including dandelion, poison ivy and clover. This herbicide should be used no more than twice a year. Although it won’t kill grass, it will kill flowers, shrubs and vegetables, so it should not be applied near areas where they are growing.

The only active ingredient in weedar 64 broadleaf is 2,4-D and it works by distorting the target plant’s growth. At lower levels, the chemical regulates plant growth, but at higher levels it will kill the plant outright. Weedar 64 is not effective against clover, but kills a wide variety of weeds.

 

Effects Of Transparent Oil Paint Colors

Lukas oil paints are high-quality paints from Germany that have a long history of use by both student and professional artists. The oil paints from this company come in a range of transparent colors for washes and detail work and in a range of opaque colors that can mix with transparent colors to provide a variety of new tones. Transparent oil paint colors are colors that are easy to thin to an almost see-through consistency. They are not transparent in the way that glass is, but they are less dense compared to other oil colors.

Transparent oil paints are ideal for mixing, glazing, and adding new color tones to an existing image. Some painters use transparent colors on top of existing colors to add depth to a painting or to bring it together. Experimenting with transparent colors adds a new dimension to your painting.

Transparent earth colors are used for warm glazing effects. As the name indicates, they often originate from the soil, sometimes from a special locale. Gold ocher is a warm, yellow earth color that imparts a lovely mustard hue. Asphaltum is a color that used to be impermanent but is now created in a new way. It has a charcoal hue and is good for toning down brilliant areas or unifying a region of a painting such as a stormy sky. Transparent mars colors are made synthetically from elements and come in a range of hues.

Phthalo colors, derived from copper phthalocyanine(C32H16CuN8, the same name as CuPc or Phthalocyanine blue), come in more or less a continuum of hues ranging from sharp green to intense blue. While transparent, they are powerful pigments and a little goes a long way. Different companies make slightly different varieties of the shades. The basic phthalo blue and phthalo green tend to look rather electric and synthetic. They mix well with zinc white to produce very lively tints. They can be used for glazing as well but won’t yield the warm or subtle color that is often desired from the glazing technique.

The oil composition varies somewhat from paint company to paint company. Some pigments are made from plants, while others are made of rock material. In some instances, minerals are dyed to create pigments. Plain, mineral-based pigments such as titanium create opaque colors that are hard to see through. Pigments made from minerals with dye added or plant material tend to create transparent colors that make excellent glazes. To create an opaque color, mix a transparent color with an opaque color that has a mineral base.

How To Make Epoxy Resin?

Epoxy resin is a hard substance created when two substances, a epoxide and a polyamine, are combined. The epoxy is used in many different applications such as creating molds, strengthening fiberglass and in heat-resistant situations.

Composition
Structurally, it most cases consists of the two chemicals : long polymer chains of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin molecules, and polyamine molecules that links these polymer chains into a net-like sheet From a manufacturing standpoint, the two tubes of liquid in a retail epoxy dispenser are filled with separate solutions of epichlorohydrin-bisphenol polymers and polyamine molecules. When mixed together, the hardening or “curing” that results is actually the multiple amine (-NH2) groups in the polyamines breaking open the epicholorhydrins’ trigular epoxy (C-C-O) groups to form a nitrogen-carbon bond.

Production
To begin, producers add a strong sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution to a tank containing bisphenol A solution. The basic hydroxide ions strip hydrogens from the bisphenol to create water. Meanwhile, the Na+ ions help stabilize the bisphenol’s negatively-charged oxygen atoms. Next, a concentrated epichlorohydrin solution (approximately 3 times that of the original bisphenol A solution), is added to the mixture. The charged oxygen atoms on the bisphenol A, knock the chlorine atoms away to bond with the epichlorohydrin molecules. The resulting chloride ions (Cl-) are then neutralized by the sodium ions (Na+) in solution.

When combined, they bond together attaching on a chemical level in a criss-crossed fashion that makes the resulting substance strong. This reaction takes some time to develop and is normally called the curing of the resin. Depending on how thin the two substances are poured, and the mix of hardeners and resins, the curing time can vary. In some cases, heat can be applied to speed the drying time up, but normally it is cured only by time. 2-Methylimidazole(C4H6N2, CAS No. 693-98-1) is used in epoxy resins as a curing agent.

Storage and Results
The chemicals are contained separately until needed so they do not react too soon. When packaged for resale, they are either placed in two separate bottles or one bottle with two compartments. These can generally be found in craft stores. The resulting hardened material is generally a clear substance that has a look like glass. In some cases, a person might have seen an example in a restaurant where items are placed on the tables and sealed with the resin. The customers can still see the items but cannot get to them because they are under the surface of the compound.

How Is Vanilla Extract Made?

Vanilla extract has been used for more than one hundred years. The early extract was more like a syrup than the commercial variety today. The flavor is derived from a blend of natural and artificial flavors; the highest quality extracts include real vanilla beans in their formulations. The two varieties of vanilla bean used commercially for extract are Bourbon and Tahitian.

History
Vanilla extract is made from the vanilla bean. It is one of the most expensive crops in the world to grow. It is grown in Mexico, Tahiti and Indonesia. The bean is derived from the fruit of the orchid. The first extracts were made at pharmacies and apothecary shops.

Significance
Pure vanilla extract is made by percolating chopped vanilla beans with ethyl alcohol and water. The extraction process takes 48 hours. Then the flavors mix with the beans in a tank for several days or weeks. The mixture is filtered into a holding tank where it is eventually bottled into this product.

Ingredients
Artificial caramel coloring is one of the most common ingredients in vanilla extracts. This component adds no flavor to the extract itself, but is added to imitate the deep coloring of vanilla beans themselves. There are some products on the market (in addition to homemade extracts) that do not utilize caramel coloring and are thus clearer in appearance.

Despite its bitter taste when sampled alone, sugar is a very important component of vanilla extract. Sugar is an excellent vehicle for infusing vanilla into, whether the flavoring is authentic or artificial. Sugar also serves to balance the ethyl content in extract, making it more palatable in prepared dishes.

Ethyl vanillin(also called as Bourbonal, sometimes the chemical name is 3-Ethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, CAS No. 121-32-4) is the ingredient in artificial and imitation vanilla extracts that provides the predominant flavor. Quality wise, there are slight variations in the formulation of vanillin resulting in more or less authentic vanilla flavor. One of the easiest ways to immediately tell the difference between a true vanilla extract and an artificial one is whether vanillin is listed as an ingredient (for reference, ethyl vanillin is the same thing as vanillin).

There are several types of vanilla beans that can be utilized as an ingredient in extract; one of the most popular (and expensive) is the Madagascar vanilla bean grown and shipped from East Africa. Top of the line vanilla extracts will almost always require derivatives of real vanilla beans in their formulation. The strong vanilla flavor can be extracted from both the tiny beans and the thin pod from which they are retrieved.