Efficacy Of Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen(C13H18O2) is a drug that belongs to the class of drugs known as NSAIDS, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is a drug which is recommended for mild to moderate pain, soreness, swelling, and fever. This can be risky, as there are dangers to excessive use, and it is possible to overdose on the drug, potentially causing severe health problems. However, when used safely, the drug can be a very effective and useful pain management tool.

Description
The drug was developed in the 1960s by the Boots Chemical Company, and it is marketed under a number of names. Motrin, Nurofen, and Advil are all forms of ibuprofen. The generic name of the drug is a shortening of its chemical name, iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid. The drug is considered a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) medication. Unlike a steroidal drug, it can be safely used in the long term, as it does not carry as many harmful side effects as steroidal drugs do. When pain and inflammation are not severe, the drug can also be perfectly effective.

Function
Scientifically, the way that ibuprofen works is that it inhibits an enzyme known as COX-2. By inhibiting this enzyme, which is the enzyme responsible for feeling pain, the human body does not feel the pain and the muscles do not swell as they would had this drug not been ingested. You can experience pain in virtually any location of your body; therefore wherever the pain is, the enzyme will also be, so you can take it and it will find and numb the pain. Basically, the COX-2 enzyme is blocked when the medication is ingested.

Side Effects
An overdose can result in severe gastrointestinal distress, characterized by nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. By taking low doses of the medicine which conform with the recommended doses on the label, these symptoms can generally be avoided. If you find yourself taking ibuprofen(CAS No. 15687-27-1) for an extended period of time, you should consult a doctor, as you may have a serious condition which requires professional medical attention.

Warnings
Combining aspirin with ibuprofen may also be dangerous; the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) highly recommends discussing its use with a doctor for this reason. Extended or excessive use can carry risks to the heart. It should not be used by people with serious heart conditions before being discussed with a doctor, and most surgeons recommend that it not be used when a patient is about to have heart surgery.

Uses Of Anastrozole

Generally speaking, the primary use of anastrozole for men is to suppress the production of estrogen, the main female sex hormones. This drug is a medication used as hormonal therapy for the treatment of certain types of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Usage of this drug for men is also often observed in bodybuilders who want to maintain their masculine and muscular physique, especially for those who may be taking steroids.

Anastrozole(C17H19N5) is an aromatase inhibitor, which means it blocks the activity of the aromatase enzyme and reduces the amount of estrogen that is produced. This in turn reduces the supply of estrogen available to breast cancer cells, and it can slow the growth of the cancer and even cause tumors to shrink. With this hormone therapy, the best results are achieved in post-menopausal women who have early-stage estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Late-stage cancer sometimes is less responsive to this type of hormone therapy.

Hormone therapy medications are synthetic hormones or hormone inhibitors that either mimic or suppress hormone activity in the body. For example, women who are going through menopause can opt for hormone replacement therapy. Symptoms of menopause are caused by lack of estrogen, so the hormone replacement therapy provides additional estrogen to relieve symptoms.

The suppression of estrogen, specifically the hormone estradiol, is often necessary for men who have hormone disorders. Elevated levels of the female hormone in men can be manifested in gynecomastia or growth of breasts in males and hypogonadism or the reduced function of the testes. In worse cases, excessive estrogen may put men at higher risk for having prostate cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Prescribing anastrozole for men in these situations has shown significant decrease of estradiol levels and, therefore, a decrease in symptoms and risks.

Another use of anastrozole (CAS No. 120511-73-1) for men is to maintain a powerfully-built and bulky physique among bodybuilders, especially those who take anabolic steroids. One function of steroids is that it mimics the actions of naturally occurring testosterone, resulting in the increase of protein levels, muscle buildup, and strength improvement.

Ironically, the excessive levels of testosterone and testosterone-like drugs signal the body to convert the male hormones into estradiol, which can lead to development of female features such as breasts and fat retention. Bodybuilders counter this hormone conversion by using anastrozole, but usage is often mishandled and may produce more adverse effects.

 

Barbiturates Information

Barbiturates are a class of drugs which have historically been used as sedatives and anesthetics. It produce a calming effect by acting on your central nervous system, thus controlling convulsions, causing you to get drowsy and inducing sleep. A lot of people turn to drugs to cope with stress, anxiety, seizure disorders and insomnia. There are a lot of medications that have barbiturates in them. You may have taken barbiturates and not even been aware of it.

History
Barbiturates, derived from barbituric acid, were introduced in the early 1900s. In those days, science and medicine were not very advanced, and many people became addicted to the drug. Barbiturates have since been replaced by benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines are more widely used and preferred because tolerance develops more slowly, reduces the risk of a lethal dose and has a wider therapeutic index.

Function
These drugs are formulated on a base of barbituric acid, which acts on the central nervous system. In low doses, barbiturates can have a sedative effect, which is one reason they were historically used to address anxiety and sleeplessness. These drugs are also used in the control of seizures, as their depressive effect on the central nervous system appears to help with controlling seizures. In higher doses, barbiturates cause a loosening of inhibitions, and they can have an anesthetic effect.

Types
Some examples of barbiturates include sodium pentathol, phenobarbital, and secobarbital, primodone and butalbital.Barbiturates are not illegal, as long as you have a prescription. Drugs that are prescribed for people suffering from headaches, seizures, insomnia or gastro-intestinal complications all have barbiturates in them and could cause you to flunk a drug test. Diethyl malonate(CAS No. 105-53-3) is used in the production of these drugs.

Warning
The reduction in prescriptions of barbiturates has radically lowered rates of abuse, and has contributed to a significant decline in deaths or serious injuries due to overdose. However, individuals who abuse drugs can still seek out alternatives, which may be more or less dangerous than this class of drugs. People who are attempting to curb abusive habits may opt to attend a residential treatment facility so that they can be helped with their addiction and the unpleasant side effects associated with the cessation of drug use.

Carvedilol For High Blood Pressure

The prescription drug carvedilol is used for the treatment of high blood pressure and congestive heart failure. A sufficient dose is affected by factors such as the patient’s responsiveness to the treatment, the condition that the drug is being used to treat and the type of pill the patient is being given. The drug has not gained approval for administration to children, but has been used in children to slow down the widening of the aorta that occurs with Marfan’s syndrome.

Function
This chemical also attaches to muscles surrounding arteries, which can increase the blood pressure, and fighting to get blood into that pressurized system increases the strain on the heart. When a sufficient carvedilol dose is taken, the drug blocks the receptors on the heart as well as some of those on the arteries. This action reduces the blood pressure and the rate of the heartbeat. The medication operates largely on the adrenergic nervous system within the body, blocking the receptors it uses on the heart. The system usually releases norepinephrine, a type of adrenaline, which attaches to the heart’s receptors and causes it to beat faster and harder.

Usage
For example, a patient who is taking carvedilol for hypertension ordinarily has 12.5 milligrams of the treatment split across two doses, but this can be increased to 50 milligrams per day if the patient’s blood pressure doesn’t show improvement. If the drug is being taken for congestive heart failure, the initial dose is 6.25 milligrams per day, but this can increase to a maximum of 100 milligrams in patients who weigh more than 187 pounds (85 kilograms). If the patient weighs less, the maximum sufficient dose is 50 milligrams per day.

Administration
Administration of carvedilol(CAS No. 72956-09-3) following a heart attack helps treat heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction. Taking the medication on a daily basis has been shown to decrease the chance of death after a heart attack by 23 percent. The danger of another heart attack occurring was decreased by 40 percent by taking the drug. Consumers can opt to purchase carvedilol as a brand name or choose a generic form. Users should always avoid alcohol consumption when taking the medication, because alcohol causes the time-release actions of the drug to become accelerated.

Valsartan For Hypertension

Valsartan(C24H29N5O3) is a prescription medication used to fight high blood pressure. Administered orally in the form of capsules, it is a common medication for individuals who have previously suffered from a heart attack. Usually, the dose for a patient is largely determined by the condition being treated. Other factors like liver conditions, kidney damage, or tolerance may also create changes in dosing.

This drug prevents a certain protein called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) from constricting blood vessels and subsequently raising blood pressure, making valsartan part of a drug class called ACE inhibitors. When taken, the drug attaches itself to receptors on the walls of blood vessels. These receptors, called angiotensin receptors, are in large part responsible for creating blockages in the vessels. Without the presence of it in the blood, a chemical called angiotensin attaches itself to these receptors and, when present in mass quantities, narrows the space available in the vessel for the transport of blood back to the heart.

This narrowing of the blood vessels increases blood pressure and the chance that an individual will suffer from heart failure or a fatal heart attack. Valsartan has been shown to be successful in lowering blood pressure in addition to keeping blood vessels open and clear. The drug has been deemed safe for use in teenagers and older children above the age of six for treatment of the same conditions.

A different valsartan dose schedule may be used to treat congestive heart failure. The dosing schedule for heart failure also uses initial and maintenance doses, however. At the outset, a patient will take 40 mg of valsartan(CAS No. 137862-53-4), twice a day. Patients then work up to taking 80 mg to 160 mg of this medication twice a day. Doctors try to bring this dose up to the highest dosage they can handle without experiencing side effects in order to let this drug provide maximum benefits to the patient.

The side effects of valsartan are generally mild, although serious reactions such as loss of consciousness, swelling of the face, hands, and feet, as well as difficulty breathing, have been reported. The manifestation of these side effects could result in stopping the administration of the drug. Milder, more typical side effects will usually go away once the body adjusts to the drug, and include headaches, constipation, drowsiness, back or joint pain, and diarrhea. Some individuals have an allergic reaction to the drug, and may break out in a rash. Any side effects should be reported to the medical professional that prescribed the drug.

 

Fenfluramine — Past Popular Weight-loss Drugs

Fenfluramine was a weight-loss drug that was introduced to the market in the early 1970s under the brand names Pondimin, Ponderax, and Adifax.  It quickly became one of the most popular weight-loss drugs of the day because of its claimed effectiveness. However, in 1997, the discovery of a link between fenfluramine use and heart disease led to a world-wide ban.

History
Pondimin began marketing in the United States in 1973. Prior to Pondimin’s introduction, most diet pills were amphetamine-based. Pondimin was considered an improvement, as it did not lend itself to the same kind of user abuse that amphetamines were known for. Later, it was combined with the drug phentermine to create the appetite suppressant drug combination fen-phen. In 1997, the results of a Mayo Clinic study appeared in the Aug. 28, 1997 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine and noted a suspected correlation between pulmonary hypertension and appetite-suppressing drugs.

Function
The compound 3-trifluoromethyl-N-ethylamphetamine works in the brain performing different functions to fool the neurological system into weight loss. The chemical, fenfluramine, is an anorectic that releases an elevated amount of serotonin into a person’s system and suppresses the appetite of the user. The amphetamine in the combination helps to increase the metabolic rate so that the user burns calories faster, which also assists in weight loss.

Side Effects
Shortly after the introduction of fenfluramine, it was combined with another popular weight-loss drug known as phentermine. The combination of the two drugs, called Fen-phen, was supposed to cancel out the side effects of the other. The side effects of phentermine included difficulty sleeping, nervousness, irritability, and agitation. The combination of these two drugs proved problematic for a number of people primarily due to this medication. 3-Bromobenzotrifluoride (with the CAS number 401-78-5, has the IUPAC name of 1-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzene) is mainly used in the production of weight-loss drugs fenfluramine and so on.

Banned
In 1997, Pondimin and Redux were banned from the U.S. market due to its connection with heart disease. Other countries have since followed suit, and fenfluramine is currently banned world-wide. According to the New York Times, there have been about 40,000 lawsuits lawsuits filed against its manufacturer, American Home Products Corp. AHP changed its name to Wyeth in 2002. In 1999, American Home Products Corp. agreed to a $3.75 billion settlement.

Gabapentin Used for Seizures

Gabapentin is a prescription medication used for the treatment of epilepsy and seizures. It was developed by the drug company Pfizer, and first approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1994. Doctors may also prescribe this drug for migraines or chronic pain conditions, but undoubtedly the drug’s most controversial use is in the treatment of bipolar disorder.

Certain medical conditions and treatments can interact with or worsen as a result of taking gabapentin. It is important that you disclose your full medical history to your physician before taking this medicine. Do not take it if you have a history of kidney, heart or liver disease without first discussing your condition with your doctor. It is important that you tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant before taking. It can pass into breast milk and cause negative effects on a breastfeeding child.

There are numerous dosage amounts of gabapentin, and it can often be prescribed in high doses, exceeding 1200 mg. It is not recommended for pregnant or nursing women because effects on the fetus or nursing babies have not been studied significantly. Use in children needs to be watched carefully, as some children may develop memory loss, depression, hyperactivity, mood changes, or challenges concentrating. These symptoms in children necessitates contacting the prescribing physician immediately. There is also some indication that gabapentin may increase risk for suicidal behavior in children, teens, and young adults.

Some medications may interact with gabapentin hydrochloride(CAS No. 60142-96-3). Common drugs include hydrocodone (Vicodin), most antacids, morphine and naproxen sodium (Aleve). Taking these medications doesn’t necessarily mean that a person can’t take it also, but dosages may need to be adjusted, or timing of taking these meds might need to be carefully scheduled.

Certain conditions can worsen as a result of taking gabapentin, and side effects can last for several hours, days, weeks or even longer. Some side effects of the medication can be fatal. It is very important that you seek emergency treatment if you experience any severe side effects as a result of taking gabapentin. There may be evidence that a very small percentage of patients find some benefit from this drug as adjunct therapy for bipolar disorder, but there is little evidence this medicine should be viewed as first, or even second-line treatment for the condition.

Lovastatin Used For Decreasing Blood Cholesterol

Lovastatin is a generic oral prescription medication known as a statin drug. Like others in its class, the drug acts directly on your liver, preventing it from producing a fatty substance known as cholesterol.  Decreasing blood cholesterol levels is important because it can reduce the risk for heart attack and stroke.

How Does It Work?
The mechanism of action of lovastatin is to inhibit an enzyme called 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. Normally this enzyme facilitates a reaction important in the production of cholesterol. As a result of inhibition of this enzyme, patients taking the medication experience a reduction in their blood levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL).

Lovastatin is typically given as a pill taken at night, and is sold under the brand names Altoprev and Mevacor. Like all other drugs in the statin class, it inhibits HMG-CoA reductase. Other examples of statins include the medications atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, and rosuvastatin. Many of these medications have similar efficacies in lowering LDL levels, but they vary in their prices and adverse reactions.

Function
The most common use of lovastatin is to treat patients with high levels of cholesterol in their blood. Patients with this condition, often called hypercholesterolemia or hyperlipidemia, are at an increased risk for developing heart attacks or strokes. Often the dose of the medication is adjusted up or down until a target LDL blood value is reached. Patients with risk factors for having a heart attack, such as diabetes mellitus or hypertension, should aim for an LDL level of less than 100.

Common Side Effects
But despite these benefits, lovastatin(CAS No. 75330-75-5) poses a risk for side effects. Gastrointestinal side effects occur in as many as 4.3 percent of patients who take the medication, reports the U.S. National Library of Medicine. The most common gastrointestinal side effects caused by the drug include abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence and nausea. Rarely, patients experience loss of appetite or vomiting.

Approximately 2.2 to 3.0 percent of patients who take lovastatin report muscle pains, with the side effect most common at higher doses, reports the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Muscle cramps and joint pain also occur with use of the drug, but are more rare.

All About Colistin Sulfate

Colistin sulfate is a mixture of the sulfates of polypeptide antibiotics active against Gram-negative bacteria and is therefore often used to treat bacterial infections. Only certain types of bacteria are affected by this drug, which is why it is generally taken for intestinal infections, and sometimes for infections on the surface of the skin.

Function
Bacterial cell membranes have ions that help keep these barriers intact. The medicine can replace these ions, opening up the membrane and dissolving it. Liquids can then enter the affected bacterium, which destroy it. Variations in the ionic region of this medication have led to two distinguishable forms of this drug, colistin sulfate and colistimethate sodium. Each of these compounds can be optimally effective against different species of germs.

It is particularly used in the treatment of acute infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other serious Gram-negative infections. Colistin Sulfate is applied topically in the treatment of local infections, mainly infections of the skin, eye and ear. For topical use, it is often formulated in ointments, otic suspensions and otic and ophthalmic solutions. Thsi drug is also administered orally as suspensions or tablets. Topical preparations of this drug have been produced in some areas to treat infections on the skin, however, and these may feature colistin mixed with other drugs, like hydrocortisone.

Dosage
Usually, a colistin dose is used that is equal to 1 and 1.5 mg for every 2.2 pounds (1 kilogram) of body weight. Otherwise healthy children and adults may use this dose every eight hours, but people with kidney damage may only take their doses one to two times a day. Sometimes, dosages are given in a measurement called international units. In this case, one to two million units are usually considered a full dose for treatment. Just like other medications, the right colistin sulfate dose must be used to provide benefits while minimizing side effects.

This form of the medication can be combined with other IV solutions like saline, but usually not with other drugs. In most cases, colistin sulfate(CAS No. 1264-72-8) is used in an injectable form, either through intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV) injection.

Common Side Effects
Adverse effects can occur when taking this drug as metioned, occasionally at therapeutic levels. Commonly, the risk of this drug is small at lower doses, even when these doses are used for months at a time. Side effects of colistin sulfate can include nausea, tingling or numb sensations in the hands and feet, and breathing problems. High doses of this medication have been linked to nerve and kidney damage.

Development Of Artemisinin’s Medical Uses

Artemisinin(C15H22O5) is an antimalarial drug derived from a wormwood plant native to China. Since 2008, concern has grown in the medical community that the parasites responsible for causing malaria are becoming resistant to the drug. Other initial research has also shown that the drug may one day become a cancer treatment.

There is proof of artemisinin use over 2,000 years ago to treat malaria in China, nonetheless, it has only been in recent years this miracle compound became primary to restoring malaria patients to health worldwide. Earmarked for Africa where the largest numbers of cases exist, most of the 1 million prescribed doses of its compounds continue to save lives. The most deadly form of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, causing 9 out of 10 deaths has little chance of surviving under the treatment of the compounds.

Endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2004, the artemisinin-based therapies for malaria became the WHO first-line malaria treatment in 2005. Provided with a US $42.6 million grant by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, OneWorld Health is working for the first time with Biomedical Research (QB3) with synthetic chemistry to produce an arteminsinin derivative so emerging third world nations can afford this lifesaving compound.

After hundreds of medical testing, the common consensus is that artemisinin is most effective in treating malaria when paired with other drugs. There are two reasons. The first is that patients who solely use the drug to treat malaria have a higher rate of recurrence than those using combination therapy. The second and most important reason is that malaria-causing parasites will develop resistance faster if artemisinin is the only treatment. Despite of the efforts by the World Health Organization and other agencies to prevent the development of drug-resistant parasites, resistance is already occurring in certain parts of the world.

The first signs of drug resistance occured in 2008 when research published in the United Kingdom showed that artemisinin(CAS No. 63968-64-9) was no longer an effective malarial treatment in Cambodia. From then on, as of 2011, no further research has shown similar results in other parts of the world.

If the day comes when it is no longer an effective treatment for malaria, it may still be able to fight other diseases. Though research is still in its early stages, initial findings at the University of Washington indicate that the drug may one day become a treatment for liver cancer. Years of laboratory and clinical testing are still necessary before this medication becomes an approved treatment.

Antihistamines Information

An antihistamine is a type of drug used to fight allergic reactions. It encompasses a broad class of drugs that can treat conditions ranging from minor to life threatening. Different antihistamines are used for different types of reactions.

How Does It Work?
Histamines are a type of chemical in the body that are produced by the basophils and mast cells as a response to the invasion of foreign organisms. These chemicals are part of the body’s immune system and are the triggering mechanisms against foreign invaders. Allergies such as rashes, sneezing, runny nose and other forms of allergic reactions are caused by the actions of histamines in the body.  Antihistamines serve to block the effects of histamines. They do so by blocking histamine receptors. When the histamine receptors are blocked, histamines can no longer perform their functions, and allergic reactions are stopped or at least minimized.

What Different Types Does It Have?
Sedating and non-sedating medications are two different types, they may work differently in blocking the actions of histamines and thus may have different effects on the body. Antihistamines are available alone, but are often combined with cough, cold and flu medicines. If you have flu, cold or allergy symptoms avoid doubling up on medication that may contain antihistamines. Excessive use of antihistamines can increase the intensity of unpleasant side effects, such as those mentioned above, and can lead to sinus infections. If in doubt about whether a medication contains antihistamines, ask a physician or pharmacist.

How About Its Effects?
While sedating antihistamines have been used by many and have been proven to be effective in stopping or at least reducing the allergic reactions of histamines, they may have side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, upset stomach, nervousness and restlessness. This is because sedating antihistamines may also affect the brain. On the other hand, non-sedating types do not have these side effects and are therefore considered safer. One of the drug’s active ingredient is N,N-Dimethylformamide, a chemical compound having the formula C3H7NO and is called DMF for short.

What Should I Note?
Those taking antihistamines are advised not to drive, as intake of the drug may cause severe drowsiness, thus resulting in accidents. Antihistamines can affect the brain and may also affect normal body. If such reactions occur, consulting a physician is strongly advised.

Naproxen Used To Relieve Pain

Naproxen(C14H14O3) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is often taken to relieve pain. It works by by decreasing hormones that cause pain and inflammation. People can purchase this drug over-the-counter in brands such as Aleve and also by prescription in higher-dose tablets. The medication is most often taken as a pill or a liquid, and goes by the brand names Aleve, Midol Extended Relief, Naprosyn, and Anaprox.

Naproxen, like other NSAIDs, reduces the levels of prostaglandins in the body, chemicals that cause pain, inflammation and fever. It blocks cyclooxygenase, the enzyme that makes these chemicals. The mechanism of action of naproxen is the same as other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Some other medications in this class include ibuprofen, indomethacin, and ketorolac. They work by suppressing the action of the cyclooxygenase enzyme, which results in decreased production of a variety of chemical compounds that cause pain, inflammation, and blood clots.  It is available over the counter or by prescription.

One of the most common uses of naproxen is to treat pain. It is often used to alleviate symptoms associated with musculoskeletal problems, such as arthritis. Doctors prescribe this medicine to relieve the stiffness, swelling and more intense pain associated with various disorders. These include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis and tendinitis. Patients with gout, a condition that causes swelling, pain, and inflammation of the joints, can also be treated with this medication. Many women take the drug to treat abdominal cramping pain associated with their menstrual cycles. Additionally, the medication can be used as a fever reducer in patients with elevated body temperatures due to acute illness.

Common side effects can include nausea, constipation, headache, abdominal pain, and dizziness. The medication is known to irritate the stomach and harm the protective lining of the gastrointestinal tract, and therefore, patients using this drug for a long time can have an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. Some patients have an allergic reaction to the medication, which can be mild and cause a skin rash, or can be more severe and cause the sudden onset of shortness of breath and swelling. Taking large amounts of naproxen(CAS No. 22204-53-1) can cause problems with the function of the kidneys and the liver.

Patients with diseases such as high blood pressure or heart failure could experience increased problems with their cardiovascular function if they take this medication. Other coexistent diseases such as kidney disease, liver disease, and asthma can be worsened by taking the medication, and patients with these conditions should talk to their doctors or health care providers before taking this medication. Although naproxen is a safe medication for many, it is not recommended for use in some patients. Pregnant women, for example, are discouraged from taking this medication because it could have negative effects on the developing baby.

Propanoic Acid Information

Pharmaceutical companies commonly include propionic acid in the formulation of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDS) medications. In low doses, manufacturers use the acid as a preservative and as an antimicrobial agent in foods produced for human consumption. The manufacture of dyes, pharmaceutical compounds, agrochemicals, plastics and artificial flavors are other processes that make use of propanoic acid sometimes as well.

Properties
Consisits of three carbon molecules and is produced naturally by certain bacteria during fermentation, propionic acid is a saturated fatty acid. The compound may also be synthetically created using ethylene or natural gas. In their natural state, propionates are a colorless, oily liquid having a pungent odor. When used as a calcium or sodium salt, propionic acid may be colorless, white and crystallized, or in a powdered form that readily dissolves in water or alcohol.

propanoic acid is relatively acidic. That’s because of the structure of the functional group. When the -OH part of the carboxyl group gives up its hydrogen ion, the oxygen atom is left with a negative charge. This charge, however, is not stuck on this oxygen atom only; rather, it is delocalized over the two oxygen atoms.

Structure
Propanoic acid has the following molecular formula: C3H6O2. The three carbons form a chain; the carbon at the end of the chain has an oxygen atom double-bonded to it and an -OH group attached to it as well. This group of atoms or functional group is collectively called a carboxyl group, and compounds like propanoic acid are called carboxylic acids because they are relatively acidic. Acetic acid, also known as vinegar, is another example of a carboxylic acid.

Synthesis
Propanoic acid can be produced in different ways. For one, propanal can be oxidized to yield the carboxylic acid. Just like other carboxylic acids, it could be prepared by adding hot base or acid to propanenitrile followed by an acid-water workup, or by carbonating the Grignard reagent formed from magnesium and 1-bromopropane(C3H7Br, CAS No. 106-94-5). It can also be made from propanoic anhydride by hydrolysis or alcoholysis; the hydrolysis would form two molecules of the acid, while the alcoholysis would form an ester and the acid.

Medical Uses
Researchers believe that propionic acid can also inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. Pharmaceutical companies commonly include it as an ingredient in NSAIDS. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and other over-the-counter and prescription anti-inflammatory preparations commonly contain propionic acid as an ester. The acidic properties of propionates provide antimicrobial activity against some bacteria. Propionic acid is more commonly used for fungal and mold growth prevention. Its acidic nature allows it to penetrate the cells of microorganisms, and after gaining entrance into the cytoplasm, the acid decreases the cellular pH.

Another Medication Used To Treat Hypertension

The World Health Organization estimates that 600 million people worldwide suffer from hypertension or high blood pressure. Left untreated, hypertension causes a number of complications, including damage to the heart and cardiovascular system, loss of memory and aneurysms. Enalapril maleate(C24H32N2O9) is a drug prescribed to control these diseases. The drug also is available under the brand name Renitec and Vasotec.

It works by blocking the function of angiotensin, a compound that contracts blood vessels, and is classified among the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Patients on enalapril maleate will experience a reduction in blood pressure as their blood vessels will stay open and relaxed. Therapy with this drug requires periodic followup appointments to make sure it is still effective.

The medication can also be found in the form of enalapril maleate felodipine, a combination drug that includes a calcium channel blocker. Like other drugs used to treat high blood pressure, it can cause side effects like dizziness, nausea, and headaches, especially as the patient adjusts. If side effects persist or are severe, it may be necessary to switch to a different medication or to change the dosage.

There are some medications which produce unwanted side effects when used in conjunction with Renitec. For example, use of Indomethacin with Renitec has the potential to cause low blood pressure, while using the drug with digitalis glycosides sometimes leads to arrhythmia. Renitec is generally not safe to take with lithium, as the combination causes an increased risk of severe side effects from both drugs. When combined with some diuretics or medications that contain potassium, Renitec causes an increase in potassium levels in your blood stream. Over time, this may lead to a condition called hyperkalemia, which damages or interferes with your heart and cardiovascular system. In addition, the combination of Renitec and cholestyramine causes increases in blood-sugar levels.

Water and salt intake need to be watched carefully while taking enalapril maleate(CAS number is 76095-16-4). If patients become dehydrated, they can experience falling blood pressure and may develop shock. Especially in hot climates or while exercising, people should make sure they get plenty of water throughout the day. Generally, salts should not be decreased while on this drug, and a doctor may have specific recommendations about dietary adjustments while taking enalapril maleate. Patients should make sure this medication is noted in their charts so potentially harmful drug interactions can be identified.

 

Dimethyl Sulfoxide Used For Interstitial Cystitis

Dimethyl sulfoxide, better known as DMSO or methyl sulfoxide, is a medication commonly used to treat a vast range of health conditions, from bladder infections to skin inflammation to high blood pressure. Several manufacturers produce over-the-counter (OTC) varieties of the drug as well, though in many countries non-prescription versions are not approved or regulated by government product safety boards. Doctors can help their patients determine whether or not the medicine is appropriate for their specific conditions.

History
Before DMSO gained popularity for its medicinal properties, it was used in industry as a solvent in chemical and manufacturing plants. Doctors and medical scientists began exploring the biological applications of the compound in the 1960s, discovering that it has the unique ability to penetrate layers of skin tissue without causing irritation or damage. The medication was found effective in helping other topical medicines, such as antibacterial and antifungal solutions, reach their destinations without affecting the skin. In oral or intravenous form, it can promote the absorption of medicines into internal organs.

For Interstitial Cystitis
According to the FDA (Food and Drug Administration), DMSO is only approved as a treatment for interstitial cystitis, a chronic condition of the bladder that basically causes pain and pressure as well as burning and discomfort to either the bladder alone or the entire region of the pelvis. This particular condition is far more common in women than men. Someone suffering from interstitial cystitis will find periods of relief, through both medication and remission, yet won’t necessarily be “cured” of the condition.

It is held for a specified amount of time (usually 15 minutes, but the doctor may recommend a longer or shorter stretch) and then released naturally through the individual’s urine. The patient should really have no problem going to the bathroom since her bladder will be rather full. While dimethyl sulfoxide solution is being held within the bladder, it is said to lessen any inflammation or swelling caused by the specific bladder condition, as well as reduce any pain isolated to this area of the body. The application is done about every two weeks until the patient is relieved of the symptoms.

Precautions
When methyl sulfoxide(CAS No. 67-68-5) is used as directed by a doctor, the chances of adverse side effects are very low. The most frequently reported side effects include localized drying of skin tissue, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Rarely, a person can have an allergic reaction to the medicine that can cause widespread skin inflammation and breathing problems. Some studies suggest that large quantities of DMSO can lead to future liver and kidney problems. Recently, it has in fact found another use, this time in the treatment of herpes, or at least a herpes outbreak.

Cosmetic & Medical Uses Of Salicylic Acid

Salicylic acid(C7H6O3) is a natural product which has been used in the treatment of disease for thousands of years. You may be familiar with this acid; chances are that you have a bottle of it around the house somewhere, although you may know it better as aspirin.  In addition to being produced naturally from plants, it can also be synthesized through a chemical reaction, which is the production method of choice for commercial use.

Introduction
Salicylic acid is a beta hydroxy acid derived from the bark of a willow tree. It has both cosmetic and medicinal uses. It is often found in skin care products because of its ability to treat acne, psoriasis, warts and other skin conditions. The Greek physician Hippocrates was among the first to identify the bitter extract of the willow bark as a substance that eased minor aches and reduced fevers. It is probably best known as a component similar to aspirin because the chemcial is a metabolite of aspirin. The active extract of the bark was isolated by Henri Leroux, a French pharmacist and Raffaela Pira, an Italian chemist in 1828.

In nature, this acid forms in the bark of the willow tree, also known as salix. People all over the world have observed that preparations of willow bark can be used to treat headaches and skin conditions for centuries; the Greeks, for example, prepared a white powder from willow bark, while Native Americans used willow bark to make therapeutic teas.

Medical Uses
Salicylic acid has been used to treat fevers since ancient times. In modern times, it is also used to treat pain and prevent heart disease. The pain and fever reliever, aspirin, is actually derived from a compound of salicylic acid.  It’s ability to suppress thomboxanes is especially helpful in preventing blood clots and heart attacks. It works by suppressing the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, which can cause blood clots and other health problems. The acid used in aspirin is different from the acid used in topical skin care products. It is important not to get the two different types confused.

Cosmetic Uses
It’s basically a chemical agent that aids in the process of exfoliation by eliminating surface skin cells and opening up pores. When applied to the skin, salicylic acid(CAS number: 69-72-7) works by causing the cells of the epidermis to shed properly. This prevents skin pores from getting clogged up and subsequently being infected with bacteria. For this reason, it is also used in dandruff shampoos to speed up the process of shedding. The most efficient way to apply salicylic acid as a topical solution is through cosmetic pads that have been soaked in the acid, which are then applied to the skin daily.

Drysol Used To Reduce Sweat

Drysol is a prescription medication that comprised of aluminum chloride hexahydrate.  It is used to treat hyperhidrosis, a condition in which people sweat excessively. Hyperhidrosis is the secretion of sweat in amounts greater than is necessary to cool the body. Some patients use this medication for excessive sweating on the scalp as well.

Forms
Drysol comes packaged in a white box with blue writing. It appears across the middle of the small box in the same blue color. Inside the box is the medication container, which is a tube-shaped white plastic bottle with blue writing. Also, the drug appears on the outside of the tube in blue writing. There is a screw-on top attached to the tube, and an applicator sponge that goes on the top underneath the cap. The patient inserts the applicator top before the first use.

Usage
Follow any doctor’s instructions regarding Drysol usage. Most commonly, doctors recommend application once a day. Nighttime is the best time to apply it, since patients cannot wear it with other antiperspirants or deodorants. After applying this drug, some find that blowing air on the area with the cool setting of a hair dryer helps it to dry more quickly. Wearing a plastic barrier helps increase the amount that stays on the skin. Wash the skin thoroughly the next morning before applying a regular antiperspirant or deodorant.

Ingredients
Drysol is effective due to the formulation of aluminum chloride hexahydrate in anhydrous ethyl alcohol, as this also helps prevent skin irritation. Most over-the-counter antiperspirants feature between 15 percent and 25 percent aluminum, whereas its features closer to 40 percent. It is more effective than typical over-the-counter antiperspirants mainly because it contains aluminum chloride and alcohol which, when coupled together, are more effective in preventing sweating.

Funciotn
Drysol works in that the aluminum chloride(AlCl3, CAS No. 7446-70-0) is absorbed into the top layer of armpit skin. As the aluminum ions absorb into the cells, water is absorbed with them. This causes the cells to swell. Once swollen, the cells squeeze sweat glands shut, thereby eliminating the escape of perspiration. After the cells retain all the water they can, water starts passing back out of the cells, and the cells eventually return to their original size. The sweating process then re-begins, at which time it is vital to apply more.

Considerations
Drysol can discolor clothes and metals. Wear an old T-shirt to prevent staining of sheets or other bedding. Avoid using it on open wounds, recently shaved skin, broken skin or irritated skin. The medication is an FDA pregnancy category C drug, which means it can be harmful to a baby.

Meloxicam Used For arthritis

Meloxicam(C14H13N3O4S2) is a medication that is prescribed to treat several different kinds of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The drug is also used by doctors as an analgesic. In the veterinary field, it is used under the name Metacam

Definition
Meloxicam was approved for use in the United State by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in April of 2000. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the Oxicam family. NSAID drugs are distinguished from steroidal drugs, which tend to share similarities with NSAIDs in the function of limiting inflammation and pain. The most commonly known NSAIDs are over-the-counter medications such as Ibuprofen and Aspirin. Naprosyn Piroxicam and the medication are some of the the more potent prescription NSAIDs.

Function
Meloxicam treats pain and or inflammation by preventing a substance called cyclooxygenase from inducing the synthesis of prostaglandins. By blocking the enzymes that produce prostaglandins, the inflammation process is interrupted. Prostaglandin synthesis is the main cause of the symptoms such as pain, swelling and tenderness which are commonly associated with arthritis and other inflammatory diseases.

Dosage
This medication is taken orally, or by mouth, as a tablet or as a liquid solution. Adults will typically be prescribed a dose of 7.5 milligrams (mg) once daily, with a maximum dosage of 15 mg. The maximum dosage for a child is 7.5 mg. Patients should take meloxicam with a full glass of water, with or without a meal. They may not lie down for at least half an hour following the dosage.

Also, this drug should not be used with other NSAIDs or drugs that posses properties associated with NSAIDs simultaneously. Drugs like Cidofovir should be avoided as well as over-the-counter drugs like Ibuprofen and Aspirin. Patients with heart complications, ulcers, liver or kidney disease, allergic reactions to any medications, asthma and smoking habits should consult their doctor before using Meloxicam.

Side Effects
Some side effects may occur while using meloxicam(CAS No. 71125-38-7), which should be reported to the prescribing physician if they become bothersome or persistent. Patients may experience a runny nose, cough, and a sore throat. Diarrhea, flatulence, and constipation have also been reported. Some people have experienced stomach upset and drowsiness.

More serious side effects may also happen, which require immediate medical care. Rarely, meloxicam may cause liver disease. Possible indications of this can include dark urine, jaundice, and extreme fatigue. Some patients may experience an allergic reaction, which often presents with severe dizziness, facial swelling, and trouble breathing.

Budesonide Treatment Of Crohn’s Disease

Budesonide(or S-budesonide) is a prescription medication used to treat manage Crohn’s disease, an inflammatory condition of the digestive tract that causes severe abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. It is classified as a glucocorticoid, a class of steroids that reduce the immune system’s natural inflammatory responses. It is also used as a maintenance therapy for asthma. By following doctors’ instructions and attending regular checkups, most people respond well to the medication and experience significant symptom relief after just a few doses.

Function
Glucocorticoids such as budesonide are synthetic hormones that seek out and bind to receptor sites on body cells. The immune system responds to their presence by stopping the release of inflammation-inducing chemicals. Without triggers from the immune system, inflamed muscle tissue and mucous membranes gradually begin to relax, expand, and heal. Normal functioning is restored once pain and swelling are fully relieved.

For Crohn’s Disease
At the beginning of therapy with budesonide for Crohn’s Disease, the recommended dose is 9 mg each day. The capsules are available as 3 mg each. Take 3 capsules daily, usually in the morning. Treatment at this dose will continue for up to 8 weeks at which time your doctor will discuss your symptoms with you. If they are still troublesome, another 8 weeks of treatment is suggested. Once the symptoms are under control, a maintenance dose of 6 mg daily may be ordered and the goal is to keep your digestive tract calm. If there is a flare-up, the initial sequence may be repeated.

For Asthma
Budesonide treatment for management of asthma is by inhalation using an inhaler which contains powdered medication or with liquid turned into a mist using a nebulizer. It is important to use this medication at regular intervals. If the medicine is ordered twice daily, take it as close to 12 hours apart as possible. For example, at 8 in the morning and 8 at night. If ordered once daily, take it at the same time each day. Following nebulizer treatment, wash your face to prevent skin irritation. Store unopened vials of s-budesonide in the foil package it comes in and discard any opened vials.

Considerations
The most common s-budesonide(CAS number:51333-22-3) side effects are headache, dizziness, nausea, and fatigue. Some people have indigestion, stomach cramps, and gas after taking a dose. Nasal sprays and inhaled solutions may cause runny noses, sneezing, and coughing. Rarely, the drug can induce a serious allergic reaction that may cause skin hives, airway constriction, chest pains, and breathing difficulties. All side effects should be reported to the prescribing doctor, and severe reactions should be assessed and treated at the emergency room to prevent potentially serious complications.

Information On L-Cysteine Hydrochloride

It can be difficult to determine if some types of additives are derived from animals or not. This is because it all depends on how the additive has been manufactured in the first place. However, the use of E Numbers on ingredients lists has become unfashionable, particularly in the UK. This is because the representation of E Numbers tend to be associated with the negative health affects on the consumer. L-Cysteine hydrochloride is showed on the lists, here, let’s talk about this chemical.

Properties
L-Cysteine hydrochloride(C3H8ClNO2S) is a nonessential amino acid in human development. It is freely soluble in water, alcohol, acetic acid, and ammonia water, but is insoluble in ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, benzene, carbon disulfide, and carbon tetrachloride. In neutral or slightly alkaline aqueous solutions, it is oxidized to cystine by air. It is more stable in acidic solutions. American Regent had temporarily suspended manufacture of most drug products including L-cysteine hydrochloride injection in April, 2011.

Manufacture
Calculate the quantity of each ingredient for the amount to be prepared. Accurately weigh or measure each ingredient. Mix the cysteine in about 40 mL of Sterile Water for Injection. Add sufficient hydrochloric acid 2N solution to a pH of 1 to 2.5 to form a clear solution. Add sufficient Sterile Water for Injection to final volume; mix well. Filter into sterile containers. Package and label. This formulation should be prepared according to strict aseptic compounding technique in a laminar airflow hood in a cleanroom or via isolation barrier technology by a compounding pharmacist who is validated in aseptic compounding. This is a high-risk preparation.

Hydrochloric acid (HCl) occurs as a clear, colorless, fuming aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride that has a pungent odor. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is 36.5% to 38.0% w/w concentration. It has a specific gravity of 1.18 g/cm3, is miscible with water, and is soluble in ethanol. The pH of a 10% v/v aqueous solution is 0.1. Hydrochloric acid should be stored in well-closed glass or other inert containers.

Function
L-Cysteine hydrochloride anhydrous(CAS number is 52-89-1) solution is intended for use only after dilution as an additive to crystalline amino acid injections to meet the nutritional amino acid requirements of infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN).

Premature or sick infants may receive TPN before starting other feedings or when they cannot absorb nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract for a significant period of time. TPN confers a level of nutrition that is superior to standard IV feedings, which provide simply sugars and salts. L-Cysteine hydrochloride 50 mg/mL injection is used for TPN in infants.