Different Types Of Alcohol Chemicals

Alcohol products are all around you, from cleaning supplies to face cleaner to the fuel in your car or the wine you drink with dinner. In chemistry, there are three major types of alcohol. These include isopropyl alcohol, methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol. Each of these types of alcohol has separate properties, so it is important to distinguish which type of alcohol you have for reasons of safety.

Methyl Alcohol
Methyl alcohol, also called methanol and wood alcohol, is used primarily as an industrial solvent. It is also used to make formaldehyde for plastics, paint and plywood. Methyl alcohol is used in windshield wiper fluid. For example, it is a component in paint remover and photocopier developer. People also use methyl alcohol to make other chemicals. This is because a by-product of degrading methanol is formaldehyde, which may be used to make everything from plastics to explosives. It also works to fuel internal combustion engines and keep fuel from freezing. The chemical formula for methyl alcohol is CH3OH.

Ethyl Alcohol
Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is the type in wine, beer, liquor, mouthwash or cold medicine. People usually take ethyl alcohol in a diluted concentration–the level of the concentration is known as the proof of the alcoholic beverage. Ethanol is also used in gasoline, It can be made from corn, sugar cane and potatoes, much like drinking alcohol is distilled from food crops such as wheat, potatoes and corn.

Isopropyl Alcohol
Isopropyl alcohol also is called isopropanol or 2-propanol. More commonly, it is known as rubbing alcohol due to the practice of physicians rubbing the substance on the body for cooling and disinfecting. Produced by combining water and propylene, rubbing alcohol works well for sterilization. Its high evaporation rate makes it a first choice for cleaning electronics, although it is found in everyday cleaning products, as well. Isopropyl alcohol also is found in cosmetics, including lotions. The chemical formula for this type of alcohol is C3H8O.

Butyl Alcohol
Adhesives and varnishes are traditionally made from butyl alcohol. Floor polishes and other cleaners sometimes contain it. Butyl alcohol(C4H10O), also known as 1-butanol or Butanol, also may be present in eye makeup, foundation and lipstick. It is also a component of gasoline and brake fluid, according to the Dow Chemical Co. website.

Ethylene Glycol
Ethylene glycol is primarily used in the manufacture of automotive antifreeze. It is extremely toxic if ingested.

Toluene Information

Toluene, or methylbenzene, is a clear liquid that is insoluble in water and smells like paint thinner. It is miscible with most organic solvents and is commonly used as an organic solvent itself.  Despite the chemical’s known hazards, enough evidence does not exist to list it definitively as a carcinogen.

Toluene consists of a six-membered ring of carbon atoms, with hydrogen atoms attached to five of the carbons and a methyl (CH3) group attached to the sixth. It is classified as an aromatic compound because of its structure. Instead of adjacent carbon atoms being connected by distinct single or double bonds, the ring of carbon atoms is held together by single bonds plus a ring of electrons (a continuous pi bond), which are not localized as in normal carbon-containing molecules.

Source and Production
Toluene is a naturally-occurring component of crude oil. It is produced in petroleum refining and is also produced as a byproduct in production of coke for the steel industry. In a chemistry lab product can be made from the reaction of benzene and methyl chloride in the presence of aluminum chloride or by the reaction of bromobenzene with methyl bromide and sodium in a dry ether solvent, among other reactions.

Toluene is primarily used as an octane-boosting additive to gasoline. It is also used as a solvent in paints, household aerosols, adhesives, solvent-based cleaning agents, and synthetic fragrances. Toluene is also used to make benzene and other organic chemicals and in the production of polymers such as nylon and polyethylene terephthalate (used to make soda bottles). In addition, methylbenzene is used in leather tanning and printing operations.

(CAS No. 108-88-3) has been abused as an inhalant, and when used this way it can cause permanent changes to the human brain through repeated exposure in high concentrations. In daily living, people can be exposed to its vapors from car exhaust, contaminated air in a workplace or from breathing the vapors while painting machinery or polishing the fingernails with certain nail lacquers. Exposure also can occur when living near a site that has been contaminated, such as a waste or dump site, or when working daily with products that have been made with the chemical, such as heating oil, kerosene and gasoline.

Exposure threatens children as well as adults. Children can experience symptoms similar to those adults face when exposed to the chemical. Pregnant women also are greatly affected because exposure to high levels can lead to physical birth defects and also affect a baby’s mental capabilities.

High Protein Diet to Maintain Muscle Growth

A high-protein diet can lead to healthy skin and improved muscle mass. Protein contains amino acids that help with the production of collagen to create thicker, healthier skin. If you want to use a high-protein diet to build muscles, you will find that a lot of food has protein in it. However, there are a few foods that are better sources of protein that others.

Daily Requirements
The amount of protein that you need to eat depends upon your weight and body fat percentage. Convert your body weight from pounds into kilograms by dividing the pounds by 2.2. For example, 150 lbs. is 68.18kg. Once you have your body fat percentage, you will need to multiply it by your weight (in kilograms). Take the number you get from that calculation and subtract it from your body weight to get your lean mass weight.

Now that you have the lean mass body weight, you can figure out how much protein you need to eat each day. Get this amount by multiplying your lean mass body weight by 2.75. For example, 57.95kg multiplied by 2.75 equals 159.36g for the 150-lb. person with 15 percent body fat.

Calories in the Protein Diet
A protein-enriched diet includes 30 percent to 50 percent of the calories from protein, with a low amount of carbohydrates. This is a dramatic increase from the 10 percent to 15 percent of protein found in the typical diet. This increase in protein should benefit your skin with the addition of the L-Lysine and L-Proline(C5H9NO2, CAS No. 147-85-3) found in protein, two amino acids to increase collagen production, and help protect cells from bacterial and viral infections.

Types of Food in a Protein Diet
Consider the protein rich foods that make up a high-protein diet, such as nuts, eggs, fish and meat. These foods are rich in protein, but also may contain high levels of saturated fat. Choose fish for its high level of protein and low saturated fats. You may enjoy meat for its protein, yet some meats are high in fat. Seek the leaner cuts of meat. Lentil beans are rich in protein, while containing a low level of fat.

Dairy foods such as eggs, cheese, yogurt and milk all have a decent protein content that can help build muscles. Like beef, dairy products can be full of saturated fat. Only low-fat dairy products should be used for this reason.

Industrial Uses for Sulphuric Acid

Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is an extremely corrosive liquid that is viscous, colorless and odorless. Since its discovery, it has been employed in a wide variety of uses around the globe. It is a key component in batteries, wastewater treatment, ore production, and fertilizer creation. Sixty-five percent of all fertilizers available on the market today are created from a combination of it and other chemicals.

Sulfuric acid was discovered in the 8th century by an alchemist named Jabir Ibn Hayyan. When sulfur compounds are burned, sulfur dioxide gas is left behind. When sulfur dioxide gas is heated to 450 degrees, the combination turns into sulfur trioxide. Jabir Ibn Hayyan mixed sulfur trioxide with water to create sulfuric acid. A century later, Ibn Zakariya al-Razi, a Persian physician and alchemist, continued studying the acid and discovered it had the ability to destroy iron and copper oxide.

Due to the acid’s unstable properties, it is essential for those combining sulfuric acid with water to add it to the water and not the other way around. If water is poured into sulfuric acid, a volatile explosion of boiling water can be created. Though the acid is non-flammable, it can create hydrogen gas, which is highly volatile.

According to Florida State College at Jacksonville, about 65 percent of the world’s sulfuric acid is used to manufacture agricultural fertilizers. To produce ammonium sulfate fertilizers and phosphate fertilizers, the chemical reacts with ammonia to create a form of ammonium nitrate used in the fertilizers. Sulfuric acid(CAS No. 7664-93-9) also converts insoluble calcium phosphate into soluble mixtures of compounds, such as Ca(H2PO4)2 and 2CaSO4.2H2O, which can be crushed and used as “superphosphate” fertilizers.

Lead-acid storage batteries for cars and other vehicles are some of the few consumer products that contain sulfuric acid. Often called “battery acid” or “electrolyte,” a generic term used to describe non-metallic substances that conduct electricity when dissolved in water, sulfuric acid is quite dangerous, and should only be handled by trained, authorized professionals. These batteries can weigh upward of 60 lbs., and carrier lifts are often used to move batteries that contain sulfuric acid in auto shops.

Household Window Cleaner Tips

According to the Sierra Club, grocery store shelves are stocked with toxic household cleaners that contain chemicals such as alkylphenol ethoxylates, which are linked to hormone disruption, as well as monoethanolamine, a suspected trigger of asthma attacks.

The toxins in window cleaner can contribute to indoor contamination and can be poisonous if ingested. Additionally, if a window cleaner is mixed with another cleaner, such as bleach, it can become very toxic. Many homeowners are interested in homemade window cleaners that do not harm valuable houseplants or cause illness.

Glass cleaners contain isopropanol. According to the Dow Chemical Company, overexposure to isopropanol can cause discomfort to the eyes, nose and throat. Overexposure can lead to respiratory problems.

When you make your own nontoxic household cleaners, you know exactly what goes into each recipe. You can clean your oven knowing that the ingredients are benign yet effective, instead of worrying about toxic ingredients. Many oven cleaners contain butyl glycol or butyl cellosolve, which can affect the nervous system, kidneys and liver, according to Dow Chemical, the manufacturer of these ingredients.

Clean windows from the top down to prevent drips. Mix 3 tablespoons of white vinegar with 0.5 teaspoon of mild Castile soap and 2 cups of water to fill a hand-held sprayer. Spray the window and clean it off with a damp squeegee or soft cloth. Tiny scratches on a window can be polished with toothpaste before washing. The slight abrasive ingredient in toothpaste smoothes rough scratched areas and doesn’t harm plants.

Butyl cellosolve(also known as 2-Ethoxyethanol or 2EE, CAS No. 110-80-5) is the ingredient in window cleaners that can be toxic to breathe, while ammonia is the ingredient that’s harmful for plants. The effect of ammonia on plants is death or a slow growth rate. Butyl cellosolve is on California’s list of toxic air pollutants because of animal studies showing it causes reproductive harm. Many homeowners are interested in homemade window cleaners that do not harm valuable houseplants or cause illness

Mix 1 teaspoon of castile soap and 1 tablespoon of fresh lemon juice in 2 cups of water for a non-toxic and effective window cleaner. Use as a spray or apply with a soft cloth such as a T-shirt rag or cloth diaper. Clean windows on a cloudy day to avoid streaking. Microfiber cloths are also an inexpensive alternative for the final polishing. Remove caked on dirt in window corners with a toothbrush, cotton swab or a pencil tip covered in cloth.

Fire Retardants Chemicals

Knowing what chemicals are in the products around you is important for your safety and health. Chemicals used to make certain products fireproof are commonly referred to as flame retardants.  During a fire, firefighters use a foam that is sprayed on similarly to water.  Various chemicals, depending on the type of fire being controlled, help to suffocate the fire by removing the oxygen from the immediate area where the burn is located.

Coatings on Furniture and Clothing
Flame retardant coatings on materials can react in different ways. Aluminum trihydrate is a compound that acts as a flame retardant. Near 200 degrees it becomes aluminum oxide and water. Boron mixes that are coated on materials react with heat by creating water that absorbs the energy of the fire. In some cases it will also release a boric acid. The acid will aid in charring the surface that will keep gasses from being emitted from the material that is being burned. Magnesium hydroxide reacts at really high temperatures above 300 degrees. Once it reaches high temperatures, it reacts in much the same way as aluminum trihydrate by forming a gas near the surface of the object that slows the burn by blocking the flames.

Brominated Flame Retardants
Brominated flame retardants, or BFRs, are the most widely used flame-retardant product as of 2011. BFRs can be used in everything from textiles for clothing and curtains to plastics for baby bottles and electronics. There are up to 70 different BFRs being synthesized for market use. They include decabromodiphenyl ether, which is considered benign and completely safe, and tetrabromobisphenol A, which is considered toxic.

Mineral compounds that are made into chemicals and then used as flame retardants make up a large portion of the fireproofing chemicals. They include borates, which are chemical and mineral compounds that occur naturally and are the most commonly used mineral-based flame retardant. They also include asbestos and red phosphorus, as well as the less common aluminium hydroxide, hydromagnesite and antimony trioxide(Sb2O3, sometimes called as Antimony(III) oxide or diantimony trioxide). These compounds are the least used of the flame retardants and when used tend to be found in plastics and various construction materials.

There is a lot of speculation about the safety of BFRs and the risk they pose to consumers. Several BFRs have gone out of production because of health risks, and in several European countries the use of BFRs is banned altogether.  Lobbyists, however, have argued that the benefits of lives saved by flame retardants outweighs the risk posed to consumers.

Latex Gloves Description

Chemicals can be highly dangerous. Some are flammable or react violently with other chemicals. Protect your eyes with goggles and your hands with gloves. Latex comes from the rubber tree, which is cultivated in wet tropical environments such as Southeast Asia, West Africa and Brazil. It is then made into various products, the most common being the latex glove. People in the United States use billions of latex gloves per year for different purposes

Latex is a natural rubber harvested from the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. It is a polymer, made up of extremely large molecules composed of many identical molecular subunits. Starch is a polymer, consisting of repeated subunits of sugar. The molecular subunits in latex are a molecule called isoprene. Latex effectively protects against some chemicals, but there are better choices for certain other chemicals.

Latex gloves are cheaper than gloves made from synthetic material. The latex gloves are generally more comfortable to wear than synthetic gloves, and the rubbery nature of the latex allows the glove to be more flexible and less stiff than synthetic materials. This flexibility of movement is more efficient for people who must have have nimble fingers, such as surgeons.

Food Handling
Latex gloves are used in the food service industry to prepare and handle foods in a way that eliminates contamination. A box of latex gloves can generally be found in every kitchen to provide the workers the option of protection. It is also advantageous when a worker has a cut or abrasion and the bandage needs to be covered with something extra that allows a wide range of mobility.

Latex Gloves
Latex gloves offer very good protection (low permeation rate and high breakthrough time) against ethanol, isopropyl alcohol and ethylene glycol, and moderately good protection from methanol and acetone. They offer very poor protection against isobutyl alcohol(also known as Isobutanol or 2-Methyl-1-propanol, C4H10O) and carbon tetrachloride. If you are ever in doubt, glove manufacturers can provide the permeation rate and breakthrough times for a wide array of chemicals so you can determine which gloves are appropriate.

The most common place latex gloves are used is in the medical field. They protects the nurses and doctors from potentially harmful bodily fluids. They are unique in that they protect the hands but also allow the ability to grip fine objects such as scalpels and forceps. Latex gloves are also an economical choice, which allows for disposal after every use.

Plexiglass Introduction

In general, glass is cheaper to purchase than plexiglass, is more scratch resistant and more easily recycled. Plexiglass, on the other hand, is stronger, more shatter-resistant and resistant to the elements and erosion than glass. Plexiglass (also commonly spelled “plexiglas”) is a transparent, synthetic polymer used mostly as an alternative to glass. It also has a wide variety of other applications.

Plexiglass is a synthetic polymer (plastic). Its scientific name is polymethyl methacrylate, and is frequently abbreviated to PMMA and classified as a transparent thermoplastic. Since plexiglass is a plastic, it is a petroleum-based product. Glass is a amorphous (non-crystalline) solid, an inorganic compound that has cooled from a liquid to a solid without passing through a crystalline state. Glass is brittle, transparent and composed primarily of silicas.

Methacrylic acid was first synthesized in 1865. In 1877, German chemists discovered how to transform methyl methacrylate into polymethyl methacrylate. The substance was patented in 1933, and three years later mass production began. It immediately became popular and has remained so ever since.

Acrylic glasses like Plexiglass are created using relatively complex chemical processes. Basically speaking, the synthesis process occurs through one of three separate methods: emulsion polymerization, bulk polymerization or solution polymerization. All of these processes can produce high-quality Plexiglas.

Plexiglass is widely used as a durable, shatter-resistant alternative to glass. It is also used in medical applications, such as in prostheses. You will find it in a wide range of consumer products, such as picture frames, musical instruments and fashion accessories.

Standard glass is cheaper than clear acrylic sheets. However, prices will depend not just on size and thickness, but also on added features such as UV-cut and glare-reduction coatings. In general, when comparing sheets of glass and plexiglass offering the same benefits, the glass option will be cheaper. However, given that methyl methacrylate(C5H8O2, CAS No. 80-62-6) is more resistant to weathering and erosion than glass, long-term maintenance and replacement costs can become significantly cheaper with plexiglass.

Clear acrylic sheets are much easier to cut than glass sheets. Plexiglass can be cut a wide variety of shapes to fit the user’s needs. Glass can be recycled cheaply numerous times. Plexiglass (since it involves the use of petrochemicals) is more difficult, and therefore more expensive, to recycle.

The Positive Effects of BHT

Butylated hydroxytoluene (C15H24O, BHT), also known as butylhydroxytoluene or Antioxidant BHT, is a widely used food preservative in some nations, and banned in others that is derived from petroleum and has many other uses, such as in the production of cosmetics, plastic packaging, and jet fuel.  A white, crystallized molecule, BHT antioxidant prevents oxidation of rubber, resins, and plastic while preserving color.

BHT is also approved by health and safety agencies for use in animal feed to preserve vitamin content and taste. One study found adding BHT antioxidant to chicken feed prevented Newcastle disease, a viral infection that causes death in poultry. This study prompted researchers to theorize BHT antioxidants might prevent viruses in humans. Some people use BHT antioxidants to treat simplex herpes, but no human trials prove its effectiveness.

Food items, like potato flakes and dry cereals, typically contain the additive. It might also be added to pasteboard food cartons and plastic bags inside the boxes to help packaging materials last longer on the shelf. BHT is typically used in combination with butylated hydroxyanisole(BHA)antioxidants, citric acid, and other preservatives. It also helps chewing gum retain its elastic properties.

The benefits of BHT as an anti-viral agent have been known for over 25 years. People with herpes who have taken antioxidant supplements that contain it in the range of 250 to 1,000 milligrams a day have also shown faster-than-normal recovery from the virus and an ability to suppress its reoccurrence. Research over the years has shown that BHT is effective against a range of different viruses, including cytomegalovirus, genital herpes, and a usually fatal disease in livestock such as sheep and cattle known as pseudorabies.

Most of these findings are based on laboratory testing and animal studies, however, as little research into human use of Antioxidant BHT to treat disease has been done, as the compound is known to be detrimental to health in high doses or potentially dangerous with prolonged exposure to low doses.

It is not restricted in the US or Canada, though advisory warnings to its presence have been issued. The European nations of the UK, Sweden, and Romania as well as Australia have all banned its use. One animal study showed the antioxidant impaired the blood’s ability to clot and led to tumors when used over a long period of time at high doses. Researchers found anti-carcinogenic properties in BHT antioxidants in lower doses. They concluded the amounts found in food are likely harmless.

Glycerol Uses

Glycerol(sometimes known as glycerine, glycerin or 1,2,3-Propanetriol) is a simple polyol compound. It is a thick liquid that is colorless and sweet tasting. It has a high boiling point and freezes to a paste. Glycerin’s most common use is in soap and other beauty products like lotions, though it is also used, in the form of nitroglycerin, to create dynamite.

Where we get glycerol has changed over time. In 1889, for example, commercial candlemaking was the only way to obtain the chemical. At that time, candles made from animal fat which served as the source. Extraction is a complicated process and there are various ways of going about it. The simplest way is to mix fat with lye. When the two are mixed, soap is formed and it is then removed. Still, a small amount of glycerol remains in the soap.

Used In Beauty Products
Its ability to absorb and hold moisture makes it perfect for use in many beauty products. It can leave skin dry and irritated in its natural state, but it helps to keep skin soft and healthy when diluted with water and other chemicals. Many soaps, hair gels, facial scrubs, lotions, and shaving creams are made with liquid glycerin. Shampoos and conditioners also commonly contain the substance, as do toothpastes and liquid mouthwashes.

As A Sweetener
In its normal state, liquid glycerol is a colorless, sweet gel. It is commonly used in food laboratories and kitchens as a type of sweetener or preservative. Some cooks and consumers use it as a substitute for table sugar, as it is nearly as sweet as sucrose with fewer calories per serving. Since liquid glycerol is hygroscopic, it helps to preserve moisture in a number of different food products, including cake icing and candy. The compound is also an effective fruit preservative, as it prevents excess water from escaping from fruit through evaporation.

Used In Health Products
When used as a suppository, liquid 1,2,3-Propanetriol(CAS No. 56-81-5) can provide lubrication to dry membranes and act as a laxative by irritating the colon, thus encouraging bowel movements. It is especially useful in cough syrups and expectorants to help sooth sore throats. Many oral gel tablets are comprised partially of glycerin, as it makes pills easy to swallow and allows medicine to be released quickly.

While production levels increase, many researchers and companies are looking for further uses for the substance. Two big areas being investigated are as a 5% additive to chicken and other livestock feed, and as a suitable substitute for the propylene glycol market.

What Can Zinc Sulfate Be Used For?

Zinc sulfate, ZnSO4·7H2O, occurs in nature as goslarite. It is a chemical compound that is used in many industries, including pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agricultural and manufacturing.

A solution of zinc sulphate and hydrated lime, 3.63 kg of each to 440.5 L of water, is used as a spray to control bacterial spot disease of peaches. A 50 percent solution of zinc sulphate in water is applied to lactating dairy cows to prevent facial eczema. Zinc sulfate monohydrate is used in animal feeds and as a micronutrient in fertilizers for crops such as beans and corn. Zinc is an important component of certain enzymes.

Zinc sulfate is used in making lithopone, a mixture of barium sulfate and zinc sulfide, for specialty paints. Lithopone is considerably cheaper than titanium dioxide.

Galvanizing is the process of dipping steel in molten zinc. The outer surface of the zinc layer oxidizes in air and absorbs carbon dioxide to form zinc carbonate, which prevents degradation of the steel. Zinc sulfate and other zinc salts are used by the electroplating industry as substitutes for the galvanizing process and in conjunction with copper to brass plate wire.

Zinc sulfate is used as a component of spinning bath in rayon manufacture, a reagent for paper bleaching and in manufacture of glue, an agent in printing and textile dyeing, a depressant in froth flotation for lead-zinc ores, a component of zinc plating baths and a chemical intermediate for manufacture of the pigment lithopone(BaO5S2Zn2, CAS No. 1345-05-7), carbamate fungicides, zinc metal and other zinc compounds (such as zinc stearate).

Zinc sulfate is used as a human ophthalmic astringent, a veterinary astringent, an emetic and an accelerating agent in dental impression material. It is also used as a component of cosmetics (such as skin fresheners) and an ingredient in some deodorants.

Copper Fact Sheets

Copper — the “Red Metal — is a naturally occurring element.  It is a reddish brown nonferrous mineral which has been used for thousands of years by many cultures. Modern life has a number of applications, ranging from coins to pigments, and demand for it remains high, especially in industrialized nations. Many consumers interact with the metal in various forms on a daily basis.

History And Properties
The name for the metal comes from Kyprios, the Ancient Greek name for Cyprus, an island which had highly productive copper mines in the Ancient world. The atomic number is 29, placing it among the transition metals. The metal is highly conductive of both electricity and heat, and many of its uses take advantage of this quality. Copper can be found in numerous electronics and in wiring.

Archaeological evidence suggests that copper is among the earliest metals used by humans. Numerous digs all over the world indicate that it was used to make utensils, jewelry, and weapons. The metal is highly ductile, meaning that it can be easily worked and pulled into wire.

In addition to being useful in manufacturing, copper is also a vital dietary nutrient, although only small amounts of the metal are needed for well-being. This metal is a popular metal used in cookware because it is highly conductive, evenly transferring heat through foods. The metal will prevent hot spots that can burn food on one side of the pan. Its cookware is also very attractive and stands out in a kitchen. Some people use copper pots for decoration and not for cooking.

One interesting property is its naturally-occurring germicidal effect. Many pathogens are killed by any alloy containing more than 65 percent within a period of eight hours. Colder temperatures cause this time frame to be extended. This fact is highly useful in settings such as hospitals, which are responsible for many cases of acquired infections each year. By simply covering surfaces with copper(CAS No. 7440-50-8) alloys, the rate of infection can be decreased.

In a natural state, copper is rarely found pure. It is compounded with other elements, and the material must be treated before it can be sold. This can lead to serious environmental problems, especially when mining companies engage in unsound practices. The chemicals used to extract it can be toxic, as can the discarded elements and runoff associated with the purification. Many countries attempt to regulate their industries, to prevent widespread pollution and the problems associated with it.

Hibiscus Leaves Information

Aphrodisiac plants, also known as androgenic plants, are those that exhibit anabolic properties — they help enhance sexual abilities and protein synthesis.  Hibiscus rosasinensis, or hibiscus, is one such plant.  Every hibiscus leaf is so nutrient rich, it’s used to make shampoo, tea and medications. Identify the leaves of the next hibiscus you spot using the following description.

Hibiscus leaves are bright green and flat. Each connects to the plant stem via a petiole. The hibiscus leaf is delivery system, manufacturing plant food via the process of photosynthesis and then pushing nutrients throughout the stem, flower and root system. A signature rib or vein runs throughout each leaf and there are also minute openings, called stoma, on leaves for transpiration.

Medicinal Uses
The hibiscus leaf has various medicinal uses. According to the authors of the book “Green Remedies,” hibiscus leaf extract/juice makes an effective antidote to skin rashes and allergies. The authors report that the juice is a major ingredient of many hair care concoctions, including anti-dandruff shampoos and conditioners.

Researchers from the Monash University Sunway Campus in Malaysia report that leaves of six hibiscus species exhibit antioxidant properties by producing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds that reduce the harmful effects of UV radiation.

Fresh hibiscus leaves are primarily comprised of moisture (more than 85 percent), researchers from the Department of Pharmacognosy of the ISF College of Pharmacy report. Other physiochemical constituents include fat, ash, fiber, phosphorus, thiamine and calcium. Chemical constituents of the leaves include anisaldehyde, isoamyl alcohol, methanol, malic acid, benzyl alcohol, iso-propyl alcohol, niacin and 3-methyl-1-butanol(C5H12O, CAS No. 123-51-3).

Potential Uses
There are also some other amazing benefits that have been proved. Hibiscus leaves have aphrodisiac, antiseptic, cholagogue, astringent, emollient, diuretic, resolvent, refrigerant, sedative and stomachic properties. Hibiscus leaf extract is also used to treat menstrual problems in women and to regulate the menstrual cycle.

How To Dissolve Charcoal?

When wood is anaerobically burn, it turns black as water is driven off leaving charcoal or carbon behind. It is used as fuel, purification and discoloration of liquids and gases. It is produced through slow pyrolysis. Active charcoals are produced by the carbonization of various carbon substrates, such as wood, coal or polymers, which are subjected to an activation treatment giving them a high porosity and adsorbing capacity.

Charcoal is a form of nearly pure carbon. It is created through burning organic matter in an oxygen deprived inert atmosphere and siphoning or leaching out any impurities. Nutshells, peat, wood or coal can be heated to between 600 and 900 degrees Fahrenheit while surrounded by argon or nitrogen. The end product is either powdered or granulated charcoal (carbon). It has a very high surface area and is extremely porous. A single gram can feature between 300 and 2,000 square meters of surface area.

Charcoal has been used for generations in many societies as a form of fuel. It is used to cook food and to undertake other operations, such as distillation. It however presents a danger when used in a house without ventilation, as carbon monoxide may build up inside the house and cause the death of people.

Charcoal can be packed into a cylinder or special screen that will not restrict the flow of air or liquid through the filtration device. The ideal application for a filter depends on the specific blend of carbon used (standard, activated or impregnated). The quality and amount of charcoal used affects the efficiency of the filter.

Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It exists as a colorless gas or as a fuming liquid. Hydrogen fluoride also can be released when other fluoride-containing compounds, such as ammonium fluoride(NH4F, CAS No. 12125-01-8), are combined with water. It is used to make refrigerants, electrical components, gasoline, plastics and fluorescent light bulbs. It is also used in the etching of glass and metals.

Dissolving charcoal involves the reaction of the carbon in the charcoal with the hydrofluoric acid to produce carbon fluoride and water. Its ability to dissolve iron oxide as well as silica contaminants has made it to be used in precommissioning boilers that produce steam. Hydrofluoric acid cleans impurities from stainless steel by pickling and similarly this occurs in carbon, which is the element in charcoal. When charcoal is heated at high temperatures, a lot of carbon is emitted and combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.

Sodium Benzoate Fact Sheets

Benzoates are salt compounds which are often chosen over acid compounds because of their much greater solubility in water. Sodium benzoate(also known as Ucephan or Sobenate) is a commonly used chemical preservative in food, although it only works well in foods which are naturally acidic or which have been acidified. If too much is added, food may take on a very bitter taste.

Sodium benzoate is found in several common fruits like apples, plums and cranberries. A few sweet spices contain small amounts of this compound, including cloves and cinnamon. The presence of the salt in these foods does not necessarily act to preserve them.

The chemical is so well-known because it works very well at killing bacteria, yeast and fungi. You will most commonly see it used as a preservative in foods with a high acid content, since sodium benzoate will only work when the pH balance of foods is less than 3.6. It is therefore effective in most sodas, vinegar, fruit juice, and in mixed ingredients like salad dressing. It is additionally used to stop the fermentation process in wines.

You may be able to taste sodium benzoate in foods to which it is added — approximately 75% of people can taste it. But, they people who taste this salt would describe it in different ways that they think right. Some call it bitter or salty while others think the taste is more on the sweet side. Since many of us drink soft drinks on a regular basis, we are fairly used to tasting this preservative and generally think nothing of it.

Sodium benzoate on its own is not considered a carcinogen, and you would have to consume a huge amount of it in order to have toxic levels in your body. However, there have been some health concerns about the combination of sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid or vitamin C. In mice studies where the animals were fed sodium benzoate(CAS No. 532-32-1), no adverse effects were reported, and the mice’s life expectancies were not shortened, nor was their health affected in any way.

It may just be a good idea to at least cut down on the amount of soft drinks you consume, and especially to limit soft drink consumption for kids. Scientists have called for the US Food and Drug Administration to retest the potential dangers of sodium benzoate and citric acid in soft drinks, because the tests proving its safety are quite old. The same cannot be said of benzene, which researchers now show has the ability to affect mitochondria in cells and cause cell death.

Function Of PG

Propylene glycol(PG, also known as 1,2-Propanediol), the main ingredient in anti-freeze, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration when used according to FDA regulations. The chemical compound is most commonly used as a food additive. However, large doses can cause seizures in humans and kidney and liver damage in animals.

In Industrial Use
Propylene glycol has a myriad of functions in industrial applications. The textile industry uses it as an intermediary in the production of polyester fiber. The military uses it to form smoke screens for troops. Military and commercial airlines use it as a de-icer for planes, however, ethylene glycol is also used because of its lower cost. PG can be found in liquid detergents, as well as a number of other uses.

As Food Additive
In foods, PG absorbs water and maintains moisture. It dissolves food dyes and flavorings in drinks, and it keeps foods from freezing, such as in breweries and dairies. In food, it would be difficult to consume a dangerous dose, but babies, infants, the elderly and those with certain allergies may be more sensitive to the chemical.

In Medical Uses
In medicines, PG acts as an emulsifier, specifically in topical agents and injectable medicines. It also acts as an excipient, or solvent, for the active ingredients in medications. Newborns have shown adverse reactions to medicines using this chemical.

In Cosmetics
Propylene glycol is often present in cosmetics, hand and body lotions and antiperspirants due to its antimicrobial activity, note Rietschel, Fowler and Fisher. It’s effective against the bacteria E. coli and the fungus candida, or yeast. Tinea versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis also respond to this compound, but only in high concentrations. In beauty products it can help prevent bacterial proliferation for safe application onto the skin. The book also notes that 1,2-Propanediol(CAS No. 57-55-6) is non-comedogenic, meaning it does not clog pores, which can cause acne or other blemishes.

The chemical is fairly safe but can irritate your stomach, skin and eyes and catch fire under the right conditions. The information presented here reflects the dangers faced by people who use propylene glycol in industrial quantities and settings. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has determined that the very small amounts of the chemical appearing in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals pose no known health risks to people or animals other than cats.

Effects of Tannic Acid On Human Body

Tannic acid is a substance that occurs naturally in oak trees and related species. It is believed that humans can benefit from the antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties of the substance. The acid is also used for industrial purposes such as leather production and wood staining.

This substance is usually found as a yellow, white, or light brown powder. It tends to easily dissolve in water. It generally does not have a smell but the taste is one that can cause a person to pucker.

Since it will cause constipation in humans, tannic acid can be used to treat diarrhea. It can also be used to reduce the swelling of hemorrhoids and control internal bleeding. Externally, tannin can be added to creams and salves to help combat muscle and joint problems and to help heal wounds. It may also be used for antifungal treatment of the feet, toenails, or fingernails.

People are warned not to consume large amounts of this substance. When tannic acid was administered at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 grams per kilogram of body mass, abdominal lesions and ulcerations were reported in the test animals. In this test the chemical was administered directly to the stomach through an abdominal tube. Furthermore, the acid is known to cause ulcerations of the mouth, esophagus and gastrointestinal tract, when consumed in large quantities by cattle allowed to graze in areas where acorns are prevalent.

By 1942 concerns among professionals escalated, and a wide range of experiments were performed, on both human and animal subjects. Early research reported “liver damage in burn patients who had some form of tannic acid(C76H52O46, CAS No. 1401-55-4) therapy.” Later research by Buis and Hartman confirmed these findings.

These negative symptoms are associated with using the substance in its pure form or with abnormal use of tannic acid concentrations. People are not regarded as being at risk of adverse effects with normal usage and consumption. For example, this acid may be absorbed into wine from the oak barrels it is stored in.

Castor Oil For Hair Growth

Castor oil is a type of vegetable oil produced from castor beans. These “beans” are actually seeds. According to the National Institutes of Health, castor oil is generally safe for internal and external use by adults, but its primary medical benefit is as a stimulant laxative. Even so, many people consume castor oil for a wide variety of perceived benefits, including the promotion of hair growth.

Castor oil tends to be light yellow or colorless. It has very little odor and a mild taste. In addition to its popularity as a versatile home remedy, castor oil is often used as an industrial lubricant and as an ingredient in soap, bath oil, paints, perfumes and plastics. Industrial castor oil is prepared differently than the cold-pressed castor oil designed for home use or consumption.

Uses of Castor Oil
Although the NIH considers castor oil essentially safe, consuming an excessive amount (overdosing) can be harmful and require medical attention. When used externally, castor oil rubbed onto skin can serve as a moisturizer and protectant. A number of industries make use of castor oil in adhesives, lubricants, inks and other tools. The first Castrol oil was named for the ingredient.

When castor beans are processed, the first pressing produces castor oil that can be used in medicine. It can be used as a laxative or purging agent, but other modern alternatives are recommended. The oil also is used for skin problems. The ricinoleic acid in castor oil is anti-inflammatory. Castor oil is actually added as a component of some modern medications. Some organizations recommend castor oil for hair growth.

The chemical is often used as a food additive to add flavoring and as a preservative. It is commonly used as an emulsifier in the production of chocolate. This oil also is used to produce other raw industrial ingredients. These include sebacic acid(C10H18O4, CAS No. 111-20-6), lithium grease and a type of nylon.

Castor oil comes form the castor bean plant (ricinus communis)–a visually striking, fast-growing plant with star-shaped leaves and clusters of white or pink flowers. Seeds found inside the male castor flowers are the source of castor oil. They also contain toxic substances such as ricin, which is considered a biological weapon and has been used in political assassination attempts. Castor beans are thus highly poisonous for adults, children and animals. Although the pressing process that produces castor oil removes the seeds’ harmful components, you should always take great care around castor bean plants or unprocessed seeds.

Lovastatin Used For Decreasing Blood Cholesterol

Lovastatin is a generic oral prescription medication known as a statin drug. Like others in its class, the drug acts directly on your liver, preventing it from producing a fatty substance known as cholesterol.  Decreasing blood cholesterol levels is important because it can reduce the risk for heart attack and stroke.

How Does It Work?
The mechanism of action of lovastatin is to inhibit an enzyme called 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. Normally this enzyme facilitates a reaction important in the production of cholesterol. As a result of inhibition of this enzyme, patients taking the medication experience a reduction in their blood levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL).

Lovastatin is typically given as a pill taken at night, and is sold under the brand names Altoprev and Mevacor. Like all other drugs in the statin class, it inhibits HMG-CoA reductase. Other examples of statins include the medications atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, and rosuvastatin. Many of these medications have similar efficacies in lowering LDL levels, but they vary in their prices and adverse reactions.

The most common use of lovastatin is to treat patients with high levels of cholesterol in their blood. Patients with this condition, often called hypercholesterolemia or hyperlipidemia, are at an increased risk for developing heart attacks or strokes. Often the dose of the medication is adjusted up or down until a target LDL blood value is reached. Patients with risk factors for having a heart attack, such as diabetes mellitus or hypertension, should aim for an LDL level of less than 100.

Common Side Effects
But despite these benefits, lovastatin(CAS No. 75330-75-5) poses a risk for side effects. Gastrointestinal side effects occur in as many as 4.3 percent of patients who take the medication, reports the U.S. National Library of Medicine. The most common gastrointestinal side effects caused by the drug include abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence and nausea. Rarely, patients experience loss of appetite or vomiting.

Approximately 2.2 to 3.0 percent of patients who take lovastatin report muscle pains, with the side effect most common at higher doses, reports the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Muscle cramps and joint pain also occur with use of the drug, but are more rare.

Chloroform Fact Sheet

Chloroform is a colorless liquid with a pleasant nonirritating odor and has a chemical formula of CHCl3. Other names for this chemical are trichloromethane and methyl trichloride. In the past, it was used as an inhaled anesthetic during surgery, but it isn’t used that way today. Today, the liquid is used to make other chemicals and can also be formed in small amounts when chlorine is added to water.

Date back to 1847, at that time chloroform was firstly used as an anesthetic. In 1848, a patient died because her heart went into fibrillation while she was chloroformed, and continued use of the drug only cemented the link between chloroform and cardiac events. By the early twentieth century, it had been abandoned in favor of safer and cheaper drugs, and today has been replaced by anesthetics such as halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane, among many others. When a less expensive anesthetic is required, as is the case in some impoverished nations, ether, an older anesthetic, is preferred over the substance.

Chloroform has uses in a number of manufacturing processes and in organic synthesis. It is used as a precursor in the manufacture of Teflon, the widely used non-stick material. The liquid is also used in the bonding of certain plastics.

If exposed to the vapours of Chloroform, an operator will become dizzy and light-headed. Exposure to concentrated vapours will cause an operator to become unconscious. Where ventilation is inadequate, a respirator should be worn. This must have an organic vapour cartridge and the manufacturer should be consulted regarding compatibility.

Chloroform can easily be carried in water, and when it is exposed to oxygen and sunlight, a chemical reaction forms phosgene, a toxic gas. If it is exposed outdoors, the phosgene will break down and ultimately become harmless, but in enclosed spaces, it can be highly dangerous: in addition to use in modern manufacturing processes, phosgene had a historical use as a deadly chemical weapon in both World War I. In groundwater, trichloromethane will build up and take a long time to break down, because it is not readily water-soluble. For this reason, most environmental agencies set safety levels for its content, so that water can be routinely evaluated to see whether or not it poses a threat to consumers.

When using or working with the chemical it is essential that appropriate PPE (Personal Protective Clothing) is used. Protective gloves should be worn when handling the material. Please check with the manufacturer for details of compatibility. Additionally, safety goggles and protective clothing should be worn.