Know More About Pesticides and Insecticides

None of us like the sight of insects and hence most of us do a pest control at home at regular intervals to keep the insects and pests away. In fact, we keep ourselves well-equipped against these insects. The moment we see a mosquito or cockroach creeping inside our house, we immediately grab a can of insecticide and spray on it. The insect instantly dies.

Pesticides and insecticides are a mixture of substances that help in destroying, preventing or controlling insects and pests. By spraying pesticides and insecticides, you not only keep the insects out of your house but also make sure that you have a disease free life.

History
It is said that humans started using pesticides and insecticides well before 2000 years
ago. The first form of pesticide was elemental sulphur dusting which was used in Sumer around 4,500 years ago. Around 15th century, toxic substances like arsenic, lead and mercury were used. By 17th century, nicotine sulphate was extracted from tobacco leaves and was used as insecticide. Around 19th century, two more natural substances like pyrethrum which is derived from chrysanthemums, and rotenone which is derived from the roots of tropical vegetables came into existence.

In 1950′s, Paul Muller discovered that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane or DDT, yet another chemical, was a better option and was more effective than the rest of the variants. DDT replaced all the other types by 1975. Since then, DDT and pyrethrin compounds have dominated the insecticide and pesticide industry. Besides this, herbicides also gained lot of popularity. Herbicides contained triazine and other nitrogen-based compounds.

How do they work?
Pesticides and insecticides contain tons of bug killing microns. In fact even after the
sprayed medicine dries, the microns still exist and kill the bugs.

Bugs also have nervous system just like mammals. Their nervous system contains nerves that pass impulse to the brain and gets a sensory reply back. When the pesticides and insecticides are sprayed, impulses that are sent to the brain do not stop. The impulses are similar to those of hunger pangs. Due to excess impulses, the organs of the bugs break down and as a result the bug dies.

Now that you know what pesticides and insecticides are made of and how they work, it is important to read the instructions before using one.

Weed Killers That Contain Triclopyr

Weeds are one of the most common problems faced by gardeners and homeowners. They appear in unwanted places–woods, parks, agricultural areas and private lawns–growing quickly and interfering with the growth and propagation of desirable plants. Not all herbicides are created equal. Some herbicides kill indiscriminately, while others target certain plants.

Triclopyr, registered for use in 1979, targets broadleaf weeds and woody brush without killing grasses and conifers. Herbicides containing triclopyr are particularly useful over large areas such as golf courses and roadsides, where targeting individual weeds would be inefficient.

Effectiveness
Triclopyr weed killers eliminate unwanted weeds and plants. Their efficiency is unaffected by rain or watering. Ortho weed killers eliminate thistle, English daisies, spurges, chickenweed, plantain, clovers, dandelions, henbits, wild onions and numerous other weeds.

Application
Triclopyr weed killers are sold in concentrated form (they require additional dilution) and in ready-to-spray bottles. They are most effective when applied in temperatures between 45 degrees Fahrenheit and 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Appropriate safety precautions are required during application. It is recommended you wear gloves, goggles and a face protection.

Dow AgroSciences Multiple Formulation Products
Dow AgroSciences manufactures three products that combine triclopyr with additional active ingredients. Access herbicide contains picloram in addition to triclopyr. Crossbow specialty herbicide is a formulation of triclopyr and 2,4-D ester. Confront specialty herbicide uses a combination of triclopyr and clopyralid. According to the product profiles on the Dow AgroSciences website, Access herbicide is for use in commercial and industrial areas; Crossbow specialty herbicide is for use in livestock grazing areas; and Confront specialty herbicide is for weed control in parks and golf courses.

Scotts Miracle-Gro Company Products
While the Dow AgroSciences tridopyr products are labeled for use in commercial and industrial applications, there are other products suitable for home use. According to the Scotts Miracle-Gro Company’s website, it makes two products that contain triclopyr and are recommended for home use. Ortho Weed-B-Gon contains 8 percent triclopyr in the form of triethylamine(also known as TETN or Triethyl Amine, CAS No. 121-44-8) salt. Weed-B-Gone kills broadleaf weeds without harming certain lawn grasses.

Ortho MAX Poison Ivy and Tough Brush Killer contains 0.7 percent triclopyr and is formulated to kill woody plants and vines. According to the product labeling, Ortho MAX Poison Ivy and Tough Brush Killer is effective on plants such as poison ivy, poison oak and kudzu.

Purchase Information
These weed killers are available online, at local gardening retailers and the nursery section of large department stores.

Chemicals For Pest Control

A pest is a broad term to define any entity that threatens the health or safety of the environment or people. Pesticides are the means of removing, preventing or killing pests. There is a great deal of focus on the use of chemicals in pest control. Part of the concern is the overall residual effects of these chemicals on both human and environmental health.

Economic Advantages
There is a long history of using chemicals for pest control in agriculture. In fact, farmers are the strongest proponents for chemical pest control methods. There are several reasons for this. One of the main advantages of using chemical pest control in agriculture is cost. Protecting large growing areas from pest infestations is an expensive undertaking, and the cost in crop losses due to infestations is enormous as well.

Farmers must spend a significant part of their operating capital each year to control insects, and broadcast spraying of chemicals is still the least expensive method to use. This includes the use of application machinery for the spraying, which only requires a small work force to operate. Both of these aspects do allow farmers to save money each year in their pest control efforts.

Toxicity
Since 1979, the EPA has recorded pesticide usage in the United States. It estimates that more than 300 million pounds of pesticides are applied each year. A look at the 27 most commonly used pesticides reveals some startling facts. Of these 27, 15 are considered carcinogens by the EPA. Others have been associated with genetic disabilities, deaths in children and farm workers, as well as pet deaths.

Risks
The Pesticide Action Network (PAN) provides information about pesticide toxicity. Acetochlor(CAS No. 34256-82-1) is another common pesticide found in its database. It is categorized at the highest level of concern because of its toxicity. Other highly toxic pesticides include malathion, metolachlor and mancozeb. All are in this same high category, and all are among the most commonly used pesticides. Clearly, a balance of the risks and the benefits must be part of the decision to apply these toxic chemicals.

Regulation
Because they are agents of destruction, all pesticides carry some risks. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) established the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the governing agency for the regulation of pesticides. Pesticides must be registered with the agency. Application of pesticides is also regulated at the state level. Illinois, for example, requires individuals to pass an exam before being licensed.

Glyphosate Facts

Glyphosate is a herbicide used to kill many different types of weeds. It is a very common product used in both commercial and residential applications. Monsanto, the manufacturer of this substance, claims it is the world’s best-selling herbicide. Over time, high use can result in a buildup of the chemical in the soil.

Description
Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicide, and is effective in killing all plant types, including grasses, perennials and woody plants. Because it gets absorbed into the plant mainly through its leaves, and also through its soft stalk tissue, the entire plant will be affected. It travels through the plant, affecting its metabolism and killing the entire plant slowly. Once sprayed, plants display stunted growth, loss of green coloration, leaf wrinkling or malformation and finally, tissue death.

Resistance
Crops with genetically engineered resistance to glyphosate are being developed so that weeds can be controlled in fields where the crops are growing without harming the crops. However, there’s also concern that the genes that display the resistance may be transferred to non-crop species including weeds. Weed experts are concerned that some weeds such as rye grass are becoming resistant to glyphosate-containing herbicides, rendering conventional chemical farming practices useless.

Controversy
There are different schools of thought on whether glyphosate leaches into soil, and what that means to plants. Some researchers report that there is little danger when it is absorbed into soil because it dissipates. Others disagree.

Over time, so much chemical could accumulate in the soil that the soil could become toxic to anything that people want to seed in it. This is put forward as a possibility due to the ever increasing use of the herbicide when spraying genetically engineered crops that are designed to become glyphosate(C3H8NO5P, CAS No. 1071-83-6) resistant. With the crops resisting the spray, more of it can be used to attack the weeds, which results in a larger buildup in the soil.

The higher the concentrations of the chemical, the longer it will have a chance to last long enough to be washed into the water supply. The quality of the soil also affects the risk of water contamination. The coarser the soil material, the higher the risk that high levels of glyphosate in soil will eventually travel into the ground water supply.

Insecticides That Kill Water Bugs

Water bugs are a species of cockroach that is usually found outdoors in cool, damp areas. These insects are of the species Blatta orientalis, commonly called oriental cockroaches or black beetles. Though they do not bite or harm humans, water bug infestations can be unsightly and unsanitary. There are a variety of poison insecticides available that are recommended for the extermination of water bugs.

Habitat
Water bugs are not invasive to homes. They thrive on organic and decaying matter, specially under leaves, mulch, and other shrubbery. Colonies are also found in dark, moist areas. They can inhabit basements, stone masonry, dumps, sewage systems, water pipes and crawl spaces. If water is scarce, the insects may travel indoors through ventilation systems, air ducts or under doors. They are poor climbers, and once inside, are not commonly found on walls, in high cupboards, or on upper floors. Water bugs tend to get trapped in bathroom fixtures after crawling through drains because they are unable to climb out.

Insecticides
Boric Acid
Boric acid powder can be spread around areas where water bugs are found. Some people prefer boric acid because it is a naturally occurring compound and not synthetically produced. Boric acid is available at hardware and discount stores.

Hydramethylnon
Hydramethylnon comes in gel form or in a bait station that contain pellets of the poison. It is sold under the brand name Combat. This chemical is a bait-type poison that relies on water bugs retrieving and consuming it through strategically located receptacles containing the poison.

Cypermethrin
Another spray-on poison is cypermethrin(C23H19ClF3NO3, CAS No. 91465-08-6). This poison decomposes quickly in a natural environment, but it is long lasting when used indoors. Brand names for cypermethrin include Demon, Cynoff and Ammo. One drawback of cypermethrin is that it can leave behind a residue.

Dish Detergent
For water bugs that are harassing you in the swimming pool, just add a few tablespoons of dish detergent to the water. Once you get out of the pool for the day, add the detergent with the pump running. Allow the water to calm and when the sun goes down, turn the pool lights on. The water bugs will be drawn to the light but when they get in the pool, the detergent will have created a barrier on the water so that when the bugs go under, they can’t come back up for air.