How To Deodorize Your Toilet?

Supermarkets generally carry an array of commercial bathroom deodorizers in sprays and solids. With the advent of deodorizers that suction to the inside of the toilet bowl, water can now pass across the deodorizer as it fills the bowl. This prevents the deodorizer from sitting in the toilet tank. The cartridge uses suction to secure to the toilet bowl. Therefore, to remove the deodorizer, you simply have to break the suction.

White Vinegar
This kitchen staple comes recommended by “Good Housekeeping” as one of the top ways to quickly freshen up the smell of your toilet bowl. For proper deodorizing, pour 1 cup of white vinegar into your toilet bowl and let it soak for five minutes or more. During this time, the vinegar disinfects and deodorizes while also helping to lift away stains. When the time is up, scrub the toilet and flush it.

Tea Tree Oil
This minty oil works as a natural antiseptic, helping to zap bacteria that may emit bad smells. It’s also one of the top ways to clean your toilet bowl and get rid of ugly stains, reports “Real Simple” magazine. Mix 1 cup of water with 1 tsp. of tea tree oil and spray it all along the top of your toilet bowl’s rim. Let is soak for 30 minutes before scrubbing and flushing.

Mrs. Meyers Toilet Bowl Cleaner
This cleaner comes praised by National Geographic Society’s “The Green Guide.” Criteria used by the society include an analysis of its ingredient list–the magazine specifically looked for natural and biodegradable products–and its efficacy for battling odors and stains. It also comes praised by Grist, which liked that it cleaned well while also imparting a lemony scent.

Cascade
Pour 1 teaspoon of Cascade dishwasher detergent into the toilet. Brush the toilet bowl well with a toilet brush and let the Cascade solution sit for 10 minutes. Brush the toilet bowl again and flush the solution down. The phosphates in the Cascade will create a sparkling clean toilet. One Of its ingredients is 1,4-Dichlorobenzene(also known as p-Dibromobenzene, the CAS number is 106-37-6), which is a effective space deodorant for toilets.

Baking Soda
Baking soda is a naturally occurring salt that works as both a cleaner and deodorizer. Mix four tablespoons of baking soda with one quart of warm water. Dip a sponge in and wipe down bathroom surfaces. As it scrubs away soap scum on sinks and tubs, it also clears away bathroom odors.

Breathalyzer Used For Testing Alcohol

Invented as breath-analyzing products by Smith and Wesson in the late 1950s, but now, breathalyzers are instruments that are utilized in a number of professions to determine the amount of blood alcohol content by analyzing a breath sample obtained from an individual. Literally dozens of breathalyzer models exist, most hand-held. Because of their frequent use as evidence in criminal courts, their design and performance is subject to highly prescribed regulations.

Alcohol is not digested in the body; it is simply absorbed into the tissues of the mouth, throat, stomach and intestines and eventually excreted. In part, alcohol leaves the body via the breath; because the percent of the total blood alcohol that exists this way is predictable, the alcohol content of the breath can be used to calculate the total blood alcohol content, or BAC.

While the principles behind breathalyzers are sound, they can only more or less estimate BAC since they do not measure it directly. An artificially high or low reading can result due to several different factors, all of which are frequently exploited by defense lawyers. For starters, body temperature and blood composition can alter the partition ratio — individuals with reduced blood content will show an artificially high BAC reading.

The breathalyzer works on the principle of estimating the blood alcohol content of an individual based on a sample of breath that is obtained from the suspect. When a police officer pulls over a driver on the suspicion that the individual may be intoxicated, it is not uncommon for the officer to ask the driver to take what is known as a field sobriety test. Essentially, this involves using a hand held breathalyzer.

The hand-held breathalyzer uses electrochemical fuel cell technology to identify the elements found in the sample, of course, searching specifically for alcohol. Some devices use an infrared spectrophotometer to scan the sample, identify alcohol and calculate its percentage content. The BAC is then figured based on a partition ratio, the ratio of breath alcohol to blood alcohol, of anywhere between 1700 and 2400. The output of the breathalyzer is a blood alcohol reading expressed as a percentage of the blood that is alcohol.

Potassium dichromate(K2Cr2O7, also called as potassium bichromate) is the active ingredient in a breathalyzer. Alcohol exhaled into the breathalyzer initiates a chemical reaction that indicates the amount of alcohol in the breath, therefore in the blood. Alcohol in the breath turns the red-orange potassium dichromate in the breathalyzer yellow, blue or green, depending on the amount of alcohol. The potassium dichromate breathalyzer test is as accurate as blood and urine tests in determining blood alcohol content

Most breathalyzers also cannot differentiate between ethyl alcohol and chemically similarly compounds such as ketones, acetone and gasoline, so the presence of these substances in the testing environment or in the subject’s metabolic system will also produce a falsely high reading.

Gram Negative Bacteria Information

Gram-negative bacteria are one kind of bacteria which do not turn purple in the Gram staining process used as a basic step in the identification of bacteria. Gram positive and negative bacteria are two broad divisions of all bacteria, with the major difference between the two lying in the structure of their cell membranes. While both types can cause infectious diseases, this kind of bacteria are a major concern to public health because their cell structure makes them resistant to antibiotics.

Discovery
The Gram stain was developed in 1884 by Hans Christian Gram. In this process, bacteria is fixed on a slide and then bathed in crystal violet, the primary staining solution. All of the cells on the slide turn purple, after which a mordant such as iodine is added to fix the color. Then, a decolorizer is added to the slide. If the bacteria is Gram-negative, the decolorizer will wash the crystal violet away, because the permeable cell wall does not allow the crystal violet to stain the bacteria. Then, a secondary stain is added, turning Gram-negative bacteria a pale pink, but having no effect on the already purple Gram-positive bacteria.

Features
These bacteria have thin cell walls with an outer layer composed of proteins and lypopolysaccharide. The main danger of Gram-negative bacteria is that its infections do not respond to standard antibiotic treatment. For instance, the bacteria resist the effects of penicillin and cephalosporin because these antibiotics work by disrupting cell walls, which they lack. The outer membrane resists the effects of many types of antibiotics because it is impermeable to the antibiotic. This means that infections caused by the bacteria are very difficult to treat.

Gram staining can provide insight into the composition of a bacterium’s cell wall, so it is a routine step in examining new bacteria in the laboratory. Once bacteria has been subjected to a Gram stain, additional research will be needed to identify the bacteria, the source, and how infections caused by the bacteria might be treated, but the Gram stain provides a good first step.

Ways Of Infections
These bacteria survive for a long time on surfaces and are often contracted through catheters, ventilators or wounds. Once inside the body, Gram-negative bacteria typically invade the bloodstream, causing infection. They are often involved in urinary infections and ventilator-assisted pneumonia. Patients with weakened immune systems are particularly susceptible, although patients with stronger immune systems can and do acquire these types of infections.

Treatment
The treatment is difficult or impossible due to these bacteria are so resistant to antibiotics. Amikacin sulfate salt(also called as Sterile or Cashimy, CAS number is 39831-55-5) is used to treat infections caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms, especially gram-negative bacteria. There are other two antibiotics that were developed in the 1940s, colistin and polymyxin B, which both are capable of treating infection from them. Treatment with these drugs can lead to nerve and kidney damage and kidney failure. Some strains of Gram-negative bacteria are also resistant to these antibiotics.

The stain also has the added benefit of highlighting the key structures of bacteria, including the inner structures of the cell, making them easier to see and understand. Gram staining doesn’t work on all bacteria, however; Gram-indeterminate and Gram-variable bacteria cannot be identified this way.

Dangerous Chemicals In Household Products

Almost a large number of consumers are probably not aware of all the dangerous chemicals stored in his home. Household cleaners and automobile products that you use daily contain chemicals that are harmful to humans, plants and pets alike. To take better care of your health, you may want to switch to natural cleaning alternatives such as white vinegar, lemon juice and baking soda. Though these chemicals are dangerous, limiting and controlling your exposure to them will mitigate the risk.

Formaldehyde
This chemical substance associated with embalming and taxidermy is also present in many household products including water softening chemicals, adhesives, detergents, dyes, pressed wood and lubricants. Inhalation of formaldehyde vapors can cause respiratory problems ranging from bronchitis to asthma. The International Agency for Cancer Research has classified formaldehyde as a known human carcinogen, connected to hematologic cancers such as leukemia as well as lymphatic cancers and lung cancer. Infants exposed to formaldehyde may display symptoms such as severe diarrhea and prolonged vomiting.

Petroleum Distillates
Chemicals known as petroleum distillates are commonly found in furniture polish. These types of chemicals are harmful if swallowed and extremely flammable. Lock up furniture polishes and other cleaners that contain these chemicals away from children, pets and heat sources. To avoid the chemicals altogether, purchase furniture polish that uses a nontoxic mineral or vegetable oil base instead.

Corrosive Chemicals
Oven cleaners contain corrosive chemicals. Oven cleaners in aerosol cans pose even more of a threat as the mist produced by the spray can easily enter the lungs. Oven cleaners cause a variety of health effects including chemical burns on the skin and irritation to the nose and eyes. If swallowed, they can cause permanent damage to the mouth, throat and stomach. With continual exposure, people can develop serious skin conditions, such as dermatitis.

Mothballs
The EPA considers mothballs toxic, even old ones found in attics. These moth deterrents contain chemicals such as o-Dichlorobenzene(better known as 1,2-Dichlorobenzene or orthodichlorobenzene, is an organic compound with the formula C6H4Cl2) and naphthalene, which cause a variety of symptoms, including headaches, nausea and skin irritation. Prolonged exposure to these chemicals can cause liver and respiratory damage.

Chlorine Bleach
The active ingredient in chlorine bleach is sodium hypochlorite. Laundry bleach, as well as many disinfectant products and swimming pool chemicals, contain this substance. Bleach can react with other substances in harmful ways. When bleach mixes with ammonia–found in window and glass cleaners, furniture polish, urine, and many types of paint–it produces toxic gases called chloramines. Exposure to these gases can cause chest pain, pneumonia, nausea and wheezing.

Adenine In DNA & RNA

Adenine(also known as 6-aminopurine, A or Ade), integral part of DNA, RNA, and ATP, is one of the most important organic molecules for life as we know it today. It has the chemical formula C5H5N5. It is a purine, meaning that it is a kind of organic compound that is composed of carbon and nitrogen atoms arranged in the form of two rings.

DNA, as you might know, is the genetic code used for extraordinarily important nucleic acids because they contain the genetic information used for the growth, repair, development, and reproduction of all organisms . It is through the precise inheritance of on organism’s DNA from its parent that the traits of an organism are passed on. Here is the partial structure of DNA with an Adenine group attached. They are each made up of four nucleobases: DNA is composed of adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine; RNA is composed of the same, but with uracil instead of thymine. The arrangements of these nucleobases determine the exact nature of the genetic code contained in the DNA or RNA.

Adenine is a purine. Purines are six-membered rings attached to five membered rings. When it is attached to DNA, it forms a bond with another molecule called Thymine, a pyrimidine, on the other side of the DNA strand. It is these bonds which give DNA its double-helix structure. The sequence of DNA, or the order in which nucleotides are placed, allows for the diversity among all living organisms. The importance of the molecule to RNA is similar to that of DNA.

In DNA, adenine bonds only to thymine. It does so with two strong hydrogen bonds, so the bond is difficult to break and the code is difficult to damage. In RNA, it bonds with uracil; the particular kinds of reactions that RNA is involved in favor uracil to thymine. In both cases, the particular arrangement of nucleobases determines the genetic properties of the nucleic acid.

It was initially thought that Adenine was actually vitamin B4. It is not considered to be a direct part of the B vitamin family anymore, though some B vitamins do bind with it with varying effects. This is most notably true of niacin and riboflavin, which bind with it to form cofactors, which are required for some proteins to function properly.

Besides DNA and RNA, the molecule is also an important part of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. Adenosine triphosphate is the nitrogenous base adenine bonded to a five carbon sugar. This molecule is important because it has the ability to phosphorylize, or add a phosphate group to, other molecules.

2011 Annual Results Of Shanghai Petrochemical

Sinopec Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited  SHI +0.26%  today announced the audited operating results of the Company and its subsidiaries prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards for the year ended December 31, 2011.

“In 2011, China’s economy continued to maintain steady and relatively rapid growth while its petroleum and petrochemical industry demonstrated rapid and steady growth. However, the Group’s operating costs rose sharply due to the high prices of international crude oil. Meanwhile, domestic prices of refined oil products were kept under control and prices of petrochemical products declined remarkably in the fourth quarter, resulting in a substantial decline in profit for the year compared to last year. “Mr. Rong Guangdao, chairman of Shanghai Petrochemical, said.

During the Year, the Group faced a significant rise in operating. In view of the significant increase in the prices of crude oil, which is the main raw material of the Group, the total cost of the Group’s crude oil processing amounted to RMB 53,521.9 million for 2011, representing a substantial increase of 34.83% from RMB 39,694.6 million in the previous year. Meanwhile, the domestic prices of refined oil products were not adjusted into line with the prices of crude oil on the international markets in an adequate and timely manner, resulting in losses in the Group’s refining business and causing the operating profit of the refining business to decline by RMB 1,593.6 million over the previous year. In addition, the competition in petrochemical products market further intensified since the fourth quarter of 2011, which led to the decline in the prices of petrochemical products and therefore a decline in the profit of the Company’s petrochemical business.

In addition, various projects proceeded in an orderly manner as planned, including the Refinery Revamping and Expansion Project (including the construction of a new Residual Oil HydroGenation Plant with a capacity of 3,900,000 tons/year and a new Catalytic Cracking Plant with a capacity of 3,500,000 tons/year, etc.); the Ethanolamine Project, with a capacity of 50,000 tons/year; the Upgrading Project for the optimisation of the system and reduction in energy and feedstock consumption of the No. 2 PTA Plant. A feasibility study report on the 5-Amino-2-methylpyridine(CAS number: 3430-14-6) Project, with a capacity of 100,000 tons/year, was also submitted. Other key technical renovation projects were implemented as planned, including the Incremental Revamping of the Jinchang Company’s Modified Polypropylene Plant, with a capacity of 30,000 tons/year, which was under construction.

“In 2012, the world economy will remain complex and challenging and will face increasing instability and uncertainty. China’s petroleum and petrochemical industry is facing the pressure from slower economic growth. Pressure on resources, costs, energy conservation and emissions reduction will make the industry’s development prospects yet more challenging. However, China’s economy is still in an important strategic opportunity period that is full of chances.”Mr. Rong Guangdao said.

Why Are Dry Erase Markers Dangerous?

Dry erase markers are special markers used for writing on whiteboards that are common in offices and households. In addition to using them on their accompanying whiteboards, you can: write on your mirrors and other glass surfaces; write on your desk; write the service miles and date on the inside of your car windshield; or let your kids decorate the windows for the holidays. The markers themselves are easily erased with a soft brush or cloth without the use of water, hence the name. There are several dangers associated with dry erase markers and their ingredients, some of which are toxic.

The product is an evolved form of the wet marker. A wet erase marker is used for overhead projector transparencies and was originally used on whiteboards and other plastic-like surfaces. The dry erase marker was first offered on the market in 1976 by the Sanford Corporation as the “Expo” marker, according to information provided on the Expo website. Sanford is the company that also developed the Sharpie marker. In 1986, the Expo 2 marker was released. This marker has less odor and an alcohol-based solvent as opposed to the much harsher chemical, methyl isobutyl ketone, that is found in the original Expo marker and other dry erase markers.

Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIK) is a solvent used in gums, resins, paints, varnishes and lacquers. It is a colorless, flammable liquid that is moderately soluble in water. Its odor is much like camphor.

Some brands of dry erase markers contain methyl isobutyl ketone, a chemical that can lead to liver problems, headaches and nausea with long-term exposure. According to a document from the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment published by Paradise Valley Community College, exposure to this chemical is dangerous if it exceeds 15 minutes per day. Teachers and students that use dry erase markers containing this chemical for longer periods of time who also get the marker ink on their skin, where it can be absorbed or ingested, are at risk of developing such problems.

It is said that short-term exposure to MIK can irritate the eyes and nose, cause weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and coordination problems. Long-term effects are more severe and can include headaches, nausea, enlarged liver, burning in the eyes, intestinal pain, weakness and insomnia. There is no known remedy for long-term effects. Stop using dry erase markers with Methyl isobutyl ketone(also called ads 2-methyl-4-pentanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone or isohexanone,CAS number 108-10-1) if any of the above side effects are experienced, and consult a physician if you feel you are suffering from long-term exposure effects.

The NIPC(National Inhalant Prevention Coalition) reports that depending on the level of dosage, an inhaler can experience “slight stimulation, feeling of less inhibition or loss of consciousness. The user can also suffer from Sudden Sniffing Death Syndrome.” This means the inhaler can die on the first, fifth or 50th use of an inhalant. Long-term effects include: potential Sudden Sniffing Death Syndrome; short-term memory loss; hearing loss; limb spasms; permanent brain damage; bone marrow damage; liver and kidney damage; and possible fetal effects similar to fetal alcohol syndrome.

How Does A Histamine Receptor Antagonist Work?

A histamine receptor antagonist, more commonly referred to as an H2 receptor antagonist  or an H2-blocker, a group of medications that may be available over-the-counter or in prescription strength formulas. It is most commonly used for gastrointestinal issues, such as peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophogeal reflux disease (GERD).

The production of stomach acid can be reduced by a histamine receptor antagonist. The histamine receptor antagonist binds to the H2 receptor sites on the parietal cells, and this in turn blocks the histamine from binding to the parietal cell. As a result parietal cells are not stimulated, and produce less gastric acid. Histamine receptor antagonists only partially reduce stomach acid, usually by around 50-80%.

Histamine is produced in the stomach by an Enterochromaffin-like cell (ECL). The histamine then goes on to bind to the parietal cells at specialized receptor sites called H2 receptor sites. This binding stimulates the secretion of acid in the stomach. Normally the stomach acid, called gastric acid, helps break down food particles. If there is excessive gastric acid, damage can occur in the stomach as well as the esophagus, as is the case with GERD.

H2-Receptor Antagonists are appropriate for mild to moderate acid reflux, depending on whether you opt for a prescription H2-Receptor Antagonist or an over the counter option. H2-Receptor Antagonists work by inhibiting the bodies production of a histamine, a chemical which stimulates the stomach to produce acid. These medications do not begin to work as quickly as antacids. They can take up to an hour to begin providing relief. However, the relief they provide is longer lasting and can last between six and ten hours. Non-prescription H2 Receptors include Pepcid AC and Zantac 75. Prescription H2 receptors simply provide a stronger histamine blocker. They include Pepcid AC Max and Zantac 150. These medications can be taken daily, either in the morning or at night, but usually eight hours between doses is recommended at a minimum.

Some examples of H2 receptor antagonists include cimetidine and ranitidine. Famotidine and nizatidine are also classified as H2-blockers. Depending on the specific brand and product the patient uses, these medicines may be available in capsules, chewable or disintegrating tablets, or syrups. Some drugs may also be injected by a health care professional. 2,3-Diaminopyridine(also known as 3-DiaMinopyridine or 2,3-pyridinediamine, with the CAS No. 452-58-4) is used as a platform for designing structurally unique nonpeptide bradykinin H1 receptor antagonists.

Most side effects are uncommon and usually mild. Side effects for cimetidine are fairly rare, but there can be interactions with other medications. Ranitidine and nizatidine can also have interactions, but these are less common than with cimetidine. Even though they are available over-the-counter, it is always advisable to check with a doctor when taking other medications to avoid adverse reactions.

How To Get Rid Of Permanent Markers On Common Objects?

Permanent markers can be a blessing and a curse as well. Sometimes, they ends up where they isn’t wanted, like on the walls or on the leather couch. Oftentimes, this is done with the help of children. The markers certainly live up to their name. Their stains are difficult to remove, but the task is not impossible. Fortunately, it is impossible to remove their stains. In some cases, the proper solvent will remove the permanent marker completely, while in others the stain can be made less noticeable.

When left uncapped, on the floor, permanent marker ink may soak into the carpet. Rubbing alcohol or oil-free hairspray can remove its ink from the fibers. Saturate a clean cloth with the rubbing alcohol, or hairspray, and push it in to the stain. Repeat the process, using clean corners of the cloth, until it is removed. Rinse with clean water and soak up the excess with a dry towel.

Dry cleaning solvent can often remove permanent marker unless other solvents have already been used on the stain, making dry cleaning impossible. Heating a stained fabric will make the use of a solvent futile. Other solvents suitable for fabric are alcohol, acetone, nail polish remover, bleach and citrus products. Bleach should only be used on white fabrics, although some brands of bleach have a product for colors.

To remove permanent marker stains on clothing, try spraying with hairspray and allow it to sit overnight. Scrub the stain with a toothbrush and wash in the hottest water suitable for the fabric. Check for stains before drying and repeat if necessary. Once the fabric is dried, the stain is set.

It can be difficult to remove permanent marker from hard, white surfaces, such as countertops. It involves the use of bleach and a lot of arm muscle. Saturate the surface with a bleach and water solution in a ratio of 1 part bleach to 2 parts water. Allow the stain to soak for ten minutes or more. Vigorously scrub the stain until it is removed, then allow to air dry.

Not all permanent markers have the same carrier. Older markers used toluene and xylene, which are highly toxic and can cause nerve damage. Although, there is no correlation between toxicity and the successful use of a solvent on this marker, when solvents of low toxicity do not work, you may need to try more toxic substances. Just like 4-Bromochlorobenzene(also known as 4-Bromchlorbenzol  with the molecular formula: C6H4BrCl) is a toxic solvent. Acetone, nail polish remover and gasoline are more toxic than soap or rubbing alcohol.

Abrasives, such as toothpaste, baking soda, sandpaper, steel wool or a household cleaning pad made from melamine foam, such as a Mr. Clean Magic Eraser or a Scotch-Brite Easy Erasing Pad, can be effective on hard surfaces. These abrasives do not remove the permanent marker per se; they remove a thin layer of the surface below the marker, taking the marker stain with it. Because of this effect, the surface may require refinishing.

How To Measure Optical Activity?

Optical activity, or specific rotation, refers to a molecule’s capability to bend plane-polarized light. Light, polarized along a single direction, can pass through a structure such as a crystal, and be rotated in one direction or another. If they tend to scatter light this way, have the same characteristics, and seem to be mirror images of one another, these molecules are often called chiral enantiomers.

Depending on the material, the plane of polarized light can be directed in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction. The molecular structure of a substance typically determines the relationship between chirality and optical activity. Two identical molecules that affect light in opposite directions are called enantiomers. An equal amount of each usually cancels out the effect. If one chiral substance dominates the other, however, its properties will rotate light waves in the respective direction.

Optical activity describes the behavior and reaction a person’s eye has to specific stimuli. For example, if one were to look into a kaleidoscope as it is rotating, the eye would respond by adjusting to the amount of light, color and shapes portrayed in the device. These adjustments can be measured with scientific precision to help researchers determine the impact of observed rotation. According to the Ted Ankara College Chemistry Department in Turkey, results from similar testing using scientific equipment known as a polarimeter is used to determine optical rotation.

The front filter polarizes incoming light which passes through a tube filled with the sample being measured. There is typically an analyzer at the end of the tube and past that is where the effect can be observed by the human eye. If the plane polarized light is rotated, then it is generally dimmer, while the effect can be counteracted by rotating the analyzing lens. The level of optical activity can be determined by using a formula the number of degrees this lens is rotated.

It can be found in optically active compounds such as sugar and even glycine, an amino acid. Also, the activity is often measured in organic chemistry, typically in carbon atoms. There are two nearly identical forms of a molecule in each of these substances. Knowing which one is which requires experimentation, but is often important with pharmaceuticals. Some drugs for depression and arthritis have had adverse health effects in their chiral forms, so one form of the molecule needs to be filtered out. (-)-Dimethyl D-tartrate(CAS: 13811-71-7) is mainly used for synthesizing these chiral drugs.

Optical activity was firstly discovered in the mid-1800s and then used in identifying crystals of tartaric acid in French wine. It is studied in modern times with regard to quantum mechanics, as well as electric and magnetic fields. Optical activity occurs in both organic and inorganic molecules.

Organic Food & Hormones & Pesticides

Some people regard organic food as food grown without the use of pesticides, chemical fertilizers, hormones, or genetic modification. Organic food can refer to fruits and vegetables and also to meat, dairy products, eggs, and poultry. Another label is “certified organic”, which means the food meets certain standards that a state in the US, the US or other countries have established as a definition of organic.

They may simply derive from natural ingredients that may or may not have been treated with a variety of things we wouldn’t consider as pesticide-free in food or other product sources. One shampoo company in the US raved about its organic ingredients in commercials, but the materials used simply meant “derived from living things”, rather than pesticide, hormone or genetic modification free.

The use of hormones and pesticides in food production does provide some benefits. Hormones can reduce the length of time and amount of food eaten by an animal before it is slaughtered. This increases both the profits of the meat industry and the amount of food available to the public. Pesticides are used to control pests, disease and weeds that may disrupt food production. If disease or pests significantly affect the quality of quantity of crops, one third of the world’s food could be destroyed.

In recent years, many countries around the world have begun limiting or banning the use of certain pesticides due to evidence that these chemicals can lead to serious health risks, including cancer, infertility and eye abnormalities. Consumption of meat and dairy products from cattle injected with hormones has been linked to breast cancer and the early onset of puberty. As more and more people turn to organic foods, the significance of the public’s concern over these health risks becomes obvious. Governments in the U.S., the U.K. and several other countries around the world are currently studying the long-term health effects of daily consumption of foods containing high levels of hormones and pesticides.

The FDA currently allows these hormones to be used in sheep and cattle, but does not allow their use on poultry or hogs. The hormone rbGH is used on dairy cattle to increase the production of milk, but is not approved for use on beef cattle. A number of pesticides are currently being used in food production, including atrazine, carbendazim(also known as mercarzole or carbendazole with the CAS number 10605-21-7), benomyl, chlorpyrifos, chlordecone, DDT, carbufuran, lindane, vinclozolin, dimethoate and deltamethrin.

For many environmentalists, the trend toward organic food production, which is increasing in the world, is very good news. Use of things like hormones, pesticides, chemicals and certainly genetic modification of food raises considerable concern. Such products can have an overall effect on the eco-system in which animals are raised or fruits and vegetables are grown. Growing concern over the pollution aspects of many processes used in non-organic farming and animal husbandry may continue to increase support for organic methods of growing food.

The Research On N-Acetylglycine

N-Acetylglycine, also known as acetamidoacetic acid, aceturic acid or Glycine,N-acetyl- , is a kind of white to light yellow crystal powder. It has the molecular formula C4H7NO3 and CAS registry number 543-24-8.

It is used is in biological research of peptidomimetics. It is used as the blocking agent of the N-terminus to prepare unnatural and unusual amino acids and amino acid analogs as well as to modify peptides. N-Substituted glycine analogs are widely used in peptidomimetics and drug research. Excessive amounts N-acetyl amino acids including N-acetylglycine (as well as N-acetylserine, N-acetylglutamine, N-acetylglutamate, N-acetylalanine, Nacetylmethionine and smaller amounts of N-acetylthreonine, N-acetylleucine, N-acetylvaline and N-acetylisoleucine) can be detected in the urine with individuals with Acylase I defiency. This enzyme is involved in the degradation of N-acylated proteins. Individuals with this disorder will experience convulsions, hearing loss ond difficulty feeding.

N-acetylglycine has been identified as a minor constituent of numerous foods. The current paper reports the outcome of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity, acute oral and repeated dose dietary toxicology studies conducted with NAGly. No evidence of genotoxicity was observed with NAGly in vitro bacterial tester strains or in vivo bone marrow micronucleus studies conducted in mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects were observed in Sprague–Dawley rats following acute oral gavage with NAGly at a dose of 2000 mg/kg of body weight or following repeated dose dietary exposure to NAGly at targeted doses of 100, 500, or 1000 mg/kg of body weight/day for 28 days.

No biologically significant or test substance related differences were observed in body weights, feed consumption, or clinical pathology response variables in any of the treatment groups. Based on these results it was concluded that NAGly is not genotoxic or acutely toxic. Further, the no-observed adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for systemic toxicity from repeated dose dietary exposure to NAGly was 898.9 mg/kg of body weight/day for male rats and 989.9 mg/kg of body weight/day for female rats.

The infrared absorption spectra of single crystals of  Glycine,N-acetyl- and of diketopiperazine have been observed at room temperature, and at -185°C, using polarized radiation. The spectrum of the former substance shows some remarkable changes with temperature. In both cases cooling produces a pronounced narrowing of the broad bands due to the vibration of hydrogen atoms involved in strong hydrogen bonds. The two spectra furnish examples of NH absorption in the two extremes of weak and very strong hydrogen bonding. In diketopiperazine two possible interpretations of the doublet structure in the NH valence band are offered.

The Chiral Recognition Properties Of Amino Acid

A new strategy is established for detecting chiral amino acids based on the electron transfer from hemoglobin Fe(II) to Cu(II) in copper complexes of the amino acids. The sensor shows a highly selective recognition of arginine enantiomers.

Chiral colorimetric sensor 4 has been synthesized, and the structure characterized by IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. The chiral recognition of the receptor was studied by 1H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results of non-linear curve fitting indicate that the receptor 4 and l- or d-mandelate and alanine anions form a 1:1 stoichiometric complex. The obvious colour change of receptor 4 can be observed by the naked eye when the enantiomers of mandelate and alanine anions are added, which demonstrates that receptor 4 may be used as the colorimetric sensor for the two carboxylic anions.

The spectroscopic properties of a chiral boronic acid based resorcinarene macrocycle employed for chiral analysis were investigated. Specifically, the emission and excitation characteristics of tetraarylboronate resorcinarene macrocycle (TBRM) and its quantum yield were evaluated. The chiral selector TBRM was investigated as a chiral reagent for the enantiomeric discrimination of amino acids using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. Chiral recognition of amino acids in the presence of the macrocycle was based on diastereomeric complexes.

The charge neutral chiral optical sensors 1a~d containing thiourea and amide groups were synthesized by simple steps in good yields and their structures were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS spectra and elemental analysis. The enantioselective recognition for D-Plenylglycinol and it was examined by fluorescence emission and UV-vis spectra. The fluorescence and UV-vis spectra changes of 1a were obvious when the enantiomers of D-Plenylglycinol anion were added, which exhibited that 1a has good enantioselective recognition ability towards D-Plenylglycinol(CAS:56613-80-0).

Results demonstrated that TBRM had better chiral discrimination ability for lysine as compared to the other amino acids. Partial least squares regression modeling (PLS-1) of spectral data for macrocycle-lysine guest–host complexes was used to correlate the changes in the fluorescence emission for a set of calibration samples consisting of TBRM in the presence of varying enantiomeric compositions of lysine. In addition, validation studies were performed using an independently prepared set of samples with different enantiomeric compositions of lysine.

Properties of Vulcanized Rubber Compared With Natural Rubber

Rubber, in one form or another, has become an extremely common part of daily life in the world. Vulcanized rubber, the process’s name bringing images of the Roman god of the forge Vulcan, is a natural elastomer that has been made more durable by a biochemical process that cures the rubber. It is one of the strongest and most durable forms of rubber on the market today.

Process
Liquid rubber has sulfur added to it, and is then heated at a high temperature. The heat allows the chemical bonds already in the rubber to change, becoming stronger as the sulfur is added to the mixture, and incorporated into vulcanized rubber.

Vulcanization chemically combines the rubber and sulfur. At high pressure and high temperatures, the sulfur atoms form links or bridges between long chains of the rubber molecules. This increases the rubber’s strength and durability and reduces its stickiness. It also makes the rubber retain its elasticity at a much wider range of temperatures, making vulcanized rubber more useful for many purposes.

Strength
Before vulcanization was discovered, natural rubber could be coagulated with acid and made malleable so that it could be shaped and formed. At high temperatures, though, the rubber would become sticky or melt. At low temperatures, the rubber would become brittle. These qualities made this type of rubber impractical to use in industrial settings.

When rubber is vulcanized, it becomes cross-linked in its chemical structure at the atomic level. This linking of stronger bonds makes vulcanized rubber over 10 times stronger than natural rubber would be. This is one of vulcanized rubber’s greatest strengths, as it allows rubber to be used in making more heavy duty products since it can stand up to more punishment.

Hardness
While vulcanized rubber is elastic, meaning it will return to its original shape, it is also 10 times more rigid than normal rubber as a result of the vulcanization process.1,3-Diphenylguanidine(CAS number: 102-06-7), with the molecular rormula C13H13N3, has been used as a primary accelerator in the vulcanization of rubber. Rigidity means that vulcanized rubber is more difficult to bend out of shape in the first place, adding to its use in heavier applications, such as tires.

Applications
Vulcanized rubber has come to be used to make a wide variety of products. Among the most common of these are automobile tires, rubber seals and gaskets, transmission belts, shoe soles and hockey pucks. In each case, the results are exactly the same, creating new chemical bonds in the liquid rubber and making a substance that is stronger and more rigid, which still retains the elasticity of pre-vulcanized rubber.

The Difference Between Chemosynthesis And Photosynthesis

Plants get energy from the sun through a process called photosynthesis; this process supports nearly all life on earth. But photosynthesis is not the only method that living organisms use to create energy. Some microorganisms derive energy from chemical reactions that don’t require light and use this energy to assemble organic molecules through a process called chemosynthesis.

Chemosynthesis, akin to photosynthesis, is a process certain organisms use to produce energy, but without the utilization of sunlight. The hydrogen they use comes from hydrogen sulfite, whereas the nitrogen comes from ammonia or nitrates. The energy comes from the oxidization (burning) of chemicals which seep up from the Earth’s crust.

Once it’s produced ATP, the bacterium can use the energy it’s stored in ATP to turn inorganic compounds like CO2 and hydrogen sulfide into organic compounds like glucose. This final series of reactions is just chemosynthesis. The organisms that use chemosynthesis, all bacteria, manufacture carbohydrates and other organic molecules from the oxidization of sulfates or ammonia.

Basically, chemoautotrophs derive energy from chemical reactions that don’t need light. This ability makes organisms that use chemosynthesis are extremophiles, living in harsh conditions such as the absence of sunlight and a wide range of water temperatures, some approaching the boiling point. The most famous chemoautotrophs are the extremophiles (organisms that live in extreme conditions) found near deep-sea vents at the bottom of the ocean floor. No light penetrates to those depths; bacteria that live there are sunk in an eternal night in which no photosynthetic organism can survive. The process these bacteria and other chemoautotrophs use to get the energy they need is complex, but the basic steps are outlined below.

Chemosynthetic species are autotrophs, organisms capable of manufacturing organic matter directly from inorganic feedstock. P-Bromophenol(C6H5BrO), also called as 4-Bromophenol, is used in this process. Autotrophs of different types can produce energy either through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. The gases that autotrophs use to create energy would be poisonous to most organisms. They use unusual enzymes capable of resisting high temperatures and pressures.

Since these organisms live on the bottom of the ocean floor, they are subject to much pressure from the water above. Ecologies surrounding deep sea vents are extremely prosperous relative to those located further away from such chemical sources, which must survive solely on dead organic matter slowly descending from the waters above.

A Fresh Look At Nalidixic Acid

Nalidixic acid is a member of a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones and is primarily used for various urinary tract infections as it kills bacteria and prevents more from growing. It is believed to be ineffective for other infections or illnesses. Nalidixic acid interactions affect both medicines and certain foods. It is recommended that a healthcare professional discusses the benefits and risks of taking this antibiotic before it is used.

According to a 2004 article in the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, as of 2003, some 2.3 percent of salmonella from samples were nalidixic acid-resistant–a significant increase from just 0.4 percent some seven years before. Like many other fluoroquinolones, it works by inhibiting an enzyme called DNA gyrase that the bacteria need to help unwind their DNA during replication; consequently, it’s active against a wide variety of bacteria, since many bacteria are vulnerable to this kind of attack.

The drug quickly passes through the body and in the kidneys and liver, which typically means it enters the bladder in higher concentrations. This is partially why nalidixic acid is effective for urinary infections and so ineffective for other infections. It is rare for this medicine to be prescribed for other types of infections.

Usually, nalidixic acid dose is dependent on the exact type of the urinary infection as well as the severity. Doses for adolescents and small children also depend on their height and weight. It is not recommended for infants under the age of three months. There are no specific dose changes for elderly people, but anyone with kidney or liver problems may require a smaller dose.

Some drugs, such as those that contain calcium, aluminum or magnesium, are not recommended while using nalidixic acid unless noted otherwise by the prescribing healthcare professional. This is because it may interfere with proper drug absorption. The antibiotic may also create false positives during urinary glucose tests. 2-Amino-6-picoline, with the molecular formula C6H8N2 and CAS number 1824-81-3, is used as an intermediate for nalidixic acid.

Side effects of nalidixic acid typically include abdominal pain, loss of appetite, headache, nausea, vomiting and occasionally diarrhea. More serious side effects that may require medical attention include problems with vision, insomnia, seizures and hallucinations. There is also a chance of allergic reaction, which is typically followed by rash, fever, swelling or difficulty breathing. It is possible for anaphylactic shock to occur, so it is highly recommended to seek medical help if an allergic reaction is suspected.

Is Food Coloring Harmful To People?

Food coloring is a type of food additive which can make any baked good look professional and much more fun. Some food colorings are dyes, meaning that they are water soluble, and used in a variety of foods which contain liquids. Lakes have a dye base, but they are designed to disperse in oil as well as water, and they can be used in preparations which lack sufficient moisture to hold dye.

The sources of natural coloring for food include some minerals, along with several members of the insect world. Cochineal red, for example, comes from beetles. Chemists have also developed purely synthetic food coloring, too.

People have been adding color to their food for thousands years. In earlier time, food colorings were commonly made from spices such as turmeric, along with crushed seeds. Acient people added color to food historically for many same reasons that we do today:  to lend a more familiar color to food, to enhance natural colors, and for decorative purposes. Food coloring is especially popular with preserved foods, which tend to turn dull gray. Although these foods are perfectly safe to eat, they don’t look quite right, and food coloring can make them more appetizing.

To know what makes up the colors in food colorings can be very interesting. Some are naturally derived. For instance, green food coloring tends to get its shade from seaweed, and orange food coloring may be made from seeds. Red food coloring, which you might see listed as carmine in manufactured goods may not be so tasty once you hear what it is derived from. It tends to be made from the certain insects. Alternately, you can find red food colors made from beet juice or paprika. Brown food coloring made to impart a caramel color is usually less involved with the insect world and is derived from sugar that has been caramelized.

The above colors are considered “natural”, in that they get color from plants, spices or foods in the natural world. There are a number of “artificial colors”, which may also show up, especially in food coloring for mass-produced foods or cosmetics. Most of these are made from different mineral compounds, and are usually considered safe to consume. Fmoc-L-Tyr(tBu)-OH, also Fmoc-O-tert-Butyl-L-serine(CAS No.:71989-38-3), is a common organic used in food coloring. There are a few artificial food-coloring choices that may be indicated in illness for a small percentage of the population. In fact, this has concerned some nations so much that they have banned the artificial types and will only allow natural food colors to be used.

Researchers have found some health issues related to food coloring. According to the Center for Science in the Public Interest, two studies in the United Kingdom found a link between Yellow 5, Red 40, Blue 1, Blue 2, Green 3, Orange B, Red 3, and Yellow 6 and behavior problems in children. Researchers say these dyes may be to blame for behavior problems like ADD and ADHD in children as young as toddlers.

What’s The Differences Between Chemical biology And Biological Chemistry?

Chemical biology is of more recent provenance while biochemistry as a field goes back many decades by contrast. Because both fields deal with both chemistry and biology and overlap considerably, it can be difficult to set clearly defined boundaries between the two disciplines. Nonetheless, there is a difference in goals and emphasis.

Chemical Biology
Chemical biologists study the chemistry of life, like biochemists, but they seek ways to manipulate it using small molecules in difference. They too need strong knowledge of chemistry and biology, but they come primarily from a chemistry background and perspective. They focus to a greater degree on organic synthesis: how to design small molecules and synthesize them from smaller building blocks. Chemical biologists often work on the design of new drugs, although they may also work on experiments that explore the function of biological pathways using small molecular tools.

Biochemistry
Biological chemistry, or biochemistry, is the study of the chemical composition of living organisms at a cellular level. Included in this field of study are the structure of biological entities, the chemical properties of living organisms, and the changes in living cells caused by chemistry. It is a combination of life sciences and chemical sciences. Biochemists are especially interested in the structure and function of biological macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA; the pathways by which cells synthesize important molecules; and the molecular processes that enable cells to carry out their functions. Biochemists must have extensive knowledge of organic chemistry, although they come primarily from a biology background and perspective.

Differences
Although there is a considerable amount of overlap between the two disciplines, the emphasis in each is different. A biochemist is usually more ill-acquainted with the techniques used to synthesize new molecules, while a chemical biologist is usually more ill-acquainted with molecular biology tools such as micro-arrays and cloning. A biochemist wants to understand the chemistry of life, whereas a chemical biologist wants to design interventions to treat disease or ensure other desirable outcomes. At pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, chemical biologists design new drug candidates while biochemists design assays, or test, to determine which candidates have an effect.

Education
Chemical biologists usually go on to take more courses in pharmacology, physical, inorganic and organic chemistry, and master organic synthesis(6-Chloro-2-picoline, also 2-Chloro-6-methylpyridine having CAS No. 18368-63-3, is particularly used as an intermediate in organic synthesis), while biochemists generally go on to take more courses in biochemistry and molecular biology. Both biochemistry and chemical biology majors take a core of courses in mathematics, general chemistry, cell biology, physics, organic chemistry and genetics. A biochemist will probably have more experience in molecular biology lab classes, while a chemical biologist will probably have more experience in organic chemistry lab classes.

What Are Peptidomimetics?

A peptide is a large molecule made of amino acids that are linked with peptide bonds. Peptidomimetics may have unnatural amino acids or other unusual compounds to stabilize their structure or alter their biological activity. A peptidomimetic(PM) is a compound that is designed to mimic a biologically active peptide, but has structural differences that give greater advantages for its function as a drug. For instance, a peptidomimetic that is designed to mimic a hormone would have greater stability and be more available to its target receptor to transmit signals.

There are a number of factors that help in the rational design of PM’s such us: binding site optimal fit, conformational stabilization, (given by rigid elements and the positioning of specific functional groups), polar or hydrophobic regions (inside strategic reactive pockets) that favor the basic atomic interactions provided by hydrogen , electrostatic and hydrophobic bonding.

Peptidomimetics were first designed to limit the conformational mobility of the peptide — in other words, the degree to which it can bend. Having peptides fixed in place makes it more likely that they will react with their desired target and limits undesirable side effects. Another goal is to increase their stability. The incorporation of unnatural compounds into their backbone makes it much less likely that these novel compounds will be degraded by the enzymes that break down peptides and peptidomimetics.

The benefit in peptides is that many have significant biological activity. Peptides that do make it into a cell are frequently unstable. Peptides can affect a wide range of cellular activity, among them digestion, reproduction, and sensitivity to pain. Many peptide activities are of interest as targets for drugs, but it can be difficult for them to cross the membrane to enter a cell.

The goal in PM’s is to obtain molecules that mimic the specific molecular interactions of natural proteins and their ligands. The protein to protein interaction of biologivally active peptides at the receptor level can be obtained by small molecules, in an agonistic fashion or can be blocked, in an antagonistic fashion.

Organic chemists have identified many other ways of replacing the peptide bond. In addition, side chains are often altered, sometimes by the addition of cyclic peptides. These are peptides in which the amino terminus and the carboxy terminus of the same molecule are linked. All of these changes are usually designed to enhance the stability of the peptidomimetic. N-alpha-t-BOC-L-phenylalanine, also called as Boc-Phe-OH or L-Phenylalanine,N-[(1,1-dimethylethoxy)carbonyl]-(CAS: 13734-34-4), is used in biological research of peptidomimetics.

The field of peptidomimetic design crosses a number of scientific disciplines. The success rate for identifying biologically-active compounds from libraries of peptidomimetic compounds is much higher than that from screening libraries of peptides. With the frequent advantages of increased stability and availability to their target, the field of peptidomimetics is growing.

How To Treat Rheumatoid arthritis Effectively?

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that targets healthy joints, causing extreme pain, swelling, and stiffness. About 1% of the population suffers from this disease, with women being two or three times as likely to develop it. Early diagnosis and treatment can extend joint flexibility and reduce discomfort.

Reasons
The reason rheumatoid arthritis classifies as a systemic, autoimmune disorder is that it occurs throughout the body when our antibodies begin to attack healthy tissue. This type of arthritis can affect muscles and organs, in addition to joints, as it progresses. Usually, onset of rheumatoid arthritis occurs between 40-60 years old, and first manifests in wrists and hands.

Symptoms
At first, joints stiffen and redden when their delicate lining, the synovium, swells. Symptoms will vary from pain and discomfort in symmetrical parts of the body, to a low fever, loss of appetite, or fatigue. Next, the body reacts by trying to cushion the joint, thickening the synovium. Finally, antibodies assault the entire joint by breaking down bone, ligaments, tendons, synovium, and cartilage.

Treatments
Medications can help erase or ease the pain and possibly slow the disease’s progression. Many rheumatoid arthritis treatment approaches use disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) to reduce joint inflammation. Patients also may be prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for pain management. NSAIDs are available over the counter, but patients probably will receive stronger prescribed doses when used in a treatment program. There are several surgical interventions available.

Other medications include steroids and immunosuppressants. Steroids target rheumatoid arthritis pain by reducing inflammation. This is often a short-term treatment because sustained use can lead to diabetes, glaucoma, hypertension, and other negative side effects. If other medications fail, immunosuppressants are another option for rheumatoid arthritis treatment because they help prevent the immune system from attacking healthy joints. Edaravone, better known as 3-Methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one(CAS: 89-25-8), inhibits the disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

Lifestyle changes can help patients manage the disease. Losing weight puts less stress on painful joints. Relaxation techniques, such as meditation or visualization, may also provide coping strategies to handle or minimize pain.