Antiseptic Products In Healthcare

Did you wash your hands with soap before sitting down for dinner?You may forget it and can’t wait to eat foods. But did you know that washing hands is so important, it actually saves lives?

Ignaz Semmelweiss  – The saviour of mothers
Ignaz Semmelweiss was a doctor at the Vienna General Hospital from 1846 to 1865. He was greatly worried that too many women died during childbirth. After careful observations, he discovered that doctors who handled different patients accidentally caused infections in women who came to deliver babies. He started the practice of making all doctors and nurses wash their hands in chlorinated lime (now called calcium hypochlorite). Because of this, the rate of deaths declined sharply.

Semmelweiss developed a theory that there were tiny ‘particles’ that could be transmitted from body to body and caused diseases. However, no one believed him. Because of this, his practice was not adopted outside his own hospital.

Ignaz Semmelweiss first started the practice of making all doctors and nurses wash their hands before and after surgery.

Joseph Lister – the founder of antiseptic surgery
A doctor at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary called Joseph Lister  had similar thoughts to what Semmelweiss had. He wondered whether germs could be killed by chemical solutions. After a few experiments, he discovered that carbolic acid (now called phenol) was effective. He used it to clean surgical tables and instruments before and after surgery. Due to this, the survival of patients was greatly increased. Soon, carbolic soap was mandatory in all hospitals.

So why did Lister succeed while Semmelweiss did not?

The germ theory and modern antiseptics
Semmelweiss failed because he could not prove his theory. That proof came only in 1864, when Louis Pasteur demonstrated that microscopic bacteria caused diseases. This is now called the ‘germ theory of disease’. Pasteur’s published his discovery in a famous science journal that was read all over the world. When Joseph Lister came across this article, he could immediately explain why his carbolic soap was saving lives – it was killing the germs that cause disease.

Carbolic acid is no longer used as an antiseptic, as it is highly poisonous. Alcohol and iodine tincture (also known as Choleratoxin) are now preferred as they are safe. Boric acid is used as a dry antiseptic for fungal infections, and triclosan in toothpastes.

Strictly speaking, an antiseptic is a substance applied externally on human and animal bodies only. Anything used to sterilize clothes, floors, walls, surgical instruments, swimming pools etc is known as a disinfectant. Common disinfectants include chlorine, iodoform, hydrogen peroxide, and phenol. Chloroxylenol is used as both, going by the trade name of Dettol.

Commen Sense About Cytarabine

Cytarabine is a chemotherapy drug used to treat certain kinds of cancer. Most commonly the drug is used to treat acute myeloid leukaemia. While it is effective against cancers, cytarabine also injures some normal, fast-growing cells across the body. As is common with most chemotherapy drugs, certain mild to severe side effects are associated with it.

Acute myeloid leukemia is a common bone marrow cancer that occurs most often in middle-aged adults. The disease causes defective white blood cells (WBCs) to be produced, and these then proliferate in the bloodstream, crowding out the normal leukocytes and the red blood cells needed to carry oxygen throughout the tissues. Since leukocytes are vital to the immune system, patients may suffer from more infections and general immunodeficiency. The non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a group of different malignancies of lymphatic cells. Drugs that treat these cancers target their cell cycles, the processes by which they reproduce.

Cytarabine is used alone or with other chemotherapy drugs to treat certain types of leukemia (cancer of the white blood cells), including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Cytarabine is also used alone or with other chemotherapy drugs to treat meningeal leukemia (cancer in the membrane that covers and protects the spinal cord and brain). It is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells in your body. This drug is given over a several month period and is placed into the body through injections into veins.

It is possible that those treated with Cytarabine will experience an allergic reaction to the drug. As a bone marrow suppressant, cytarabine can kill some some normal blood cells and prevent more of them from being made, resulting in anemia and immunodeficiency. The medication also can cause a severe decrease in the number of blood cells in your bone marrow. This may cause certain symptoms and may increase the risk that you will develop a serious infection or bleeding.

What is olanzapine?

Zyprexa, the brand name of olanzapine, is in a family of drugs called “atypical antipsychotics.” It is also sometimes used to help treat delusions associated with other mental conditions such as bipolar disorder. These are the only conditions approved of by the FDA for this drug.

Function
Zyprexa works as both a sedative and a mood stabilizer by acting on chemistry within the brain. This can help a patient suffering from GAD to get needed rest. Ideally, Zyprexa is to be used in combination with talk therapy. It cannot cure anxiety all by itself. By being sedated and having the moods stay steady, the patient has a better chance to pay attention to the talk therapy and try out any suggestions.

Dosage
Olanzapine is available in pill form and also can be used as an intramuscular injection. However, injections are usually only given in a hospital setting.
The medicine is available as either a regular or orally disintegrating tablet, according to the Mayo Clinic. Adult schizophrenic patients usually start off at about 5 to 10 mg per day and usually do not exceed 20 mg per day. Those with bipolar disorder will usually need 5 to 15 mg per day, though as much as 20 mg may be needed to treat manic episodes. Olanzapine should not be taken with food.

Effects
People may experience one or more of the following side effects: blurred vision, other changes in vision, bloating of the arms, hands, feet, lower legs or face, clumsiness, problems talking and difficulty swallowing. It will also greatly increase your appetite. This combination of not wanting to move but wanting to eat causes you to gain weight. The most common side effect is significant weight gain, even over 20 pounds in 3 months.

Expert Insight
Zyprexa can often greatly help people suffering from anxiety. It can help them relax, rediscover some joys in life and to regain a sense of humor. In your doctor’s mind, the need to help your mental health will often take precedence over the possibility of weight gain from Zyprexa. Always tell your doctor any strange symptoms you suddenly develop when taking Zyprexa. The use of a cane or support when standing up is greatly recommended, or else you may get dizzy.

Rilpivirine Used For HIV

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) requires a complicated treatment regimen to keep in check. Rilpivirine (TMC278, trade name Edurant) is one of the drugs that can be used as part of a treatment program. It is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) made by the New Jersey based Tibotec Therapeutics.

As of 2011, HIV was not curable, but it could be controlled through drugs. The virus can replicate itself enough, in the absence of antiviral drugs, to cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Rilpivirine targets one of the enzymes that the virus produces for this process. It is suitable as a primary treatment for new HIV diagnoses.

It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in May 2011. Edurant is approved for people living with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy for the first time. It is not approved for people living with HIV who have already used antiretrovirals.

Edurant works by blocking HIV’s reverse transcriptase enzyme. After HIV’s genetic material is deposited inside a cell, its RNA must be converted (reverse transcribed) into DNA. NNRTIs stop this process and prevent HIV from infecting the CD4 cell and producing new virus particles. HIV mutates easily and gains resistance to the antiviral drugs, so rilpivirine is never used alone. Instead, it forms part of a treatment regimen that includes other drugs. This combination of drugs might be able to prevent the amount of viral particles in the body from increasing and therefore halt the progression of the disease.

Several medicines, such as the antibiotic rifampin, the steroid dexamethasone or the herbal product St. John’s wort are not safe to take with this drug. Patients who have also suffered from depression or mental illness should inform their doctors prior to taking the drug. Kidney, liver or heart trouble are also important for a doctor to know before he or she can prescribe the drug.

The Rilpivirine (4-Aminobenzonitrile is one of its intermediates) dose is one 25 mg tablet taken by mouth once a day. It should be taken with a high-fat meal (e.g., breakfast and dinner). Some medicines, such as antacids, can interfere with the action of this medication, so these should be taken at different times to the drug.

Side effects such as gastrointestinal issues are possible, and these can be severe. It can cause depression or mood changes. Be sure to contact your health care provider immediately if you are feeling said or hopeless, feeling anxious or restless, or have thoughts of hurting yourself (suicide) or have tried to hurt yourself.

A Kind Of Medication Used To Treat HIV

Raltegravir (also known as Isentress) is the generic name of HIV-1 integrase strand-transfer inhibitor with potent antiretroviral activity. While it does not cure the disease, it can help slow the spread of the virus throughout the body.

The medication works by blocking the formation of the virus. In a body wherein HIV is present, there is also an enzyme called HIV integrase. This enzyme is in part responsible for the replication of the virus; raltegravir and the brand name medications that it is a component of act on these enzymes. The drug works against HIV’s integrase protein, blocking its ability to integrate its genetic code into human cells. By interfering with the function of them, it in turn helps slow reproduction and the spread of the virus through the body.

Raltegravir, formerly known as MK-0518, is the first licensed integrase inhibitor. It was given marketing approval in the US in 2007 and in Europe in early 2008 for use by treatment-experienced patients. Raltegravir’s approval was based upon the results from the BENCHMRK I and II studies that showed it had a durable anti-HIV effect in patients with limited treatment options.

Available in tablet form, it is generally administered with other medications. When first starting a treatment plan, raltegravir may contribute to some side effects. Side effects that are generally mild include gastrointestinal distress, such as vomiting, stomach cramps, nausea and diarrhea. Some individuals also may experience fatigue, headache, and may acquire a pale complexion. These generally go away as the body adjusts to the medication, but they should be reported if they do not.

Many medical professionals will require regular consultations with a patient while he or she is taking raltegravir (the CAS number for its intermediate is 888504-27-6). As it interferes with the way HIV replicates and spreads through the body, it may effect other areas of the body over time. A doctor may request that the patient take regular blood tests and undergo routine lab work in order to see how his or her body is reacting to long-term administration of the drug.

Even though an individual may feel better, he or she should continue taking the medication for the best management of the virus and its symptoms. Although the administration of raltegravir can help alleviate some of the symptoms of HIV, it does not cure the disease.  Those receiving treatment can still spread the disease and can be susceptible to some of the illnesses associated with it.

Why Does Turmeric Turn Red?

Almost every Indian delicacy has Turmeric giving it the yellow tinge we love. You are busy eating your food when a spoonful of curry falls on your white shirt. You decide to go home and wash it. The moment you dip the shirt in soap water, the stain turns red. You are horrified! Do you know why this change in chemical occurs? Let’s find out!

Turmeric is known as the best healer is used in many antiseptic creams and skin creams. You definitely remember the ads of ‘Vicco Turmeric’. Research also shows that turmeric helps in aiding fat loss and helps in weight management and more research is being done to see how it helps cure illnesses like cancer.

Turmeric has been cultivated in India and other countries for the past 2500 years. It was introduced to China by India in 700 AD. Slowly and gradually, other countries started cultivating turmeric. It is an Indian spice, which is made by grinding the roots of Curcuma Longa plant or curcumin. It is yellow in colour and adds special flavour and colour to the food. It also acts as an excellent antibiotic. The curcumin content in turmeric helps fight infections.

What happens when turmeric comes in contact with detergent?

Turmeric has a pigment known as xanthophylls, which lends the yellow colour to it. It also has a pigment called as carotene, which is reddish orange in colour. When turmeric comes in contact with detergent, it reacts with the fatty acids present in the detergent and hence the carotene pigment gets more active than the xanthophylls and turmeric turns red. When turmeric is combined with any base liquid like soap it turns red in colour while when turmeric comes in contact with any substance like that of vinegar, that is acidic in nature, it turns yellow.

Besides being beneficial to mankind, it’s also an interesting object to study. So add turmeric to your food and keep up the spice in your life!

First Successful Total Synthesis of Erythropoietin

“Blood is quite a peculiar kind of juice”—that is what Mephisto knew, according to Goethe’s “Faust”. But if blood really is very special, then erythropoietin (EPO) must be a very special molecule, as it triggers the production of our red blood cells. After ten years of intense research, American scientists have now succeeded in making a fully synthetic version of this special molecule. This achievement represents a landmark advance in the chemical synthesis of complex biological molecules from basic building blocks.

EPO is a hormone produced in the kidneys that induces the differentiation of bone marrow stem cells to erythrocytes (red blood cells). Upon sensing decreased oxygen in circulation, EPO is secreted to boost the production of red blood cells. EPO has found many therapeutic applications. Dialysis patients, whose haematosis is affected by renal failure, are treated with EPO and the drug is also given to cancer patients who have undergone chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Black sheep among racing cyclists, and other athletes, have abused EPO in an effort to improve their athletic performance.

Until now, only nature itself was able to synthesize EPO. For therapeutic use, the drug has to be produced biotechnologically in cell cultures. Iy is not actually one compound but a large family of molecules. Known as glycoproteins, the structures are composed of a protein decorated with four carbohydrate sectors. The protein portion is always the same, as are the locations at which the carbohydrate domains are attached. Yet, in endogenous EPO protein, there are a wide variety of different carbohydrate sectors that may be appended to the protein. It has not been possible to access naturally occurring EPO as a homogeneous, pure molecule.

By adopting the tools of chemical synthesis, the investigators were able to make, for the first time, pure “wild type” EPO glycoprotein incorporating the natural amino acid sequence and four carbohydrate sectors of strictly defined structure. Extension of this strategy will enable scientists to make numerous versions of the molecule and to study how differences in the chemical structure of the carbohydrate domains may affect how the glycoprotein induces the production of red blood cells.

The structure of the synthetic EPO was verified by mass spectrometry. Tests using stem cells proved the effectiveness of the synthesized EPO: like its natural counterpart, the synthetic EPO triggered the formation of red blood cells from stem cells.

The Hope Of New Drugs — Sea Sponges

Flinders University researcher Dr Jan Bekker is on a mission to chemically fingerprint South Australia’s marine sponges, with the wider aim of identifying new compounds that could ultimately play an important role in the fight against cancer and infectious diseases.

The Research Associate at Flinders Centre for Marine Bioproducts Development has discovered a large number of new chemicals from about 70 sea sponges, using a computer platform which distinguishes known compounds, which are common to all sponges, from those which have not yet been identified.

Marine sponges, which live in abundance in SA waters, constantly produce an array of different molecules as a natural defence mechanism against microorganisms and predators. Dr Bekker said, “sea sponges are sedentary, they don’t move around, so over millennia they have evolved a unique ability to produce chemicals to defend themselves from certain dangers in their environment including other dangerous animals and diseases.”

“Many of these chemicals have possible medical applications and diverse human health benefits,” he said.

Using mass spectrometry, an analytical technique for determining the chemical structures of molecules, Dr Bekker is metabolically “fingerprinting” the chemicals before using computational methods to identify new compounds. He said computational methods were also being used in combination with laboratory tests to predict anti-cancer and antibiotic properties in new sponges, with the ultimate aim to grow sponge cells in bioreactors to produce large amounts of the precious compounds.

“With thousands of different marine species in our waters containing many thousands of different compounds, the idea is to reduce the clutter of information and quickly zoom in on the unique chemicals that are functional and valuable, such as anti-cancer compounds,” he said.

“This will reduce the cost and time needed for bioproduct discovery, enabling more discoveries to become commercially available products for human health, in a shorter amount of time.”

Harnessing Anticancer Drugs

Medical Systems Virology group at the Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM) at the University of Helsinki, together with its national and international collaborators, developed a new cell screening method that can be used to identify potential anti-influenza drugs. The researchers were able to identify two novel compounds with anti-influenza activity, obatoclax and gemcitabine and prove the efficacy of a previously known drug saliphenylhalamide.

The study was recently accepted for publication in the Journal of Biological Chemistry and is now available online.

Influenza viruses cause significant human morbidity and mortality. To treat the infections, different virus-directed drugs have been developed. However, the currently available drugs are targeting viral proteins and due to a high mutation rate the influenza viruses quickly develop resistance to them. For that reason, next-generation antiviral drugs should be directed towards the host functions. The results of this study provide a foundation for development of next-generation antiviral drugs. Furthermore, these identified compounds can be used as chemical tools when studying the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions.

“An interesting aspect of this study is that the antiviral effects of obatoclax, saliphenylhalamide and gemcitabine, which all are either investigational or approved anticancer agents, are achieved at much lower concentrations than that needed to mediate cancer cell death” said the group leader Denis Kainov.

However, further research is still needed before these drugs can be clinically tested and applied in influenza infections.

This research project is a good example of repurposing of drugs, i.e. finding new applications for existing drugs and thus saving money and time on drug development.

“We anticipate that these types of drugs could in the future reinforce the therapeutic arsenal and address the needs of the society to control influenza outbreaks”, said Olli Kallioniemi, the Director of FIMM.

Generics Sector Grows by 21% During H1 in Brazil

According to Investimentos e Noticias, the Brazilian drug sector overall, including branded drugs, grew by 7.89% in the first half of 2012 compared to the same period last year. According to the Brazilian generic wholesaler association Abradilan, the sales volume of generic drugs in the country grew by 21% in the first half.

Brazil has witnessed considerable growth in the generic sector in the first half, achieving 20.95% growth in terms of units compared to the same period of 2011. In relation to the first quarter of 2012, generics grew by 10.29%, and in June 2012 generics growth was set at 18.98% year-on-year (y/y). Abradilan distributes drugs in 82% of cities across the country, and represents wholesalers in 77% of the 71,000 pharmacies across the country, distributing drugs in 82% of pharmacies in the south-eastern region, 74% in the north-eastern region, 84% in the centre east, and 33% in the north of the country.

Brazil’s generic industry is booming and becoming a sustainable option for one of the top pharmaceutical markets in Latin America. Brazil has a long history of generics implementation, starting in 1991 when the first law to introduce copies of branded drugs defined by their active pharmaceutical ingredient was proposed. But it was only in 1999 that generics were actually introduced into the country under former president Henrique Cardoso’s government through a law authorising the commercialisation of generic drugs across the country. IHS Global Insight expects the surge in generic sales to continue, which will lower the growth in value-based drug sales and health spending going forward.

The Brazilian generic industry is forecast to flourish in the short-to-medium term, placing itself as one of the strongest generics markets in the Americas, followed by Mexico. The sector is further boosted by the fact that the country is getting ready to produce new-generation generics, i.e. generics of products whose patents are expiring this year, for example Pfizer (United States)’s antipsychotic Geodon (ziprasidone, the CAS number is 146939-27-7) and immunosuppressor, Sirolimus (rapamycin , the CAS number is 53123-88-9).

Generics are now growing at twice the market rate in the country, and are considered a sustainable alternative in Brazil as they provide an important solution to the health needs of the low-to-middle classes, being 52–85% cheaper than their branded counterparts. The generics sector in Brazil is constantly gaining more importance and Brazil is quickly becoming one of the top generics markets in Latin America. A total of 17,000 generic products are registered in Brazil, representing 25% of total pharmaceutical sales in the country. According to Pro Genericos, the average price of generics in the country is 50% lower than branded drugs, creating savings of up to 22 billion real (USD10.8 billion) over the last 12 years.

A Common Protease Inhibitors Of HIV

Prezista is a brand name for the generic drug darunavir. Darunavir is a medication that prevents replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the body. It is an antiviral medication classified as a protease inhibitor.A doctor usually prescribes this medication as part of combination therapy for a patient with HIV infection to prevent the infection from progressing to full-blown acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This is not a cure for the disease and will not prevent a patient from spreading it to others.

This drug is in the second generation of protease inhibitors. Before starting darunavir, it is important to go over all current medications, including herbal preparations and over-the-counter drugs. A doctor can check for harmful drug interactions and adjust the patient’s drug regimen as needed. This drug can interact negatively with other drugs, and some medications may make it less effective. Patients on this drug may also find it helpful to carry around an informational card discussing current medications and their dosages, so doctors can take this information into account when providing treatment.

The drug is available in the form of a tablet intended to be swallowed whole. Patients must not break, crush, or chew the tablet. Dosages should be taken at the same time each day to maintain constant levels of the drug in the body. Typically, the physician will prescribe one to two doses daily, which must be taken with a meal and a full glass of water or milk. The patient should not take Prezista exclusively. It is essential for the patient to take ritonavir and the other HIV medication along with Prezista. It is also essential for the patient to avoid skipping doses or discontinuing the medication without the doctor’s approval — doing so can make the HIV infection much more difficult to control.

Many patients tolerate darunavir therapy very well. Common side effects include gastrointestinal upset, rash, changes in distribution of body fat, and headaches. Depending on the drug cocktail a patient uses to manage HIV infection, other side effects may occur as well.Patients taking the drug must discuss all other medications and supplements they take with their doctors. This drug should never be taken with St. John’s wort.

People taking darunavir are still infectious and need to take precautions to protect other people. This is especially important for emergency services personnel like firefighters, police officers, and paramedics. Health care providers should be made aware of HIV infection so they can exercise precautions, especially when the patient is bleeding.

Different Ways Of Improving Bone Density

If you take care of your bones, you will be more likely to remain independent throughout your life. So it is possible to improve bone density at any age. But the sooner you start working on strengthening your bones, the better. There are many ways to enhance the bone density, it depends on yourself that which one is better. It is never late to do this, just from now on.

Through Diet
Typically western diet contains insufficient calcium, too few vegetables and fruit, coupled with excessive amounts of salt, caffeine and alcohol – all of which can contribute to poor bone mineral density. A balanced diet high in vegetables, whole grains, beans, some dairy products and fruit in moderation, supplies the key nutrients required for optimal bone health.

Eating adequate serves of vegetables and fruits in the diet is an important way of attaining the complete spectrum of minerals and vitamins necessary for good bone health. It is recommended that adults consume 5-7 serves of vegetables, and 2-3 serves of fruit per day.

Through Vitamin D and Calcium Supplements
Vitamin D plays an important role in maintaining serum calcium levels and the modelling and remodelling of bone. Without vitamin D bones become thin, brittle and misshapen. Most of your body’s calcium is stored within your bones, which increases bone strength. Your body also uses calcium to keep nerves, muscles and your heart functioning.

It is said that calcium is best absorbed in amounts of 500 milligrams or less at one time, so take your supplement in divided doses, the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases suggests. Your body does not absorb all the calcium you ingest in your diet. Vitamin D increases calcium absorption in the small intestine. Taking both calcium and vitamin D supplements will increase calcium absorption.

Through Medicine

A common medication used to improve bone density is risedronate sodium, the the brand name is Actonel. Actonel falls into the classification of a bisphosphonate, a drug that slows bone loss by preventing bone breakdown. Bone is in a continual state of remodeling, with older bone breaking down and new bone laid down. As you age, bone breakdown increases, which is why the risk of osteoporosis increases with age. Bisphosphonates like Actonel slow the process.

Consideration
Both bisphosphonates and vitamin D and calcium can increase bone density; the two treatments may work best together, Without adequate calcium intake, bisphosphonates will not be effective. Without adequate vitamin D, calcium won’t be well-absorbed.

Risedronate Sodium Used For Bones

Risedronate sodium, also known as Actonel, risedronic acid or more simply as risedronate. It is a medication patients can take to increase bone density and prevent breakdown of bone over time. A doctor may prescribe it to a patient with osteoporosis, and it can also be part of the treatment for Paget’s disease of bone.  It is also sometimes recommended for treating Paget’s disease of bone, which results in errors in the way new bone is formed.

This medication interferes with the resorption of bone, slowing the rate of bone breakdown. Patients can take a tablet daily or once a week, with the weekly dose being higher. Risedronate sodium is not recommended in patients with low blood calcium, as the slowdown of bone breakdown will result in even less available calcium for the body. It may be necessary to take calcium or vitamin D supplements while on the medication to make sure the body has enough nutrition. With fewer osteoclasts present, less bone matter is destroyed and bones may retain a certain level of integrity. There is much higher risk of damage to the esophagus if this position is not maintained. A single pill can cause damage to the stomach or esophagus if not properly digested.

There are different types of bisphosphonates. Actonel is an easy one to take because it is orally administered. It does have very special instructions and must be taken when a person will be sitting upright for at least half-an-hour after taking it. It also can’t be combined with meals or many other medications. Dosage may vary too, depending on the person, and some people use this drug once weekly, while others use it daily.

If risedronate sodium is not suitable for a patient, other medications to improve bone density are available. The doctor can prescribe an alternative and see if the medication meets the needs of the patient. Patients may also combine their medication with activities like swimming and gentle exercise to build up bone mass and muscle strength, useful for preventing fractures.

For most people, osteonecrosis of the jaw will not occur, but there are mild side effects that may affect those who take Actonel. Some may experience some stomach upset, particularly flatulence, constipation, diarrhea, or acid indigestion. Others have a small amount of back pain or arthritic-like pain in the joints, while others experience headache. These are considered mild, but if they continue, reporting them to a doctor could be of use. There are other bisphosphonates that a person might tolerate better.

A Common Chemotherapy Drug

Fludarabine is a chemotherapy drug used in the treatment of cancer. It is most commonly utilized for patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, although it can be used for other cancers involving the blood. It is usually provided as part of a combination therapy regimen with other chemotherapy drugs.

The pyrimidine analogue, cytarabine, has been used effectively against a wide variety of acute leukemias. The success of cytarabine prompted a search for other potentially useful analogues. Fludarabine is a fluorinated analogue of adenine which is relatively resistant to deamination by adenosine deaminase. It is rapidly metabolized by deoxycytidine kinase to 2FaraATP which inhibits DNA synthesis by inhibition of DNA polymerases, and prevention of elongation of DNA strands through direct incorporation into the DNA molecule. It also inhibits RNA polymerase and protein synthesis.

This medication is in a class of chemotherapy drugs that work by attacking metabolic processes within the cancer cells. The drug inhibits the growth of cancerous cells and eventually forces cancer cells to die. It can be very effective in patients who have not responded to primary treatment.

Chemotherapy drugs are very strong, and fludarabine can come with serious side effects. As it attacks cancerous blood cells, it can also damage healthy cells. The drug causes anemia, with the lowest blood cell counts occurring approximately two weeks after the medication ha6s been administered. Patients on this drug have severely weakened immune systems and are highly vulnerable to infections, particularly pneumonia. Prophylactic drugs may be offered to prevent infection if a patient’s oncologist is concerned.

In a dosefinding study, severe irreversible central nervous system effects, including blindness, demyelination, coma and death, were seen in 36% of patients receiving four times the recommended dose for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Symptoms appeared from 21 to 60 days post dosing. These effects are rare (0.2%) at the recommended dose. Fludarabine(CAS No. 21679-14-1) in combination with pentostatin (deoxycoformycin) results in an unacceptably high incidence of fatal pulmonary toxicity, and concomitant use is contraindicated.

One serious potential side effect is tumor lysis syndrome. This complication can also be seen with some other chemotherapy drugs. It occurs when cancer cells rapidly break up. This can cause kidney failure. If a patient has difficulty urinating or notices decreased urine output after a fludarabine treatment, the doctor should be notified. People will need to take precautions to avoid exposure to infectious organisms. Even mild infections can be dangerous because the patient’s immune system lacks the ability to successfully eliminate fungi, bacteria, viruses, and protozoans.

Folinic Acid Used In Chemotherapy Treatment

Folinic acid, also commonly referred to as calcium folinate or leucovorin, is not a chemotherapy drug, but it’s often given as part of chemotherapy treatment – either to make the chemotherapy more effective or to reduce the risk of side effects. This fact sheet has information about leucovorin when it’s given with the chemotherapy drugs fluorouracil (5FU) or methotrexate.

Leucovorin is often given with 5FU chemotherapy to treat cancers of the colon, rectum and other parts of the digestive system. Adding leucovorin has been shown to increase the effectiveness of the 5FU. Leucovorin may also be given with the chemotherapy drug tegafur-uracil, which is similar to 5FU.

Leucovorin is also commonly given with methotrexate chemotherapy, which is used to treat many different types of cancer. It’s mainly given with higher doses of methotrexate and can help reduce the side effects. It is sometimes known as ‘folinic acid rescue’.

Medications that treat cancer typically work by destroying abnormal cancer cells; however, in the process they may also damage healthy cells and result in potentially dangerous side effects, such as difficulty fighting off infections, anemia, increased risk of bruising or bleeding, and damage to the kidneys. Folinic acid is typically prescribed as part of a cancer treatment program because the drug has been found to be effective in some patients at preventing harmful cancer medication from damaging healthy cells, while still allowing the abnormal cancer cells to be destroyed.

Although calcium folinate(CAS No. 1492-18-8) is generally considered safe and effective at treating cancer treatment side effects, the medication may potentially cause some side effects of its own. These side effects may include hives, rash, difficulty breathing, diarrhea, or convulsions. It is usually recommended to seek immediate medical attention if any of these side effects occur since they can be potentially life-threatening; however, side effects from the medication tend to be rare.

Certain people are typically not advised to take folinic acid due to the preexisting conditions that may render the medication ineffective. People who are also suffering from kidney disease along with cancer, may have a higher amount of cancer medications in their systems because their kidneys may not able to remove it from the body in a timely manner; therefore, medications to fight against the side effects of cancer treatment may not be able to work as effectively against the higher amounts remaining in the body.

Information On Two Antithrombotics

Clopidogrel is used in the prevention and treatment of heart attack, stroke, blood clots, myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attacks and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). It is marketed as clopidogrel bisulfate (clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate), most commonly under the trade names Plavix. The drug prevents platelets in blood from clustering. This helps to prevent blood from forming blood clots.

Clopidogrel bisulfate is used to lessen the chance of heart attack or stroke. It is given to people who have already had a heart attack or stroke or to people with other blood circulation problems that could lead to a stroke or heart attack. A heart attack or stroke may occur when a blood vessel in the heart or brain is blocked by a blood clot. Clopidogrel reduces the chance that a harmful blood clot will form by preventing certain cells in the blood from clumping together.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reminding the public that it continues to warn against the concomitant use of Plavix and omeprazole because the co-administration can result in significant reductions in clopidogrel’s active metabolite levels and antiplatelet activity. This information was added to the drug label of Plavix in November 2009, and has been the source of continued discussion in the medical literature.

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary.

Patients at risk of heart attacks or strokes, who are given Plavix to prevent blood clots, will not get the full anti-clotting effect if they also take omeprazole. Omeprazole is found in prescription products (Prilosec, Zegerid, and generic products) and over-the-counter products (Prilosec OTC, Zegerid OTC, and generic products).

Results of the trial demonstrated that treatment with clopidogrel bisulfate(CAS No. 135046-48-9) reduced the risk of heart attack, stroke or cardiovascular death by 20% in subjects with mild heart attack or unstable angina. A variety of drugs that inhibit platelet function have been shown to decrease morbid events in people with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease as evidenced by stroke or transient ischemic attacks, myocardial infarction, or need for bypass or angioplasty.

With regard to the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) drug class, this recommendation applies only to omeprazole and not to all PPIs. Not all PPIs have the same inhibitory effect on the enzyme that is crucial for conversion of Plavix into its active form. Pantoprazole (Protonix) may be an alternative PPI for consideration. It is a weak inhibitor of CYP2C19 and has less effect on the pharmacological activity of Plavix than omeprazole.

Mandelic Acid Uses

Mandelic acid is an aromatic alpha hydroxy acid from Prunus dulcis var. amara, or bitter almond with the molecular formula C6H5CH(OH)CO2H. It is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. Since the molecule is chiral, it exists in either of two enantiomers as well as the racemic mixture, known as paramandelic acid.

It has been used as a urinary disinfectant for those with chronic urinary tract infections. It is also used dermatologically to repair skin damage from prolonged sun exposure and as an acne treatment. Low doses of mandelic acid are included in some formulations of skin care products and available without a prescription. Medical supervision is required for higher concentrations. Side effects are usually mild, but depend on the concentration used in treatment.

For Sensitive Skins
Mandelic acid is recommended for sensitive skins and darker skins that do not tolerate other alpha-hydroxyacids with a smaller molecule, which may penetrate deeper inside the skin and irritate sensitive skins. The mandelac product line can help people with sensitive skin and blemishes, pigmentation, ageing skin. Some patients in clinical trials showed an up to 50% reduction in the pigmentation of melasma using a 10% mandelic acid lotion for four weeks.

For Urinary Tract Infections
When used as a treatment for urinary tract infections, mandelic acid is combined with methenamine and marketed as mandelamine. This medication is activated in the urine and turns it from a growth-producing medium to a growth-inhibiting medium by making the urine more acidic. It is the formaldehyde created from the acidic urine that actually kills the virus or bacteria. Users may experience gastrointestinal side effects, skin rash, or, rarely, blood in the urine. According to its manufacturer, mandelamine is safe for long-term usage.

Other Medical Uses
The antibiotic properties of this acid, its ability to speed up skin exfoliation, and slow the production of sebum, make this AHA useful treatment for acne. This may be the treatment of choice for adults who want to treat skin blemishes and reduce the appearance of fine lines. This AHA has been used to reduce acne scars as well. (R)-(-)-Mandelic acid(C8H8O3, CAS No. 611-71-2) is one of the three types of this acid.

Some cosmetic companies include mandelic acid in their skin care products. The products have low doses of the AHA, ranging from 10 to 20%. Cleansers, lotions, skin toners, and sunscreen products may be purchased individually or in kits. These products are primarily for people with mild skin problems.

Terazosin Treatments

Terazosin, an alpha-adrenergic blocker, is a generic medication commonly marketed under the brand name Hytrin. It can help lower high blood pressure, as well as alleviate symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is an enlarged prostate.It also encourages the prostate and bladder muscles to relax in order to reduce symptoms like difficult or painful urination and urgent or frequent urination.

A study completed in 2008 indicates terazosin controls excessive sweating caused by antidepressant use. In this study, conducted by physician Rajnish Mago of Thomas Jefferson University, this medicine decreased the severity and the amount of time patients were affected by hyperhydrosis.

Terazosin causes the veins and arteries to relax and widen, thus improving blood flow. This makes the meidication an effective treatment for high blood pressure. It also is an effective treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or enlarged prostate. It relaxes muscles of the prostate and bladder neck.

Men with BPH may experience contrasting symptoms, including urinary hesitancy and urinary urgency. Their symptoms can include dribbling when trying to urinate, weak stream, incomplete bladder emptying and painful urination. Terazosin provides relief for these symptoms.

Terazosin is not a cure for high blood pressure or an enlarged prostate. Patients with hypertension should also follow a diet and exercise plan to treat their condition. Those taking it for BPH may not notice the full effect of the drug until they have followed their treatment plan for four to six weeks. It should not be abruptly discontinued. Doing so will necessitate a gradual dose increase if the patient takes the medicine again.

An initial dose of terazosin should not exceed 1 milligram (mg) to allow the body to adjust to the drug. The doctor may gradually increase the dosage. Patients are encouraged to take a dose at bedtime to reduce the risk of falling due to fainting or dizziness. Usually, it will only be taken once daily. Those who experience stomach upset should take the dose with milk or a snack. 4-Amino-2-chloro-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (C10H10ClN3O2,CAS No. 23680-84-4) is an ntermediate of  in the production of this drug.

Before using terazosin, patients should disclose their other medical conditions, medications, and supplements to avoid a potential interaction. Women who take this drug for high blood pressure should discuss the potential risks of using it while pregnant. As of 2011, it is unknown whether it passes into breast milk. Those who have liver disease, prostate cancer, or low blood pressure may be unable to use terazosin. This alpha blocker may interact with other high blood pressure medications and other medications for an enlarged prostate.

Risperdal Used For Psychotic Disorders

Risperdal ( known generically as risperidone) is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia, manic depression, and certain forms of autism.  Like other generics, these drugs are designed to be pharmaceutically identical to the trademarked drug, but they are much less expensive, making them an appealing option to insurance companies and patients who have limited funds available.

Forms
The drug is available in the form of tablets and a liquid, with dosages which can be adjusted to meet the specific needs of the patient. Like many other antipsychotics, the drug often needs to be adjusted so that it will be effective for a specific patient, and it can have dangerous interactions with other medications and with alcohol.

Funciotn
It can be used for adult and adolescent schizophrenia, and it is also useful in the short term management of manic episodes, although it is not designed for long term use in people with manic depression. This drug is an atypical or second generation antipsychotic, acting to alter the brain chemistry of the patient to alleviate symptoms. Risperdal has also been shown to be useful for people with autism who experience irritability and aggression.

Effects
Individuals with dementia cannot use Risperdal, as the drug is associated with dangerous side effects including death for these patients. The safety of the drug in pregnant and breastfeeding women is now known, and the drug is not recommended for people with a history of seizures, suicidal thoughts, liver disease, diabetes, kidney disease, or heart disease. When the drug is prescribed, patients should be careful to list all of the medications and drugs they use so that the doctor can ensure that the drug will not cross-react with another medication.

Drowsiness and increased need for sleep are common side effects of Risperdal. If these side effects become bothersome, discuss what options are available to you with your physician. Risk of developing diabetes increases when taking  Risperidal(CAS No. 106266-06-2). Being overweight and having a family history of diabetes increase this risk. Close monitoring of diabetes is necessary for diabetics taking this medication.

There is a warning that now applies to Risperdal side effects in certain populations. In people who are elderly and who have dementia, this medication is strongly discouraged. It greatly elevates risk for sudden death and it should not in most cases be used.

Topiramate — An Anticonvulsant Medication

Topiramate, the generic name for Topamax, is a prescription medication known best for its effects on migraine headaches. Though it is more known for its use with migraines, Topamax is also used to treat monotherapy and adjunctive therapy epilepsy and seizures.

Function
Seizures often result from abnormal activities of nerve cells in the brain. Brain chemicals, also known as neurotransmitters, are important in the communication between these nerve cells. The action of topiramate is believed to affect or alter the production of brain chemicals, thus, seizure in patients are prevented or suppressed.

Topamax works before a migraine happens, rather than taking the medication after the first signs of a headache. Used as a preventative measure, Topamax works by keeping the chemicals under control that excite your nervous system. One of the believed causes of migraines are nerve cells that get overexcited, causing severe pain. Topamax works to keep those cells under control. With seizures, this medication works by not allowing the nerve cells to get so excited as to cause a seizure.

Usage
Doctors often start patients on lower dosages, and then increase the dosage gradually until an effective dosage is determined. In children from two to 16 years old, it is usually given in combination with other drugs. Patients are often instructed to maintain regular fluid intake of six to eight glasses daily to prevent the development of kidney stones while taking topiramate. Some patients who are also taking other drugs, like sedatives, antidepressants, and oral contraceptives, are often monitored for side effects due to drug interactions.

Effects
Common side effects of  topiramate that may be observed include weight loss, dizziness, frequent tiredness, and numbness of the extremities. Some patients may experience memory impairment, vision changes, speech problems and coordination difficulty. Other patients also present with tongue swelling, increased salivation, dryness of the mouth, and taste changes. Many patients taking anti-epileptic drugs have increased tendency to develop suicidal thoughts, thus, they should be monitored frequently and observed for behavioral changes.

1 in 50 people who take Topamax develop kidney stones. Rashes are common side effects of Topamax. See your doctor if a rash occurs to be sure it is not a sign of a more serious side effect. Children taking Topamax for seizures may have problems with sweating. Children taking this medication should be carefully observed when outdoors in warmer weather so they do not overheat.