Palladium Jewelry Facts

Palladium is a lustrous silvery white metal with the atomic number 46 and chemical abbreviation of Pd. Because the metal is extremely rare, palladium is considered to be a precious metal, and it can command a high price on the open market. It is used in electronics, jewelry, and certain other industries. The growing popularity of the metal jewelry has led many to wonder about this “new” metal. This sleeper silver-white metal owes its existence to another, better-known precious metal, and its renewed popularity to better technology.

The metal was discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston, who named it palladium after the asteroid Pallas. Jewelers used it for jewelry as early as the Victorian era. After World War II, when the war effort called for platinum, the chemical emerged as a viable alternative white metal, especially for use in fine jewelry and wedding jewelry. The re-emergence of platinum for jewelry in the 1980s and 1990s made lower-cost alternative white metals return in popularity as well.

The metal resists tarnish, and is extremely ductile, meaning that it takes readily to working. When palladium is cold worked, the tensile strength greatly increases. The asteroid, in turn, was named for a Greek Goddess of Wisdom. It often occurs in conjunction with platinum, and it is frequently associated with gold, nickel, and copper. Its true, white-silver appearance rarely tarnishes and needs no plating to retain its color.

is anything but a newcomer to the jewelry market. Two factors, however, contributed to the disappearance of the substance on the jewelry market during the last half of the 20th century. These were the difficulty to create a palladium alloy for mass-market jewelry, and the increasing popularity of gold jewelry.

White gold, which is actually yellow gold alloyed with other white metals, made a comeback, as did silver. However, the fact that white gold is rarely “white” and retains a yellowish cast unless plated with rhodium, and the fact that sterling silver is neither precious nor as durable as gold or platinum, opened the market for the reappearance of palladium.

Health Hazards Of Glutaraldehyde

Glutaraldehyde, also called as glutaric dialdehyde or Pentanedial, is a toxic chemical that is used as a cold sterilant to disinfect and clean heat-sensitive medical, surgical and dental equipment. It is found in products such as Cidex, Aldesen, Hospex and so on. It is a colorless, oily liquid with a pungent odor which exhibits low level hazards to human health.

The disinfectant properties of glutaraldehyde make it useful especially in medical applications where sanitation is a paramount concern. Many pieces of equipment are sensitive to steam and heat treatments that might otherwise be used for sterilization and call for the use of chemical disinfectants like glutaric dialdehyde. X-ray technicians also use it as a hardening agent for developing x-ray film.

Glutaraldehyde is used in a limited number of applications, rather than as a general disinfectant. Specific applications include use as a disinfecting agent for respiratory therapy equipment, bronchoscopes, physical therapy whirlpool tubs, surgical instruments, anesthesia equipment parts, x-ray tabletops, dialyzers, and dialysis treatment equipment.

Health Hazards
The chemical is an irritant to the skin, eyes, lungs and throat. Irritants like glutaric dialdehyde cause dermatitis, rashes, swelling and constriction of airways to exposed tissue. The most commonly cited effect is asthma-like symptoms caused by glutaraldehyde vapor entering the lungs and throat. Irritation is usually caused by substances of 2% aqueous glutaraldehyde or stronger.

Glutaraldehyde is a sensitizer. This means some workers will become very sensitive to glutaric dialdehyde(CAS No. 111-30-8) and have strong reactions if they are exposed to even small amounts. Workers may get sudden asthma attacks with difficult breathing, wheezing, coughing, and tightness in the chest. Prolonged exposure can cause a skin allergy and chronic eczema, and afterwards, exposure to small amounts produces severe itching and skin rashes. It has been implicated as a possible cause of occupational asthma.

Always consult medical professionals or poison control if contact or inhalation occurs, but basic measures recommended by the MSDS for glutaraldehyde are as follows. For Inhalation, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention. If swallowed, immediately call a poison control center or doctor.

Methods Of Water Disinfection

Many people in most developing countries suffer from the inadequacy or hazardous condition of public water supplies. A wide variety of known waterborne diseases, including those associated with children’s diarrhea, are rampant. This prompted the establishment of the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. It aims at providing about 90% of the human population with an adequate, safe community water supply by 1990.

Water is important to every living creature; humans need potable water, so if your water source is questionable, you will need to disinfect your water. In situations such as when you are camping, you may need to purify water before drinking it or using it. If you are getting water from a stream, river or some wells, filter the water first to remove sediments and then allow the water to settle before proceeding to disinfect it.

Adding either iodine tablets or tincture of iodine to the water is another way to purify it, states the EPA website article Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water. Iodine in tablet form contains the correct dosage to add to drinking water. You can find the tablets at most drug or sporting goods stores. If you are using the tincture, add 5 drops of approved Pharmacopeia tincture for each quart of water. If the water is cloudy, add 10 drops and leave the water to stand for 30 minutes or more. The usual dosage is one tablet per quart of water, but always follow the directions on the label.

Disinfectants are substances which are capable of killing microorganisms. 2, 2-Dibromo-2-Nitroethanol(DBNE, CAS No. 69094-18-4) belongs to the bromine series compound, is one kind of highly effective anticorrosion disinfectant, widely applies to the industry circulating water and so on. A variety of surfaces can be treated with disinfectants, including textiles, which can be washed in disinfectant solutions, along with floors, counters, and walls made from materials like wood, tile, glass, concrete, and so forth.

Boiling Water
Boiling water kills disease-causing organisms such as giardia lamblia and cryptosporidium. Boiling the water may cause it to taste flat–to make it taste better, pour the water from one container to another four or more times. According to the EPA website article Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water, you should vigorously boil filtered water for one minute before drinking it. If you live above altitudes of one mile, boil the water for three minutes.  Let it stand for two hours or add a pinch of salt per quart.

Iron Around Our Life

Iron(Fe) is a metallic chemical element which has been utilized by humans for centuries. The metal has played such an important role in human history that an entire era, the Iron Age, is named for it. For much of recorded human history, its have been common practice. Today, the uses for the chemical are greater than they have ever been. You probably interact with it in numerous alloys and forms every day, since the element is a ubiquitous part of life on Earth.

Pure iron is a silvery white, very lustrous metal. It is extremely malleable and ductile, which is one of the reasons it has been used by humans for so long, since the substance does not require complex technology to be worked. The metal is identified with the symbol Fe on the periodic table of elements, and it has the atomic number 26. Alloys which contain this element or act like Fe are called ferrous metals, in a reference to the Latin ferrum, which means “iron”.

Popular Uses
Combinations of iron and steel, sometimes referred to as alloyed steel, are also one of the more common uses. The combined material is ideal for use in construction. For example, alloyed steel is often used for the framework of a number of storage buildings, as well as in the construction of some parts of automobiles and the hulls of large carrier and passenger ships. Because the material holds up so well to a variety of temperatures and pressure, the alloy is just right for all forms of construction.

Cast iron is one of the uses for iron(CAS No. 7439-89-6) that many people would not think of being without in their kitchens. The even heating quality of it makes it a perfect material for skillets, Dutch ovens, cake pans, cornbread trays and a number of other forms of cooking hollow ware. The art of properly seasoning substance for use in the kitchen is something that is often passed down from generation to generation within a family.

Better Food Sources
Red meat, especially liver, is one of the best sources of iron. A single serving of liver contains around seven milligrams of Fe, with red meat in general containing between two and four milligrams of this chemical a serving. White meats contain Fe, typically half a milligram to three milligrams a serving, and eggs are also good sources of iron.

Toluene Information

Toluene, or methylbenzene, is a clear liquid that is insoluble in water and smells like paint thinner. It is miscible with most organic solvents and is commonly used as an organic solvent itself.  Despite the chemical’s known hazards, enough evidence does not exist to list it definitively as a carcinogen.

Toluene consists of a six-membered ring of carbon atoms, with hydrogen atoms attached to five of the carbons and a methyl (CH3) group attached to the sixth. It is classified as an aromatic compound because of its structure. Instead of adjacent carbon atoms being connected by distinct single or double bonds, the ring of carbon atoms is held together by single bonds plus a ring of electrons (a continuous pi bond), which are not localized as in normal carbon-containing molecules.

Source and Production
Toluene is a naturally-occurring component of crude oil. It is produced in petroleum refining and is also produced as a byproduct in production of coke for the steel industry. In a chemistry lab product can be made from the reaction of benzene and methyl chloride in the presence of aluminum chloride or by the reaction of bromobenzene with methyl bromide and sodium in a dry ether solvent, among other reactions.

Toluene is primarily used as an octane-boosting additive to gasoline. It is also used as a solvent in paints, household aerosols, adhesives, solvent-based cleaning agents, and synthetic fragrances. Toluene is also used to make benzene and other organic chemicals and in the production of polymers such as nylon and polyethylene terephthalate (used to make soda bottles). In addition, methylbenzene is used in leather tanning and printing operations.

(CAS No. 108-88-3) has been abused as an inhalant, and when used this way it can cause permanent changes to the human brain through repeated exposure in high concentrations. In daily living, people can be exposed to its vapors from car exhaust, contaminated air in a workplace or from breathing the vapors while painting machinery or polishing the fingernails with certain nail lacquers. Exposure also can occur when living near a site that has been contaminated, such as a waste or dump site, or when working daily with products that have been made with the chemical, such as heating oil, kerosene and gasoline.

Exposure threatens children as well as adults. Children can experience symptoms similar to those adults face when exposed to the chemical. Pregnant women also are greatly affected because exposure to high levels can lead to physical birth defects and also affect a baby’s mental capabilities.

Calcium Stearate: Advantages & Disadvantages

Calcium stearate( C36H70CaO4) is a non-toxic, white powdery substance. It is a calcium salt derived from calcium oxide and stearic acid that is commonly found in cosmetics, plastics and food products. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has generally recognized it as safe when used as a food additive.

Calcium stearate was first used in 1924 to improve the texture of bread dough and reduce dust levels in flour. Its unique properties made it useful in many other non-food industries. The substance reduces friction when added to substances, increasing flow rate and preventing caking. It may also be used in gels or to add bulk to cosmetic powders. In addition to its insolubility in water, it is also insoluble in acetone, ether, and cold alcohol.

One of the greatest advantages of calcium stearate is that it can be used in a variety of products to accomplish a number of different goals. In cosmetics, food and other products, it is used to prevent caking, improve texture and thicken materials. This substance is also used as a flow agent, which means that it reduces friction and facilitates the flow of other substances. The pharmaceutical industry uses this substance in many different medications, and the industrial industry uses it for its ability to waterproof various materials.

When certain types of fatty acids are heated with an alkaline substance, the resulting salt is known as soap. Stearic acid is one of the most widely used components of soaps. Calcium stearate is a synthetic ingredient formed through a reaction when stearic acid and calcium oxide are heated together. It is the most important type of calcium salt. Yet due to its lack of solubility, the salt is not commonly used in soap in modern times, having been replaced by synthetic substances that are water soluble.

Calcium stearate(CAS No. 1592-23-0) is frequently found in cosmetics, especially aerosol hair styling products. The substance is also found in cosmetic powders, ointments, and packaging. Despite a very low risk for dermal irritation, topical contact may cause redness, itching, and eye irritation.

While calcium stearate is sometimes used in surfactants, there are some disadvantages of using it in soaps and other cleansers. When combined with water, this substance does not form a creamy lather. Instead, it creates a slimy substance known as soap scum. Soap scum will not only accumulate on tubs and showers, but it can also leave an unwanted film on the skin and hair. For these reasons, many manufacturers have begun using more effective surfactants in their products.

Household Window Cleaner Tips

According to the Sierra Club, grocery store shelves are stocked with toxic household cleaners that contain chemicals such as alkylphenol ethoxylates, which are linked to hormone disruption, as well as monoethanolamine, a suspected trigger of asthma attacks.

The toxins in window cleaner can contribute to indoor contamination and can be poisonous if ingested. Additionally, if a window cleaner is mixed with another cleaner, such as bleach, it can become very toxic. Many homeowners are interested in homemade window cleaners that do not harm valuable houseplants or cause illness.

Glass cleaners contain isopropanol. According to the Dow Chemical Company, overexposure to isopropanol can cause discomfort to the eyes, nose and throat. Overexposure can lead to respiratory problems.

When you make your own nontoxic household cleaners, you know exactly what goes into each recipe. You can clean your oven knowing that the ingredients are benign yet effective, instead of worrying about toxic ingredients. Many oven cleaners contain butyl glycol or butyl cellosolve, which can affect the nervous system, kidneys and liver, according to Dow Chemical, the manufacturer of these ingredients.

Clean windows from the top down to prevent drips. Mix 3 tablespoons of white vinegar with 0.5 teaspoon of mild Castile soap and 2 cups of water to fill a hand-held sprayer. Spray the window and clean it off with a damp squeegee or soft cloth. Tiny scratches on a window can be polished with toothpaste before washing. The slight abrasive ingredient in toothpaste smoothes rough scratched areas and doesn’t harm plants.

Butyl cellosolve(also known as 2-Ethoxyethanol or 2EE, CAS No. 110-80-5) is the ingredient in window cleaners that can be toxic to breathe, while ammonia is the ingredient that’s harmful for plants. The effect of ammonia on plants is death or a slow growth rate. Butyl cellosolve is on California’s list of toxic air pollutants because of animal studies showing it causes reproductive harm. Many homeowners are interested in homemade window cleaners that do not harm valuable houseplants or cause illness

Mix 1 teaspoon of castile soap and 1 tablespoon of fresh lemon juice in 2 cups of water for a non-toxic and effective window cleaner. Use as a spray or apply with a soft cloth such as a T-shirt rag or cloth diaper. Clean windows on a cloudy day to avoid streaking. Microfiber cloths are also an inexpensive alternative for the final polishing. Remove caked on dirt in window corners with a toothbrush, cotton swab or a pencil tip covered in cloth.

L’Oreal Hair Coloring Tips

Hair color in the U.S. is quite common, and though most hair-care experts recommend that you have your hair professionally dyed, many people choose to do it at home. L’Oreal Hair Color is a popular hair coloring brand. Some formulas are designed to last longer than others; however, following the L’Oreal Hair Color advice below will assure that the color remains on the hair for at least six to eight weeks before touch-ups are needed.

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are both in-salon and at-home hair dye products. The products are generally classified by their level of permanence. Their strength ranges from a rinse, which easily washes out after one shampoo, to permanent, which cannot be washed out with shampoo. The hair dye bottle normally states what type of dye it is. The FDA stipulates that you should follow all of the instructions carefully.

Preparing Hair before Coloring
If any type of coloring product has been used within two weeks, or if hair has been chemically processed or treated in some way, such as perming, straightening, or other styling process within two weeks, then at least that much time should elapse before L’Oreal Hair Color is applied. A few days before the coloring is applied, deep condition the hair. This means using a conditioning product that will remain on the hair for longer than one to three minutes. Fifteen to thirty minutes is a sufficient amount of time to obtain deep conditioning results.They will help protect the hair during the coloring procedure.

Colorant’s Ingredients
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Household Products Database, L’Oreal’s Open Haircolor has isoascorbic acid, polyglyceryl-4 oleyl ether, oleic acid, oleyl alcohol, phenyl methyl pyrazolone, sodium metabisulfite, fragrance/perfume, monoethanolamine (MEA), polyglyceryl-2 oleyl ether, resorcinol, water, trideceth-2 carboxamide MEA, pentasodium pentetate, 2-Amino-3-hydroxypyridine(C5H6N2O, CAS No. 16867-03-1), ammonium hydroxide, hexylene glycol, PEG-2 oleamine, ammonium acetate, sodium diethylaminopropyl cocoaspartamide, p-aminophenol and 2-methylresorcinol. These are all used in the colorant of the hair dye kit.

Cleansing Routine after Coloring
After using L’Oreal Hair Color, hair should be washed with a shampoo that protects the color, and aids in retaining the shade as long as possible. If necessary, a color-protecting conditioner should also be used. Styling products can be used, but should either help protect the color also or should not alter the shade, nor should they strip the color from the hair in any way.

Biotin Benefits

Biotin is a B-complex vitamin, also known as Vitamin B-7, D-Biotin or Vitamin H. It is a water-soluble vitamin that does not get stored in the body like fat-soluble vitamins. So in order for it to work efficiently, it needs to be taken regularly because it is constantly being lost with urination.

Biotin was originally discovered in the late 1930s while researching dietary needs of chickens. Researchers were able to determine that a glycoprotein called avidin that is present in eggs can bind with the substance and prevent absorption.

Biotin can be found naturally in foods including liver, cauliflower, salmon, bananas, egg yolks, carrots, legumes and mushrooms. It is also found in brewer’s and nutritional yeast.

Biotin Deficiency
Since the daily requirements for biotin are small, biological deficiency is rare. Frequent consumption of raw eggs or alcohol can result in biotin deficiencies. Biotin deficiency can lead to hair loss, skin rash, high cholesterol and other cardiovascular problems. Metabolic complications including low blood sugar, high amounts of ammonia in the blood and acidosis can occur.

Many health and beauty products that promote hair and nail strength include biotin. However, the usefulness of externally applied products like shampoo is questionable, as it is not easily absorbed through the skin. In order to reap the health benefits of Vitamin B-7, the vitamin must typically be consumed in supplement form.

Hair loss can occur in both men and women. Vitamin B-7 is often used by itself and in conjunction with other vitamin blends for slowing the hair loss process and keeping hair healthier. The only catch is it only helps when biotin deficiency is the underlying reason for the hair loss.

Diabetes is a condition characterized by the pancreas not releasing insulin properly. This leads to sporadic dips and valleys in blood sugar levels. D-Biotin(CAS No. 58-85-5) improves the body’s ability to release insulin in response to elevated blood sugar levels. It also aids the liver in processing glucose, which makes insulin resistance less severe.

Though biotin deficiency is rare, it is serious. Vitamin B-7 deficiency is usually a congenital condition, but it can also be caused by excessive consumption of raw egg white over a period of many months or years. If untreated, Vitamin B-7 deficiency can present serious and potentially fatal neurological symptoms. In early stages, the deficiency is marked by hair and skin conditions including dryness, alopecia, eczema, rashes, and fungal infections. Luckily, the deficiency is easily treated with its supplements.

Plexiglass Introduction

In general, glass is cheaper to purchase than plexiglass, is more scratch resistant and more easily recycled. Plexiglass, on the other hand, is stronger, more shatter-resistant and resistant to the elements and erosion than glass. Plexiglass (also commonly spelled “plexiglas”) is a transparent, synthetic polymer used mostly as an alternative to glass. It also has a wide variety of other applications.

Plexiglass is a synthetic polymer (plastic). Its scientific name is polymethyl methacrylate, and is frequently abbreviated to PMMA and classified as a transparent thermoplastic. Since plexiglass is a plastic, it is a petroleum-based product. Glass is a amorphous (non-crystalline) solid, an inorganic compound that has cooled from a liquid to a solid without passing through a crystalline state. Glass is brittle, transparent and composed primarily of silicas.

Methacrylic acid was first synthesized in 1865. In 1877, German chemists discovered how to transform methyl methacrylate into polymethyl methacrylate. The substance was patented in 1933, and three years later mass production began. It immediately became popular and has remained so ever since.

Acrylic glasses like Plexiglass are created using relatively complex chemical processes. Basically speaking, the synthesis process occurs through one of three separate methods: emulsion polymerization, bulk polymerization or solution polymerization. All of these processes can produce high-quality Plexiglas.

Plexiglass is widely used as a durable, shatter-resistant alternative to glass. It is also used in medical applications, such as in prostheses. You will find it in a wide range of consumer products, such as picture frames, musical instruments and fashion accessories.

Standard glass is cheaper than clear acrylic sheets. However, prices will depend not just on size and thickness, but also on added features such as UV-cut and glare-reduction coatings. In general, when comparing sheets of glass and plexiglass offering the same benefits, the glass option will be cheaper. However, given that methyl methacrylate(C5H8O2, CAS No. 80-62-6) is more resistant to weathering and erosion than glass, long-term maintenance and replacement costs can become significantly cheaper with plexiglass.

Clear acrylic sheets are much easier to cut than glass sheets. Plexiglass can be cut a wide variety of shapes to fit the user’s needs. Glass can be recycled cheaply numerous times. Plexiglass (since it involves the use of petrochemicals) is more difficult, and therefore more expensive, to recycle.

The Positive Effects of BHT

Butylated hydroxytoluene (C15H24O, BHT), also known as butylhydroxytoluene or Antioxidant BHT, is a widely used food preservative in some nations, and banned in others that is derived from petroleum and has many other uses, such as in the production of cosmetics, plastic packaging, and jet fuel.  A white, crystallized molecule, BHT antioxidant prevents oxidation of rubber, resins, and plastic while preserving color.

BHT is also approved by health and safety agencies for use in animal feed to preserve vitamin content and taste. One study found adding BHT antioxidant to chicken feed prevented Newcastle disease, a viral infection that causes death in poultry. This study prompted researchers to theorize BHT antioxidants might prevent viruses in humans. Some people use BHT antioxidants to treat simplex herpes, but no human trials prove its effectiveness.

Food items, like potato flakes and dry cereals, typically contain the additive. It might also be added to pasteboard food cartons and plastic bags inside the boxes to help packaging materials last longer on the shelf. BHT is typically used in combination with butylated hydroxyanisole(BHA)antioxidants, citric acid, and other preservatives. It also helps chewing gum retain its elastic properties.

The benefits of BHT as an anti-viral agent have been known for over 25 years. People with herpes who have taken antioxidant supplements that contain it in the range of 250 to 1,000 milligrams a day have also shown faster-than-normal recovery from the virus and an ability to suppress its reoccurrence. Research over the years has shown that BHT is effective against a range of different viruses, including cytomegalovirus, genital herpes, and a usually fatal disease in livestock such as sheep and cattle known as pseudorabies.

Most of these findings are based on laboratory testing and animal studies, however, as little research into human use of Antioxidant BHT to treat disease has been done, as the compound is known to be detrimental to health in high doses or potentially dangerous with prolonged exposure to low doses.

It is not restricted in the US or Canada, though advisory warnings to its presence have been issued. The European nations of the UK, Sweden, and Romania as well as Australia have all banned its use. One animal study showed the antioxidant impaired the blood’s ability to clot and led to tumors when used over a long period of time at high doses. Researchers found anti-carcinogenic properties in BHT antioxidants in lower doses. They concluded the amounts found in food are likely harmless.

Glycerol Uses

Glycerol(sometimes known as glycerine, glycerin or 1,2,3-Propanetriol) is a simple polyol compound. It is a thick liquid that is colorless and sweet tasting. It has a high boiling point and freezes to a paste. Glycerin’s most common use is in soap and other beauty products like lotions, though it is also used, in the form of nitroglycerin, to create dynamite.

Where we get glycerol has changed over time. In 1889, for example, commercial candlemaking was the only way to obtain the chemical. At that time, candles made from animal fat which served as the source. Extraction is a complicated process and there are various ways of going about it. The simplest way is to mix fat with lye. When the two are mixed, soap is formed and it is then removed. Still, a small amount of glycerol remains in the soap.

Used In Beauty Products
Its ability to absorb and hold moisture makes it perfect for use in many beauty products. It can leave skin dry and irritated in its natural state, but it helps to keep skin soft and healthy when diluted with water and other chemicals. Many soaps, hair gels, facial scrubs, lotions, and shaving creams are made with liquid glycerin. Shampoos and conditioners also commonly contain the substance, as do toothpastes and liquid mouthwashes.

As A Sweetener
In its normal state, liquid glycerol is a colorless, sweet gel. It is commonly used in food laboratories and kitchens as a type of sweetener or preservative. Some cooks and consumers use it as a substitute for table sugar, as it is nearly as sweet as sucrose with fewer calories per serving. Since liquid glycerol is hygroscopic, it helps to preserve moisture in a number of different food products, including cake icing and candy. The compound is also an effective fruit preservative, as it prevents excess water from escaping from fruit through evaporation.

Used In Health Products
When used as a suppository, liquid 1,2,3-Propanetriol(CAS No. 56-81-5) can provide lubrication to dry membranes and act as a laxative by irritating the colon, thus encouraging bowel movements. It is especially useful in cough syrups and expectorants to help sooth sore throats. Many oral gel tablets are comprised partially of glycerin, as it makes pills easy to swallow and allows medicine to be released quickly.

While production levels increase, many researchers and companies are looking for further uses for the substance. Two big areas being investigated are as a 5% additive to chicken and other livestock feed, and as a suitable substitute for the propylene glycol market.

What Can Zinc Sulfate Be Used For?

Zinc sulfate, ZnSO4·7H2O, occurs in nature as goslarite. It is a chemical compound that is used in many industries, including pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agricultural and manufacturing.

A solution of zinc sulphate and hydrated lime, 3.63 kg of each to 440.5 L of water, is used as a spray to control bacterial spot disease of peaches. A 50 percent solution of zinc sulphate in water is applied to lactating dairy cows to prevent facial eczema. Zinc sulfate monohydrate is used in animal feeds and as a micronutrient in fertilizers for crops such as beans and corn. Zinc is an important component of certain enzymes.

Zinc sulfate is used in making lithopone, a mixture of barium sulfate and zinc sulfide, for specialty paints. Lithopone is considerably cheaper than titanium dioxide.

Galvanizing is the process of dipping steel in molten zinc. The outer surface of the zinc layer oxidizes in air and absorbs carbon dioxide to form zinc carbonate, which prevents degradation of the steel. Zinc sulfate and other zinc salts are used by the electroplating industry as substitutes for the galvanizing process and in conjunction with copper to brass plate wire.

Zinc sulfate is used as a component of spinning bath in rayon manufacture, a reagent for paper bleaching and in manufacture of glue, an agent in printing and textile dyeing, a depressant in froth flotation for lead-zinc ores, a component of zinc plating baths and a chemical intermediate for manufacture of the pigment lithopone(BaO5S2Zn2, CAS No. 1345-05-7), carbamate fungicides, zinc metal and other zinc compounds (such as zinc stearate).

Zinc sulfate is used as a human ophthalmic astringent, a veterinary astringent, an emetic and an accelerating agent in dental impression material. It is also used as a component of cosmetics (such as skin fresheners) and an ingredient in some deodorants.

Hibiscus Leaves Information

Aphrodisiac plants, also known as androgenic plants, are those that exhibit anabolic properties — they help enhance sexual abilities and protein synthesis.  Hibiscus rosasinensis, or hibiscus, is one such plant.  Every hibiscus leaf is so nutrient rich, it’s used to make shampoo, tea and medications. Identify the leaves of the next hibiscus you spot using the following description.

Hibiscus leaves are bright green and flat. Each connects to the plant stem via a petiole. The hibiscus leaf is delivery system, manufacturing plant food via the process of photosynthesis and then pushing nutrients throughout the stem, flower and root system. A signature rib or vein runs throughout each leaf and there are also minute openings, called stoma, on leaves for transpiration.

Medicinal Uses
The hibiscus leaf has various medicinal uses. According to the authors of the book “Green Remedies,” hibiscus leaf extract/juice makes an effective antidote to skin rashes and allergies. The authors report that the juice is a major ingredient of many hair care concoctions, including anti-dandruff shampoos and conditioners.

Researchers from the Monash University Sunway Campus in Malaysia report that leaves of six hibiscus species exhibit antioxidant properties by producing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds that reduce the harmful effects of UV radiation.

Fresh hibiscus leaves are primarily comprised of moisture (more than 85 percent), researchers from the Department of Pharmacognosy of the ISF College of Pharmacy report. Other physiochemical constituents include fat, ash, fiber, phosphorus, thiamine and calcium. Chemical constituents of the leaves include anisaldehyde, isoamyl alcohol, methanol, malic acid, benzyl alcohol, iso-propyl alcohol, niacin and 3-methyl-1-butanol(C5H12O, CAS No. 123-51-3).

Potential Uses
There are also some other amazing benefits that have been proved. Hibiscus leaves have aphrodisiac, antiseptic, cholagogue, astringent, emollient, diuretic, resolvent, refrigerant, sedative and stomachic properties. Hibiscus leaf extract is also used to treat menstrual problems in women and to regulate the menstrual cycle.

Glyphosate Facts

Glyphosate is a herbicide used to kill many different types of weeds. It is a very common product used in both commercial and residential applications. Monsanto, the manufacturer of this substance, claims it is the world’s best-selling herbicide. Over time, high use can result in a buildup of the chemical in the soil.

Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicide, and is effective in killing all plant types, including grasses, perennials and woody plants. Because it gets absorbed into the plant mainly through its leaves, and also through its soft stalk tissue, the entire plant will be affected. It travels through the plant, affecting its metabolism and killing the entire plant slowly. Once sprayed, plants display stunted growth, loss of green coloration, leaf wrinkling or malformation and finally, tissue death.

Crops with genetically engineered resistance to glyphosate are being developed so that weeds can be controlled in fields where the crops are growing without harming the crops. However, there’s also concern that the genes that display the resistance may be transferred to non-crop species including weeds. Weed experts are concerned that some weeds such as rye grass are becoming resistant to glyphosate-containing herbicides, rendering conventional chemical farming practices useless.

There are different schools of thought on whether glyphosate leaches into soil, and what that means to plants. Some researchers report that there is little danger when it is absorbed into soil because it dissipates. Others disagree.

Over time, so much chemical could accumulate in the soil that the soil could become toxic to anything that people want to seed in it. This is put forward as a possibility due to the ever increasing use of the herbicide when spraying genetically engineered crops that are designed to become glyphosate(C3H8NO5P, CAS No. 1071-83-6) resistant. With the crops resisting the spray, more of it can be used to attack the weeds, which results in a larger buildup in the soil.

The higher the concentrations of the chemical, the longer it will have a chance to last long enough to be washed into the water supply. The quality of the soil also affects the risk of water contamination. The coarser the soil material, the higher the risk that high levels of glyphosate in soil will eventually travel into the ground water supply.

Ethylparaben Used As Parabens

Ethylparaben(C9H10O3) is a ethyl eter of hydroxybenzoic acid. Though considered safe in the very low concentrations of 0.04% to 0.08% generally used in products, several studies suggest a link between parabens and breast cancer.

Ethylparaben is a paraben and preservative found in many skin care products, ranging from skin cream to body lotion to deodorant. It can be found in essential oils used to treat dry skin and in primrose oil serving as an anti-septic. Although parabens are generally considered safe when used in low percentages (0.04% – 0.08%), many studies have found a link between parabens and breast cancer.

Propylparaben is another paraben-related compound used as a fungicide, with the unique characteristic that is a naturally occurring chemical found in many plants and some species of insect. Butylparaben is often used in medicines as another derivative of the paraben family of compounds. Several compounds related to ethylparaben are also used as fungicide-based preservatives. It is a related chemical preservative that is often used to inhibit the growth of Drosophila larva, commonly known as fruit flies, in foods.

Ultimately, the cosmetics industry has found the low levels of parabens in cosmetics to be safe and the connection between parabens and breast cancer to be weak. The FDA finds that although parabens can mimic estrogen, the actual effects of this low level of activity on the body do not cause cancer in a higher incidence than naturally occurring estrogen. Nonetheless, many paraben-free products are being created to avoid the possible dangers of ethylparaben and other paraben-based preservatives.

Evidence suggests, however, that this effect is negligible and does not increase natural estrogen levels. Despite such positive scientific findings as to the safety and tolerance of ethylparaben(CAS: 120-47-8) at the concentration levels currently used, it is one of many synthetic preservatives of which manufacturers are trying to reduce the use. Many cosmetics products are now being marketed as paraben-free in order to avoid any possible dangers the chemicals pose.

Controversy over the safety of products containing ethylparaben may continue for some time since studies of its adverse effects are small and limited in scope. A 2004 study published in the Journal of Applied Toxicology found that 60% of breast tumors were centered in a small area near the underarm, where deodorant is most often applied. Out of the 20 cases of malignant breast tumors studied, 18 had high concentrations of parabens in tumor cells. Not all deodorants contain parabens; however, many beauty products in addition to deodorant contain parabens, including face cream, body lotions, cleansers and shampoos.

Sodium Benzoate Fact Sheets

Benzoates are salt compounds which are often chosen over acid compounds because of their much greater solubility in water. Sodium benzoate(also known as Ucephan or Sobenate) is a commonly used chemical preservative in food, although it only works well in foods which are naturally acidic or which have been acidified. If too much is added, food may take on a very bitter taste.

Sodium benzoate is found in several common fruits like apples, plums and cranberries. A few sweet spices contain small amounts of this compound, including cloves and cinnamon. The presence of the salt in these foods does not necessarily act to preserve them.

The chemical is so well-known because it works very well at killing bacteria, yeast and fungi. You will most commonly see it used as a preservative in foods with a high acid content, since sodium benzoate will only work when the pH balance of foods is less than 3.6. It is therefore effective in most sodas, vinegar, fruit juice, and in mixed ingredients like salad dressing. It is additionally used to stop the fermentation process in wines.

You may be able to taste sodium benzoate in foods to which it is added — approximately 75% of people can taste it. But, they people who taste this salt would describe it in different ways that they think right. Some call it bitter or salty while others think the taste is more on the sweet side. Since many of us drink soft drinks on a regular basis, we are fairly used to tasting this preservative and generally think nothing of it.

Sodium benzoate on its own is not considered a carcinogen, and you would have to consume a huge amount of it in order to have toxic levels in your body. However, there have been some health concerns about the combination of sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid or vitamin C. In mice studies where the animals were fed sodium benzoate(CAS No. 532-32-1), no adverse effects were reported, and the mice’s life expectancies were not shortened, nor was their health affected in any way.

It may just be a good idea to at least cut down on the amount of soft drinks you consume, and especially to limit soft drink consumption for kids. Scientists have called for the US Food and Drug Administration to retest the potential dangers of sodium benzoate and citric acid in soft drinks, because the tests proving its safety are quite old. The same cannot be said of benzene, which researchers now show has the ability to affect mitochondria in cells and cause cell death.

Function Of PG

Propylene glycol(PG, also known as 1,2-Propanediol), the main ingredient in anti-freeze, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration when used according to FDA regulations. The chemical compound is most commonly used as a food additive. However, large doses can cause seizures in humans and kidney and liver damage in animals.

In Industrial Use
Propylene glycol has a myriad of functions in industrial applications. The textile industry uses it as an intermediary in the production of polyester fiber. The military uses it to form smoke screens for troops. Military and commercial airlines use it as a de-icer for planes, however, ethylene glycol is also used because of its lower cost. PG can be found in liquid detergents, as well as a number of other uses.

As Food Additive
In foods, PG absorbs water and maintains moisture. It dissolves food dyes and flavorings in drinks, and it keeps foods from freezing, such as in breweries and dairies. In food, it would be difficult to consume a dangerous dose, but babies, infants, the elderly and those with certain allergies may be more sensitive to the chemical.

In Medical Uses
In medicines, PG acts as an emulsifier, specifically in topical agents and injectable medicines. It also acts as an excipient, or solvent, for the active ingredients in medications. Newborns have shown adverse reactions to medicines using this chemical.

In Cosmetics
Propylene glycol is often present in cosmetics, hand and body lotions and antiperspirants due to its antimicrobial activity, note Rietschel, Fowler and Fisher. It’s effective against the bacteria E. coli and the fungus candida, or yeast. Tinea versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis also respond to this compound, but only in high concentrations. In beauty products it can help prevent bacterial proliferation for safe application onto the skin. The book also notes that 1,2-Propanediol(CAS No. 57-55-6) is non-comedogenic, meaning it does not clog pores, which can cause acne or other blemishes.

The chemical is fairly safe but can irritate your stomach, skin and eyes and catch fire under the right conditions. The information presented here reflects the dangers faced by people who use propylene glycol in industrial quantities and settings. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has determined that the very small amounts of the chemical appearing in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals pose no known health risks to people or animals other than cats.

Alkaline Battery Fact Sheets

The world’s needs for energy are ever larger and more varied as time goes on. One source of energy has developed as a convenient way to power electronic devices, and that is the alkaline battery. The closed circuit created by these two electron flows use up the chemical energy of the electrolyte and produce electrical power in the process. This process is the same, whether it takes place in an alkaline battery or in a zinc-carbon battery.

The alkaline battery is one of the more modern types of battery used, having been introduced first in the 1960s. The very first battery was created by scientist Alessandro Volta in 1800. Volta made his battery by stacking alternating layers of zinc, salt water-soaked blotting paper, and silver. The higher the stack, the higher the voltage produced by this arrangement. This type of battery was known as the voltaic pile. The modern alkaline battery still uses the same fundamental principles as the voltaic pile, namely two different types of metal, separated by a liquid which conducts electricity, with a negative and a positive terminal.

Each alkaline battery has two ends, or terminals — a positive and a negative terminal. Inside the battery, a chemical reaction produces electrons, which gather at the negative terminal of the battery. However, unless the negative terminal is connected to the positive terminal, the chemical reaction stops and no more electricity is produced.

Potassium hydroxide is used as the electrolyte in an alkaline battery, not ammonium chloride or zinc chloride — the electrolytes used commonly with zinc-carbon batteries. Potassium hydroxide is also known as caustic potash or potash lye. While alkaline batteries are ensconced in a casing they are still capable of leaking potassium hydroxide, which is known to cause eye and skin irritation.

Manganese dioxide(MnO2, CAS No. 1313-13-9) is used as the cathode, or negative electrode. It occurs in nature as the mineral pyrolusite, and is typically used in a powder form as well. Graphite is also added to the cathode, to improve conductivity.

When compared with a zinc-carbon battery, its main competitor, an alkaline battery has a higher energy density, as well as a longer shelf-life. However, alkaline batteries have high internal resistance. The faster that an alkaline battery is drained, the lower the capacity or load that the battery can handle.

Unexpected Benefits Of N-Acetyl-cysteine

N-acetyl-cysteine(C5H9NO3S), also written as N-acetylcysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine or simply NAC, is a compound produced in the body from cysteine, a non-essential amino acid. “NAC is the pre-aceylized form of the simple amino acid cysteine,” according to the DCnutrition website. There are many health benefits to be gleaned from taking extra supplements of N-acetyl-cysteine.

The first discovery about N-acetyl-L-cysteine was that it was capable of breaking up mucus in lung conditions such as bronchitis. According to, NAC has the ability to increase glutathione levels in the body and to prevent damage caused by high doses of acetaminophen.

This compound may provide relief for many respiratory disorders. It is attributed with mucolytic properties, meaning that it acts as a decongestant to help loosen and literally digest mucus in the lungs. This is accomplished by dissolving certain proteins present in mucus by breaking the “disulfide bridge”, or the covalent bonds that link their thiol groups.

According to a study in The World Journal of Gastroenterology, N-acetyl-L-cysteine has proved to reduce many of the symptoms of people who have ulcerated colitis, a form of inflammatory bowel disease with many uncomfortable symptoms. Before this discovery, patients with ulcerative colitis were treated with the prescribed drug Mesalamine.

While there has not been nearly enough research performed to substantiate the validity of treating many of the conditions this compound is reputed to improve, there is sufficient evidence to warrant further investigation. For instance, there are reports that this agent may be a home remedy for a hangover when combined with vitamins C and B1. Other claims include the ability for this amino acid to temper certain compulsive disorders, especially nail biting and hair pulling. As a nutritional supplement, N-acetyl-cysteine may have a great range of applications due to its regulation of glutathione as well as glutamate, an important neurotransmitter involved in cellular metabolism.

There are many vitamins, minerals and facial creams that are reported to make us live healthier, longer and look great along the way. People are living longer, and if we live longer, we want to feel and look our very best. N-acetyl-L-cysteine can improve many immune functions as well as cognition in the elderly and is undergoing studies in its role to prevent and treat Alzheimer’s disease, according to