What Does IUPAC Do For Chemisrty?

Imagine you’ve just discovered a great new chemical and you tell the world. Someone else now claims that she discovered it first. Whom would you go to, to decide the facts? You go to IUPAC.

The 1860 Conference
The 19th century was a time when there was a new chemical discovery almost every day. Sometimes, the same chemical would be found in labs in different countries, and get different names. For example, what was called phenol in Europe was called carbolic acid in England; the word alcohol may refer to a class of compounds or just ethyl alcohol. Is the chemical with symbol S spelt sulphur or sulfur? Because of this, it was decided that a committee of eminent chemists would help create some rules for giving chemicals their names.

The committee was headed by August Kekule, and called for a conference in 1860. They also decided to form a permanent association of chemists, where they could discuss all issues, not just names.

Modern Rules
Names of chemicals are not decided like names of babies. They have to be based on the number of atoms in the molecule, their positions and what they do in chemical reactions.

Suppose you made a new chemical whose formula was Cl-C6H4-COOH. You have a chloro bit (Cl), a benzene bit (C6H4) and a carboxylic acid bit (COOH). So you pull out your Blue Book and get the names for the bits. Put them together to make chloro benzoic acid! Easy-peasy!

IUPAC does more than give names
Chemists look forward to the jumbo IUPAC General Assembly, which happens once in two years. That’s when the committees meet and the rules are agreed upon. The next General Assembly will be in 2011, in Puerto Rico. It will be a special meeting, as it marks 100 years of the Paris meeting. IUPAC has joined hands with UNESCO to celebrate 2011 as the “International Year of Chemistry”, with events all over the world.

IUPAC also puts together books that all chemists need as reference material, like lists of melting points, solubility of different things in water, standard methods for doing experiments and a lot more. Many of these books take a lot of hard work over many years.

Most chemists are often happy to tinker in their labs and come up with new stuff, knowing that IUPAC is there in the background, making life easy for them!

Urea in the history of organic chemistry

Urea is one of the most important chemicals in use today – as a fertiliser and industrial raw material. It is also the chemical that gave birth to the science of organic chemistry. Let’s see how.

Vitalism
Until the early 19th century, people – including many scientists – believed in a theory called vitalism. Those who believed in this theory held that life was not subject to the laws of physics and chemistry. They believed that there was an unknown, even divine principle, that governed living organisms, called the ‘life spark’.

Because of this belief, it was thought that chemicals found in plant and animal bodies – like proteins and carbohydrates – were completely different from other chemicals like salts, acids and gases. Therefore, people thought that ‘organic’ chemicals (because they came from organs) could not be made artificially, but had to be extracted from living animals. This theory also stopped people from using inorganic chemicals to treat diseases.

Organic chemistry
The Wohler synthesis is the conversion of ammonium cyanate into urea. This chemical reaction was discovered in 1828 by Friedrich Wohler in an attempt to synthesize ammonium cyanate. It is considered the starting point of modern organic chemistry.

There was a huge amount of resistance to the idea that vitalism wasn’t correct. Indeed Wohler himself did not like it. Influential scientists like Justus von Liebig and Louis Pasteur weren’t convinced either. Many organic compounds still could not be made in the lab at all, from inorganic ones. (Even today, some very complicated molecules like insulin cannot be made in the lab without using living organisms.) The tide changed only in 1845, when Hermann Kolbe showed that carbon disulfide could be converted to acetic acid, the main ingredient of vinegar.

But meanwhile a whole lot of scientists saw the practical uses of Wohler’s discovery. For many organic chemicals like urea (till then obtained from kidneys), citric acid (obtained from lemons) and benzene (obtained from gum benzoin) were industrially very useful. If they could be made from inorganic chemicals, then they could be made cheaper and on a large scale.

Soon a huge industry had sprung up, with synthetic dyes (see the articles on Perkin and indigo) and drugs (see the article on salvarsan) being made on a large scale. Today, organic chemistry makes more than a million chemicals every year!

New Research Of Self-assembling Polymeric Copper Catalyst

Few recently discovered chemical reactions have proven as powerful as the copper-catalysed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between azides and alkynes—a transformation better known as a ‘click reaction’. The process gets its nickname from the robust, reliable way that the azide and the alkyne organic functional groups ‘click’ together.

From materials science to biochemical applications, this dependable method for joining molecules together has been exploited widely in the decade since its discovery. Now, Yoichi Yamada, Shaheen Sarkar and Yasuhiro Uozumi at the RIKEN Advanced Science Institute in Wako have developed a new form of heterogeneous copper catalyst that promises to make the click reaction more efficient than ever.

Heterogeneous catalysts do not dissolve into the reaction mixture; they remain as a solid inside the reaction flask, offering a catalytic surface on which the reaction can take place. The key advantage of these catalysts is that they can easily be recaptured for re-use at the end of a reaction, often by simple filtration. Their disadvantage is that they are less intimately dispersed with the reactants than catalysts that dissolve, slowing the reaction.

The researchers overcame this disadvantage by embedding their copper within a self-assembled two-component polymer. The polymer backbone is made of a material called isopropylacrylamide, which has a hydrophobic sub-section and a hydrophilic sub-section. Overall, the material acts as an ‘amphiphilic sponge’: it readily draws in reactants and substrates regardless of their hydrophobicity, Yamada says.

The re-usable catalyst should find a host of applications, Yamada says. “The catalyst will be applied to the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds and functional organic materials.” The next step for the researchers is to incorporate the catalyst into a ‘flow system’, in which the catalyst is immobilized within a cartridge through which substrates and reagents are continually pumped, generating a continuous steady stream of product.

The second polymer component is an imidazole, an electron-donating material that stabilizes and activates the copper to accelerate the click reaction. “The catalytic copper species within the sponge instantaneously react with substrates and reactant to give the products and to regenerate the catalyst,” Yamada explains.

The material’s performance is the best yet reported for a heterogeneous click catalyst, he adds. The best previous materials had turnover numbers below 1,000 before the catalyst would become deactivated, whereas the team’s catalyst had a turnover number of 209,000. The catalyst’s turnover frequency was also fast, turning reactants into product at a rate of 6,740 conversions per hour.

How Do Fire Extinguishers Work?

A fire extinguisher is almost a necessity in places such as societies, hospitals, malls and auto rickshaws. As the word goes, fire extinguisher is used to extinguish fire. But do you know how this thing works? Let’s find it…

What are fire extinguishers?
A fire extinguisher is a device made to protect us from fire. They are made of metal and are filled with different materials like water, foam or powder. There are many types of fire extinguishers. The body and the basic model stay the same. What differs is the material filled in them.

Types
It is very important to choose the right fire extinguisher to make sure that you fight the fire properly.

Class A types are made of water and are meant for ordinary materials like paper, cardboard, cloth and so on; The types of Class B are for flammable liquids like kerosene, petrol and so on; Class C fire extinguishers are meant for fire triggered due to electrical objects like wire, circuit and so on; Class D are meant for burning metals and are normally found in chemical laboratories.They are excellent when it comes to extinguishing fire caused by magnesium or sodium.

For home and general places like hospital fire extinguishers of Class A, B and C are generally used.

How do fire extinguishers work?
Fire extinguishers are filled with compressed gas. When you release the valve, the compressed gas is released at a high pressure and the gas extinguishes the fire. Usually sodium bicarbonate or baking soda or potassium bicarbonate pressurized with nitrogen is filled in the fire extinguisher. When you open the valve, the powder decomposes because of the compressed nitrogen and releases carbon dioxide that extinguishes the fire.

Carbon dioxide is a non-flammable gas and helps in putting out the fire easily. Carbon dioxide is heavier than oxygen and hence when you spray it on fire, it displaces the oxygen and the fire stops.

In case you come across any minor fire incident, make sure you put the fire extinguisher to use and contact the fire department in case it is a major one.

What Are The Uses Of Menthol?

Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from peppermint or other mint oils. It’s used in a large number of products and features certain therapeutic qualities. They can be stored for up to three years, provided they are not exposed to high levels of heat or humidity.

The compound was first isolated from peppermint oil in 1771 in the West, but it may have been in use in Japan for much longer. Most of menthol’s uses are related to its stimulation of the skin’s cold receptors. This property makes it produce a cooling effect when inhaled or applied to the skin. Similarly to the capsaicin chemical found in hot peppers, which stimulates heat receptors, menthol does not actually change the skin’s temperature, but merely produces the sensation of temperature change.

Menthol has antiseptic properties, which means it can be effective in killing germs and preventing infection. Because of this, it is often added to oral hygiene products, such as toothpaste, dental floss and mouthwash. It can kill the germs that cause bad breath and leave the mouth with a cool feeling. Menthol can also be used to lessen the pain of a toothache.

Practitioners of homeopathic medicine believe that menthol can interfere with the effectiveness of these remedies, and some even go so far as to advise against the use of mint toothpaste. The idea may be rooted in the fact that African American smokers have both a higher incidence of cigarette-related cancers and a higher preference for menthol cigarettes than smokers of other backgrounds. There is no evidence these two statistics are causally related, however, and all types of cigarettes pose significant health risks.

Menthol’s cooling properties work to ease the pain of sunburn. It can also be used as a topical cream to reduce itching. Some shampoos, lotions and lip balms contain menthol. The chemical can be used to alleviate congestion in the nasal passages and in the chest. It thins the mucus and loosens it, making it easier for the body to expel it. Menthol is also effective at easing the pain of a sore throat. Cold relief products such as Vicks VapoRub, certain cough drops, and some types of facial tissue contain menthol.

Menthol has very low toxicity, although poisoning is possible if large quantities are consumed. Any ill effects from its use are extremely rare. Many people around the world enjoy its cooling sensation in gum, candy, lip gloss, and other products.

The Facts You May Not Know About Ammonium Chloride

Ammonium chloride consists of white crystals that are also available in more or less worked up rods or lumps. It is a combination of two necessary elements for plant growth — nitrogen and chlorine. This acidic salt is also used in many household products, including polishes and cleaners. In summary, the salt is functional to industry and human life.

Found at sites of volcanic activity, the compound occurs naturally in mineralogical form and bears the name sal ammoniac. The compound is formed from a reaction between an ammonia-based alkaline and an acid; this produces a pH-neutral salt, although solutions of ammonium chloride are in fact slightly acidic.

The salt can be manufactured industrially directly from ammonia and hydrochloric acid but that is often not the most favourable from an economic point of view. Ammonium chloride is obtained as a by-product in different chemical processes, particularly from the Solvay process for production of sodium carbonate from sodium chloride, ammonia, carbon dioxide and water. Another easily available raw material is ammonium sulfate.

The main global producer is Japan where 220 000 tons were manufactured in 1993, mainly as a by-product. Most of it was used as fertilizer in rice cultivation. Production for this usage is pretty exclusive for Japan. More pure ammonium chloride is prepared for more specific fields of application, including making fireworks and pyrotechnics, dyeing textiles and as a flux in metalwork.

Ammonium chloride increased crop yields by up to 40 percent over crops with no chloride added, according to a multi-year study reported on by W. E. Thompson of the Oklahoma State University Department of Plant and Soil Sciences. The chloride also significantly increased the time it took for nitrogen to disappear from unlimed soil and is also being studied for disease prevention.

A large number of personal care products contain ammonium chloride. These products include shampoos, body washes, hair color and liquid hand soaps. Cleansers with ammonia-based phosphates for cleaning may also contain ammonium chloride to help create lather and add viscosity to the liquid.

Additionally, ammonium chloride is an acidic compound that is used to treat cases of low chlorides in the blood or in cases where the body is too alkaline due to vomiting, diuretics or some stomach disorders.

Ammonium chloride tastes salty and is a little cooling. This makes it useful in food; above all it is popular in sweets (salt liquorice). 

Those Insects That Make Cyanide

We all are aware that all animals and plants have their own defence systems that they use against predators. Insects are also included in this category. Many insects are resistant to cyanide-producing plants. Some burnet moths in the family Zygaenidae have even evolved the ability to synthesize the same cyanogenic compounds as their host plants. Let us find out how…

Frequently these compounds are toxic, but herbivores and pathogens of such plants have developed a tolerance to these chemicals. This process is known as co-evolution and can lead to organisms becoming dependent on the plant’s compounds for their own development.

Some toxic compounds that are present constitutively are known as phytoanticipins. Cyanogenic glucosides (Cnglcs) are one class of these compounds. These are inactive compounds that have hydrogen cyanide (HCN) bound to a sugar molecule. They release HCN and when the tissue is damaged, and the compounds interact with a specialized beta glucosidase enzyme. The Cnglc and the beta glucosidase are stored in separate compartments and only meet when the tissue is disrupted, such as by an insect’s chewing.

Insects that feed on a broad array of plants are likely to be deterred by the presence of HCN in a plant. Those that depend on a particular species of plant make cyanide frequently adapted to not only tolerate the HCN, but also to sequester it from the plant. By doing so, these specialized insects can utilize Cnglcs to defend themselves against predators.

Various species of insects utilize Cnglcs that they have sequestered from plants. Several types of insects can synthesize HCN including some species in the orders of beetles, true bugs, and moths and butterflies. Their predators are not adapted to the effect of cyanide, which inhibits the mitochondrial oxidation step of cellular respiration.

Burnet moths are capable of synthesizing hydrogen cyanide (also known as Hydrocyanic acid ). The most well studied system is that of Zygaena filipendulae, the six-spotted burnet moth. This insect makes the same cyanogenic compounds as its host-limanarin and lotaustralin and the most common type of Cnglcs in plants and insects. The larvae also prefer to feed on plants with high amounts of cyanide compared to those that produce little or no HCN.

Females prefer to mate with males that have greater concentrations of cyanide. The males give the Cnglcs to the females as a “nuptial gift” during mating. They transfer the cyanogenic compounds to the females. This extra HCN helps the females better protect her eggs. The Cnglcs are also used as a source of stored reduced nitrogen and sugar for the insects.

Why Does Red Cabbage Change Colour When Cooked?

Chemistry is just not about chemicals in laboratories. It is present in everything that we do in our daily life and also in our kitchens. When we cook this red cabbage, the cabbage changes its colour. Have you wondered how that happens? Let’s find out what happens when red cabbage is cooked.

Red cabbage is one of many fruits and vegetables that contain a class of reddish purple pigments called anthocyanins, which is responsible for its colour. Anthocyanins are a type of flavonoid pigment that are responsible for the red, purple and blue colours in most plants, leaves, flowers and fruits. These pigments have a tendency to change colour when mixed with alkaline or acidic ingredients.

Anthocyanins consist of many carbon rings onto which hydrogens are attached. This particular chemical formation allows these molecules to take on two forms. In one form, a hydrogen atom present is attached to the exterior and in the other form it is not. Acidic ingredients are characterized by having more hydrogen atoms (H+) than hydroxyl groups (OH-) so when exposed to acid, anthocyanins grab a hydrogen atom and turns red in colour. In alkaline conditions where there are no excess hydrogen atoms, the molecule appears blue or green in colour.

Anthocyanin turns red in acidic conditions when the pH is less than seven. It is not uncommon for apples or lemon juice to be part of braised red cabbage recipes because they help maintain the its red colour. Common acidic ingredients used in cooking include: 1) Vinegar 2) Lemon juice 3) Citric acid 4) Fruits and fruit juices.

Even baked goods, which frequently use baking soda or baking powder as a leavening agent can discolour fruits and vegetables like red cabbage. An understanding of simple cabbage chemistry will now allows you to adjust the pH of a recipe in order to prevent undesirable discolouration of the food item.

Back-to-the-future Process Yields ‘Miracle Wood’

A back-to-the-future technology, first used more than 100 years ago, has put a new form of wood on the market – a veritable “miracle wood” that resists the moisture-induced bowing, swelling, cupping, shrinking and cracking that have been downsides of natural wood for thousands of years. The new “acetylated wood” is the topic of a story in the current edition of Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN). C&EN is the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society, the world’s largest scientific society.

Alexander H. Tullo, C&EN senior editor, explains that production of acetylated wood relies on a process much different from pressure treatment, which infuses insect- and rot-resistant chemicals into wood. Instead, the acetylation process uses heat, pressure and a substance termed acetic anhydride to permanently expand the cell walls in wood into a fixed position that resists water absorption. That absorption of moisture from the air, ground or rainfall underpins the familiar bending, bowing, rotting and other problems with natural wood.

The article points out that acetylation technology has been available for more than a century, and acetylated wood pulp has been used to make photographic film, cigarette filters, coatings for playing cards and other products. It is getting a second life thanks to technological advances made since similar products failed to get off the ground in the 1930s. Manufacturers such as Eastman Chemical and Accsys Technologies attribute its new success to the growing desire for green products. The new wood has similar properties to modern construction materials like aluminum and PVC but a much smaller carbon footprint. And although it costs about three and a half times more than untreated wood, Eastman’s technology manager for acetylated wood says its durability makes it worth it for customers.

What Are The Uses of Zircon?

Zircon is a semiprecious brittle stone found around the world that is located in metamorphic, sedimentary and igneous rocks. As the oldest stone on earth, it was once considered an alternative for the diamond. Ground into fine sands, it also has industrial uses in the manufacture of ceramics, glass, metals and chemicals.

History
As the ICA states, “Hindu poets tell of the Kalpa Tree, the ultimate gift to the gods, a
glowing tree covered in gemstone fruit with leaves of zircon.” The oldest known object on earth is a tiny zircon that was located in Western Australia and is 4.404 billion years old, claims the American Gem Trade Association (AGTA). The name is believed to have come from the Persian word zargun, which means “gold-colored” or jargoon, which is the name given to certain varieties of the substance.

Features
Its chemical name is zirconium silicate and its corresponding chemical formula is
ZrSiO4. It is a neosilicate, meaning that it is a silicate mineral that has isolated SiO4 tetrahedra, which are only connected through ionic bonds. When pure, zircon is colorless, but when other chemicals are introduced to it during its formation, zirconium silicate can become colored.

Exposure to sunlight may also even cause this change in color. It commonly is found with other stones, such as granite, sapphire and limestone. Its hardness on the Mohs scale is about 7.5. Some colors are black, yellow, brown, red and pink. Certain colors of this product may have different names.

Sources
Zircon can often be found with sapphires in Western Australia. It can also be found in
Norway, the Rhine area, Central France, Russia, Canada and Tasmania. The substance is frequently mined in Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Thailand. In the United States, zirconium silicate can be located in New York and North Carolina.

Ceramics
Zircon ceramics often serve as protective coatings on metals. Most products get ground
by processors into sands of varying grain size. Ceramics manufacturers make the most overall use of zirconium silicate, employing the finest sands to give their products high strength and high resistance to heat. Additionally, powdered zircon in ceramic glazes gives them an opaqueness that allows colors to stay fixed in varying light.

Jewelry
The famed cubic zirconium is a manufactured type of this compound. The natural mineral
can also be cut, polished and set as a gemstone. According to the Zircon Minerals Council, roughly 12 percent of mined product becomes jewelry, although some of the crystals have to be heated to destroy the trace radioactive elements they contain.

Tartrazine Does Not Come From Lemon

What ingredients are food additives, and what are illegal add-on components? Can fragrance and flavor be used in the food? Flavor of Shanghai Institute of Technology and Engineering Sigma Societies carried out social practice project in summer, had a investigation on the misunderstanding of the public on food additives. Through the publicity to citizens, the public’s one-sided understanding of flavors and fragrances have changed.

This is the second year that Sigma Societies understand the public awareness of food additives, and dissemination of food safety precautions through questionnaires. This year’s survey shows that public knowledge of flavors and fragrances rose slightly than last year, but still very one-sided.

The questionnaire survey shows that 64.5% of respondents are still do not know, “whether Sudan and melamine are food additives”. In fact, Sudan is a chemical dye, while melamine is used as a chemical raw material, they can not be regarded as food additives and can’t be added in food. The survey also shows that 97.5% people still think that spice flavors should not be added to food. The practice team find that during the publicity to explain knowledge about flavor, citizens almost don’t believe spice flavors are non-toxic, and many people, especially senior citizens, flavors and fragrances said, “the most safest way simply is not to use”.

‘Tartrazine (also called as Acid Yellow 23, the CAS number is 1934-21-0) is extracted from a lemon, and curcumin (the formula is C21H20O6 and the CAS No. is  458-37-7) is extracted from a ginger’, the survey finds people generally have major points about food additives, but these views are wrong. Many food additives are called aseemingly “natural” in the name, but in fact they are not extracted from natural plants, such as tartrazin and curcumin are compounds. On the contrary, a number of compounds seemingly foods add ingredients extracted from plants, such as polyphenols, catechins, grape skin red.

L-Carnitine For Preserving Bone Density

L-carnitine, sometimes referred to as simply carnitine or Vitamin BT, is a non-essential amino acid manufactured from the amino acids methionine and lysine in the liver and kidneys and stored in the brain, heart, muscles tissue, and sperm. People also take these supplements for energy boosts. It occurs naturally in meat and dairy products.

Function
According to the Cell Mass product website, the primary function of L-carnitine is to convert lipids, or fats, into fuel for energy. Specifically, its role is to move fatty acids into the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells that reside within the protective membranes that surround cells. It burns fat by promoting the movement of fatty acids into the mitochondria, which burn fatty acids to make energy. Here, the fatty acids undergo beta oxidation and break down to form acetate. This event is what kicks off the Krebs cycle, a series of complex biological reactions that are essential to provide energy for every cell in the body.

Dosage
The recommended dosage varies according to the desired effect; medicinal dosages range between 300 and 4,000 mg per day. Pills are sold in 250 mg or 500 mg increments. Bodybuilders and dieters take 2,000 mg a day. Start by taking 1,000 mg, and gradually increase to the desired dosage. Although different typeare available, only acetyl L-Carnitine and L-Carnitine are recommended for supplementation.

Benefits
L-Carnitine is known to improve blood sugar levels and sperm production, lower cholesterol, counteract symptoms of hyperthyroidism and fight heart disease. Since L-carnitine demonstrates antioxidant activity, it is sometimes used as a complementary therapy in treating various conditions related to oxidative stress, most notably heart disease and angina. In fact, The American Journal of Cardiology reports that this nutrient permits angina patients to exercise more with less pain and also to reduce medication levels. A few studies indicate that carnitine may also permit heart failure patients to experience similar results.

L-carnitine (the CAS No. is 541-15-1) also plays a role in preserving bone density. Unfortunately, this nutrient becomes less concentrated in bone along with osteocalcin, a protein secreted by osteoblasts that is involved in bone mineralization. In fact, these deficiencies are the main factors that contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Studies have shown that this condition may be reversed with its supplementation, which increases available levels of osteocalcin.

Other Aging Issues
Age-associated disorders such as depression, impaired cognition and decreased mental alertness may be partially because of L-carnitine deficiency, according to a review of studies by Juvenon, a health supplement producer connected with the University of California at Berkeley.

English Successfully Used Discarded Tires To Extract Carbon Black

Recently, three British inventors extract the carbon black from discarded tires. The carbon black, which has low price, may be used as a printing ink coloring of special carbon black substitutes.

The method can be generalized as the following: Isolated from the air, getting carbon black, steel and silica mixture after pyrolysising the in the condition of high temperature 800 ℃. Baking after magnetic separation and screening, the semi-pure charcoal powder is produced. And then washing it by using hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, you can get the black printing ink with carbon black (also known as Acetylene black or lamp black). Compared with conventional furnace black production process, the pyrolysis process does not emit carbon dioxide.

Mustard Products

Mustard seed is the seed of the mustard plant, a plant which has been cultivated for centuries for both its greens and seeds. They are used as a spice in many cultures, and they can be found in a wide of dishes. Prepared from the seed, its oil is a versatile oil that can be used for both therapeutic uses and culinary applications.

Mustard Seeds
As a general rule, they are spicy and piquant, a trait shared with other Brassicas. The flavor of them varies, depending on the varietal. Some of them have an extremely strong bite which has made it rather famous. The seeds may be black, brown, yellow, or white, depending on the species and cultivar. Many Westerners are familiar with yellow one.

When mustard seeds are used as a spice, there are a number of ways to utilize them. They can be added to dishes as they are cooking, in which case they are usually cracked to release their volatile flavor and aroma, and they are sometimes ground up and added to curry mixtures as well. Many cooks in places like India throw whole seeds into a cooking pot with some oil before they start cooking a dish, ensuring that the oil is flavored with the spice when the heated seeds pop.

People can also grind its seeds and keep the dry powder handy for mixing mustard as needed, and ingredients like water, cider vinegar, horseradish, honey, wine, and milk can also be mixed with ground seeds to make mustard.

Mustard Oil
As one of the more common types of seed found in the Mediterranean, the seeds produce an oil that is both aromatic and soothing to the skin. When it comes to the use of oils as a soothing topical agent, mustard oil(also known as Fats and Glyceridicoils, mustard and the CAS number is 8007-40-7) is considered to be helpful with the pain and discomfort associated with arthritis. The use of it as an ointment for stiff joints has a long history, and is still recommended by persons who prefer to use natural agents to treat various health ailments. Along with leaving relatively little residue, this oil provides a pleasant aroma that may also appeal to the user of the oil.

The oil that is allowed to reach the temperature necessary for smoking will actually achieve a smoother mustard flavor that will be very appealing. In cooking, it works differently from most other oils. With this oil, it is important to allow the oil to reach the smoking point before using the compound in stir-fry and other dishes that are prepared on a stovetop.

Adipic Acid Market Rose Slightly

On Tuesday, the adipic acid market rose slightly. Due to the rise of crude oil and price adjustment of benzene, the adipic acid market began to be active, buyers and sellers operated actively at present.

However, the current high inventory is still one of the factors that hinder prices, the industry outlook is full of uncertainty, operators held the state of cautious. The supply market of mainstream price was 9700-9950 yuan / ton in Liaoning, China. The number of supply transactions was in 9700-9900 yuan / ton in Shandong and Xinjiang. The adipic acid (C6H10O4)analysts of LongZhong expect that, in the short term, the chemical will keep a pattern of a slight concussion.

Upstream benzene: the outer disk ran highly, the plate difference between inside and outside was 1000 yuan / ton. It can be expected that, to seek profits, Sinopec will raise the possibility once again in the short term. Traders to small and medium sized single arbitrage shipments large Shan reluctant to sell, waiting for the benzene prices increase again, not more than the spot market supply. Today’s offer continues to move up to 7750-7800 yuan / ton, few quetoed unrealistically up to 7850 yuan / ton, buyers bargain positivly, the atmosphere of inquiry was well.

Pacific Potash Acquired Western Potash Corp’s Assets

Recently, Canadian Pacific Potash Corporation issued a letter to the Western Potash Corp intends to acquire the assets of the Western Potash Corp of Amazon basin in Brazil.

It is reported that Moonraker which is the Western Potash Corp shareholder had decided to sell the 497.5 million shares that he hold to the Pacific Potash Corp. As the equity transaction is completed, the Pacific Potash Company will get the 80% assets of Western Potassium Corp in Brazil, and the Moonraker also will become a wholly owned subsidiary of Pacific Corporation.

The Pacific Company said, to achieve this acquisition, their company has invested a total amount of $ two million these three years, and invested at least $ 300,000 per year.

The Operating Rate Of Global Methanol Equipments Is Expected To Rebound

In 2011, the global demand for methanol totaled about 54 million tons. In the next few years, drived by the rapid development of emerging application areas, the global methanol demand in 2015 will surge to 85 million tons. By then, the overcapacity situation of global methanol is expected to be effective mitigated, and the average operating rate of methanol devices will be back up to about 80% compared to 60% to 65% in the last two years. This information was obtained by the reporter from the recent the General Assembly of China International Nitrogen Fertilizer And Methanol In 2012.

Pang eagle, the senior director of IHS consulting firm, analysized the global methanol market conditions in detail. He pointed out that, from 2008 to 2011 the global methanol production capacity increase at an average annual 10 million tons, while demand growth large far behind the capacity growth. Because of excess capacity, the average operating rate of the methanol plant is maintained at 60% to 65%.The global annual increase of the methanol production capacity is estimated to 3 million tons in 2012 to 2015, at the same time demands for methanol blended gasoline, methanol to dimethyl ether and methanol to olefins and other emerging applications will continue to grow rapidly, especially in the year of 2015, a large number of methanol to olefins projects will put into operation in China, methanol consumption in this field will be more than 15 million tons. The fast growth in demand is expected to make the methanol plant, the average operating rate rose to about 80%.

As for North America region, he said, the methyl tert-butyl ether production in this region is significantly reduced because of the impact of methyl tertiary butyl ether contaminated water events in the past five years, resulting methanol consumption decreased by 30%. Methanol demand and production in the region in the next few years will continue to show weakness stagnation state does not have a big development.

European region about consumed 8 million tons of methanol each year in recent years, leading to the methanol consumption in the region of 2015 to reach about 900 million tons. The region produces methanol by using natural gas as raw material. It doesn’t have the advantages of raw materials, so the production of methanol shows a downward trend, the methanol consumption in the future will rely mainly on imports.

Northeast Asia is the main consuming market of methanol, accounting for more than 60% of the total global consumption. Methanol production and consumption in the region is basically concentrated in mainland China. The methanol consumption situation of the Chinese market is a hot topic of global concern.

Cherries vs. Its Extract

George Washington just might have known about the benefits of cherries when he chopped down the cherry tree. They are used to fight inflammation, allergies, hay fever, gout and arthritis. Its extract has a strong cherry aroma and flavor, and it can be used in a variety of ways. It is available in both natural and artificial forms and also has been found to have natural health benefits.

Raw cherries and cherry extract both offer anti-inflammatory benefits, help fight free radicals, and neutralize uric acid. Cherry extract is more concentrated and is more similar in functioning as an anti-inflammatory drug, an antihistamine and certain anti-asthma drugs.

Both natural and artificial cherry extract are available. The artificial product is made with flavor compounds which are designed to resemble cherries, and it can have a syrupy or sweet flavor. Natural product is made when cherries are soaked in alcohol, drawing out the flavor and aroma of cherries. Most often, cherries are soaked in vodka for several weeks and then strained. In either case, whole fruit is used so that the flavors in the pits will also seep into the extract; people can also make cherry extract at home by covering cherries in a neutral alcohol like vodka and allowing them to soak for several weeks before straining the mixture.

It is rich in antioxidants, which help combat conditions such as cataract, arthritis, Parkinson’s disease and arteriosclerosis. Natural cherry extract also can help fight inflammation, such as gout, because it neutralizes uric acid, which causes pain in joints. It also can be beneficial for those with hay fever and allergies.

Like other fruit extracts, the alcohol in cherry extract burns off very quickly, leaving the flavor behind. These versions are typically artificial, and cooks may want to experiment with several brands to find the right flavor. The extract-making almond contains benzaldehyde, and this is what gives it its flavor. Benzaldehyde is also found in cherries, as well as apricots, peaches, and plums. Non-alcoholic versions are available for people who wish to avoid using alcohol products for religious or dietary reasons. If an extract is too sweet, it can be given a more tart note with fresh lemon or lime juice.

Cherry extract can also be added to ice cream, milkshakes, and mixed drinks, and some savory recipes call for it. This flavoring can be added to cakes, pies, muffins, cookies, and so forth, and it may also be used to make cherry icing as well. Raw cherries and cherry extract both provide many health benefits, and both can alleviate pain and symptoms that accompany many inflammatory conditions. Life is not just a bowl of cherries anymore, it also is an extract.

Lead Fact Sheets

Lead is a metallic chemical element which is classified among the poor metals of the periodic table of elements. It is a soft, pliable metal that is silvery-white in color when freshly cut, but on exposure to air quickly acquires a dull gray appearance due to the formation of a layer of oxide. This element does not typically appear in a pure form in nature. It has a wide range of historical and current applications, and many consumers own products which contain this chemical.

Humans have been using lead for thousands of years. It was also the material of choice for movable type from the 1400s, when Gutenberg invented the movable type press, to today; several foundries still cast its type and other equipment for use with letterpresses. One of the most infamous historical uses of it was in Roman plumbing and pewter, an alloy which was used to make many household goods including cups and plates. Numerous cultural artifacts contain the substance, often in the form of metal alloys, and the ancients were obviously very familiar with the metal, though unfortunately not with its negative health effects.

Lead is the heaviest stable element, a distinction that used to belong to bismuth — element number 83 — until it was found to be very slightly radioactive. One of the most important physical properties of this metal is its ability to absorb high frequency electromagnetic radiation, such as x-rays and gamma rays. This is due to its high density and the large number of electrons in its atom.

The uses for lead are myriad. The resistance to corrosion and malleability make it a popular additive to alloys, and it is also used in bullets, soldering material, radiation shields, and some paints. This metal has also historically been used as an additive in glass, which is why some antique and modern glass is not safe to eat or drink from. Because it is extremely soft, the substance is very easy to work, and early metalsmiths could manipulate product with minimal heat.

Although occasionally found in its elemental state, the main lead ore is galena, or lead sulphide (PbS); other lead ores include cerussite — lead carbonate (PbCO3) — and anglesite — lead sulfate (PbSO4). Ethionine ester is an xcellent selection performance and special separation effect for molybdenum sulfide, lead sulfide, zinc sulfide, copper sulfide, etc.

Chronic lead poisoning has been a significant problem due to the widespread use of Pb in applications that have allowed it to enter the environment. People should try to minimize exposure as much as possible by working in safe environments and disposing of old paint, chemicals, and other potential sources of toxins responsibly.

Different Ways Of Improving Bone Density

If you take care of your bones, you will be more likely to remain independent throughout your life. So it is possible to improve bone density at any age. But the sooner you start working on strengthening your bones, the better. There are many ways to enhance the bone density, it depends on yourself that which one is better. It is never late to do this, just from now on.

Through Diet
Typically western diet contains insufficient calcium, too few vegetables and fruit, coupled with excessive amounts of salt, caffeine and alcohol – all of which can contribute to poor bone mineral density. A balanced diet high in vegetables, whole grains, beans, some dairy products and fruit in moderation, supplies the key nutrients required for optimal bone health.

Eating adequate serves of vegetables and fruits in the diet is an important way of attaining the complete spectrum of minerals and vitamins necessary for good bone health. It is recommended that adults consume 5-7 serves of vegetables, and 2-3 serves of fruit per day.

Through Vitamin D and Calcium Supplements
Vitamin D plays an important role in maintaining serum calcium levels and the modelling and remodelling of bone. Without vitamin D bones become thin, brittle and misshapen. Most of your body’s calcium is stored within your bones, which increases bone strength. Your body also uses calcium to keep nerves, muscles and your heart functioning.

It is said that calcium is best absorbed in amounts of 500 milligrams or less at one time, so take your supplement in divided doses, the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases suggests. Your body does not absorb all the calcium you ingest in your diet. Vitamin D increases calcium absorption in the small intestine. Taking both calcium and vitamin D supplements will increase calcium absorption.

Through Medicine

A common medication used to improve bone density is risedronate sodium, the the brand name is Actonel. Actonel falls into the classification of a bisphosphonate, a drug that slows bone loss by preventing bone breakdown. Bone is in a continual state of remodeling, with older bone breaking down and new bone laid down. As you age, bone breakdown increases, which is why the risk of osteoporosis increases with age. Bisphosphonates like Actonel slow the process.

Consideration
Both bisphosphonates and vitamin D and calcium can increase bone density; the two treatments may work best together, Without adequate calcium intake, bisphosphonates will not be effective. Without adequate vitamin D, calcium won’t be well-absorbed.