How To Treat Rheumatoid arthritis Effectively?

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that targets healthy joints, causing extreme pain, swelling, and stiffness. About 1% of the population suffers from this disease, with women being two or three times as likely to develop it. Early diagnosis and treatment can extend joint flexibility and reduce discomfort.

Reasons
The reason rheumatoid arthritis classifies as a systemic, autoimmune disorder is that it occurs throughout the body when our antibodies begin to attack healthy tissue. This type of arthritis can affect muscles and organs, in addition to joints, as it progresses. Usually, onset of rheumatoid arthritis occurs between 40-60 years old, and first manifests in wrists and hands.

Symptoms
At first, joints stiffen and redden when their delicate lining, the synovium, swells. Symptoms will vary from pain and discomfort in symmetrical parts of the body, to a low fever, loss of appetite, or fatigue. Next, the body reacts by trying to cushion the joint, thickening the synovium. Finally, antibodies assault the entire joint by breaking down bone, ligaments, tendons, synovium, and cartilage.

Treatments
Medications can help erase or ease the pain and possibly slow the disease’s progression. Many rheumatoid arthritis treatment approaches use disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) to reduce joint inflammation. Patients also may be prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for pain management. NSAIDs are available over the counter, but patients probably will receive stronger prescribed doses when used in a treatment program. There are several surgical interventions available.

Other medications include steroids and immunosuppressants. Steroids target rheumatoid arthritis pain by reducing inflammation. This is often a short-term treatment because sustained use can lead to diabetes, glaucoma, hypertension, and other negative side effects. If other medications fail, immunosuppressants are another option for rheumatoid arthritis treatment because they help prevent the immune system from attacking healthy joints. Edaravone, better known as 3-Methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one(CAS: 89-25-8), inhibits the disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

Lifestyle changes can help patients manage the disease. Losing weight puts less stress on painful joints. Relaxation techniques, such as meditation or visualization, may also provide coping strategies to handle or minimize pain.

What Foods Contain L-cysteine?

L-cysteine, with the molecular formula C6H12N2O4S2, is a naturally occurring amino acid that is classified as a protein amino acid. Although it has reported health benefits and deficiencies are reported to cause negative effects, the substance is naturally occurring in the body, making supplements unnecessary. One of the main functions of it is the promotion of stomach lining health and also the correction of situations where the absorption of essential nutrients from food sources takes place.

Although most people do not require any additional l-cysteine in the body, there are exceptions. Infants may sometimes need it in order to absorb nutrients from food properly. Elderly persons may need the amino acid for the same reason. When any type of ongoing disease that impacts the ability to metabolize nutrients properly, there may be a need to use a supplement in order to provide a higher quality of life.

Benefits
Some of the positive functions may include building muscle mass, protecting the stomach lining to improve digestion, and acting as an antioxidant. Other reported benefits from this amino acid are counteracting acetaminophen poisoning and stimulating the immune system.

Along with other amino acids, which are often called the building blocks of protein, l-cysteine may play a role in increasing muscle mass in the body. For this reason, they are used as supplements by bodybuilders and other fitness enthusiasts who want to increase their size or strength. It is also reported to have benefits for those who suffer from chronic lung or respiratory diseases because it helps to break down and thin mucus in the body.

Food Sources
Chicken, beef and pork are all efficient sources of cysteine. Even many varieties of processed luncheon meats contain this amino acid. Cooking does not destroy the presence of cysteine and in some cases may even help to enhance the absorption.

The acid can also be obtained from eggs and milk. Products such as ricotta and cottage cheese are also good sources. Plain yogurt and whey protein products also provide cysteine in a natural form. Onions, garlic, and broccoli are just a few of the vegetables that contain cysteine and provide good dietary resources when there is a need to augment l-cysteine(CAS:56-89-3) levels in the body.

When an l-cysteine supplement is desirable for some reason, it is possible to purchase the product at a number of retail outlets. In addition to vitamin shops and health food stores, it is also possible to purchase the supplement at a number of online herbal stores and discount vitamin suppliers.

What Should Be Noted When Taking Atenolol?

Atenolol, a beta blocker, is a prescription drug which is prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure (hypertension) and chest pain (angina). The medication essentially slows down the heart rate, making it easier for the heart to keep up and not become overloaded.

The original purpose of the medication when it was developed in 1976 was to replace a medication called propranolol for the effective treatment of hypertension. Atenolol is preferred over propranolol because it does not have the same central nervous system side effects that propranolol does, because it does not pass through the blood-brain barrier.

It should be taken exactly as directed. Do not alter or skip a dose, and do not double up on it if you miss a dose, as this can cause Atenolol overdose. Symptoms include breath shortness, feeling dizzy or weak, fainting, seizure, or an unsteady heart rate. It is important that you take it with a full glass of water, at the same time each day so that the medication will always stay working in your system.

Although atenolol shows good results, there are several potential side effects.

Talk to your doctor if you experience sleeping difficulties (such as inability to fall asleep), or have been feeling more tired than usual. Some mild or moderate effects require that you discuss the problem with your doctor, but you may not need to seek emergency medical care. Atenolol can also cause nervousness or anxiety to occur, be sure to mention to your doctor if you have been experiencing either as a result of taking the drug. Seek emergency assistance if you experience a feeling of lightheadedness or fainting, shortness of breath, uneven heart rate or heart pounding/racing, sudden swelling of your feet or ankles, stomach pain, appetite loss nausea/vomiting or a discoloration of your skin or eyes (jaundice).

Patients who have had a history of bronchial asthma or hypothyroid disease should use extreme caution when taking this medication. Some conditions may interact with Atenolol(CAS: 29122-68-7) and cause complications. Vitamin supplements also might have an adverse effect on the benefits. For this reason, the patient should discuss any other medications taken regularly with the prescribing physician before taking it.

Polymers Around Our Lives

A polymer is a chemical which is characterized by having extremely long molecules. This tends to give polymers useful properties such as flexibility and elasticity. Polymers have the highest molecular weight among any molecules, and may consist of billions of atoms. Human DNA is a polymer with over 20 billion constituent atoms.

Polymers are made from monomers; smaller chemical compounds which are linked together to form longer molecules. Polyethylene, for example, is made by reacting the simple molecule ethylene (CH2CH2) such that it joins to itself repeatedly. The majority of these monomers are derived from petrochemicals. In fact, about 4 percent of the oil produced worldwide goes to making polymers. This use of a substantial quantity of a precious non-renewable resource is one environmental consequence of plastics.

They are not always straight chains of regular repeating monomers; sometimes they consist of chains of varying length, or even chains that branch in multiple directions. Residual monomers are often found together with the polymers they create, giving the polymers additional properties. To coax monomers to link together in certain configurations requires a variety of catalysts–secondary molecules which speed up reaction times. Catalysts are the basis of most synthetic polymer production.

Since most polymers are not “natural” but rather synthetic, they are generally not biodegradable. Many plastics also do not readily break down due to natural forces, such as high temperatures or sunlight. In some ways, this resilience is a positive aspect of plastics since it enables us to make durable, long lasting polymer items, but when plastics are thrown away, they create significant problems by piling up in landfills. Approximately one quarter of all domestic trash in landfill sites is composed of various polymers.

Proteins, or the polymers of amino acids, and many other molecules that make up life are polymers. Boc-L-Valine, also known as N-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-L-valine or L-Valine,N-[(1,1-dimethylethoxy)carbonyl]- (CAS:13734-41-3), serves as the amino acid protection monomer. Certain polymers are so complex that they cannot be readily identified, so techniques such as wide angle x-ray scattering, small angle x-ray scattering, and small angle neutron scattering are employed. Most polymers are organic, employing carbon bonds as their backbone. Others use silicon. Because of the great diversity of polymers, there are many that have yet to be discovered, offering a fruitful field for further research and development.

What Is Acrylic Acid?

Acrylic acid(CAS number: 79-10-7),with the formula CH2CHCO2H, is an organic compound consisting of a vinyl group connected directly to a carboxylic acid terminus. This colorless liquid has a characteristic acrid or tart smell. It is miscible with water, alcohols, ethers, and chloroform. More than one billion kilograms are produced annually.

History
Acrylic Acid has been in production for over 30 years. It is produced in very large amounts (1.1 billion pounds in 1991) by four companies in the United States. The compound is produced naturally by several different types of algae. In 2008 there were 141 releases of acrylic acid into the atmosphere or environment by manufacturing plants. US demand for the chemical is increasing at a rate of 4 to 5 percent per year. The largest users are companies that make acrylic esters and resins, chemicals added to protective surface coatings and adhesives.

Uses
The acid undergoes the typical reactions of a carboxylic acid and, when reacted with an alcohol, it will form the corresponding ester. The esters and salts of the acid are collectively known as acrylates (or propenoates). The most common alkyl esters of the acid are methyl-, butyl-, ethyl-, and 2-ethylhexyl-acrylate.

Acrylic acid and its esters readily combine with themselves (to form polyacrylic acid) or other monomers (e.g. acrylamides, acrylonitrile, vinyl, styrene, and butadiene) by reacting at their double bond, forming homopolymers or copolymers which are used in the manufacture of various plastics, coatings, adhesives, elastomers, as well as floor polishes, and paints. The fastest growing use is in the production of superabsorbent Polyacrylic Acid polymers. Companies also use it to make oil treatment chemicals, detergent intermediates, and water treatment chemicals.

Toxicity
Acrylic acid is listed as a known human respiratory toxicant by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer states it is embryotoxic and teratogenic, having the ability to adversely affect the growth or development of the embryo. However the US Environmental Protection Agency and other agencies state that no information is available to substantiate these conclusions. Tests done on rats found acrylic acid to be both embryotoxic and teratogenic.

Exposure can occur through inhalation, ingestion, and contact to the eyes and skin. Studies show that eye or skin irritation from exposure can range in intensity from mild to severe. People can be exposed to it through direct contact with a product containing it or by inhaling it in air contaminated by a nearby plant manufacturing acrylic acid.

Common Uses for Hydrochloric Acid

Hydrochloric acid (HCL) is a colorless and odorless solution of hydrogen chloride and water.  Naturally found in gastric (stomach) acid, HCL is a strong mineral acid that is very corrosive. It is commonly used in industry as a chemical reagent, or a substance used to bring about a chemical reaction, and in food as an additive.

Without this help, the body can become nutritionally deficient. Many foods that have naturally occurring hydrochloric acid include black olives, kale, lemons, spinach, celery, ginger and sea salt, all of which are used to stimulate the production of HCL in the stomach.

Process
In the industry sector, hydrochloric acid is produced by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. This process first began during the Industrial Revolution in Europe, where there was a great need to inexpensively produce soda ash on a large scale. Using a combination of limestone, sulfuric acid, and coal, salt was converted into soda ash, leaving behind hydrogen chloride as a by-product. At first, this by-product was released into the air. However, under pressure of the British Alkali Act of 1863, manufacturers were forced to dissolve the hydrogen chloride in water, which produced the acid.

Applications
Oil Industry
Important to the oil production industry, HCL is used in a process known as oil-well acidization. This process involves injecting the acid into the cavities of oil wells to dissolve away sections of rock, leaving an open column behind. Ultimately, the method serves to accelerate oil production from the well.

Food Additive
A variety of foods are processed using hydrochloric acid additives. Artificial sweeteners such as aspartame constitute another main food-industry use of HCL. Used as a food and drink additive, aspartame in the body encourages the hormone gastrin, which is related to the hydrochloric acid secretion in the stomach. MSG, or monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium salt, is another food enhancer or additive produced by the food industry that is made with the chemical.

Hydrochloric acid(CAS: 7647-01-0) may also be used for older persons or people who are being affected by a low acid deficiency in their digestive system, which causes hair to be unhealthy and fingernails to grow soft.

Extreme care must be taken when handling this acid. In high concentrations, HCL releases an acid mist into the air. To avoid injury or irritation when working with HCL, chemical retardant clothing should be worn, in addition to PVC gloves and protective eyewear.

What’s The Difference Between Semi-Rigid Vinyl And Other Vinyl?

The term “vinyl” most commonly, refers to polyvinyl chloride, or PVC. Vinyl comes in a range of densities, from soft vinyl clothing to hard vinyl floors and records. The vinyl industry presents consumers with myriad materials, from ethylene vinyl acetate to polyethylene vinyl acetate to polyvinyl butyral. Semi-rigid vinyl presents a versatile middle ground that lends itself to dozens of products across numerous sectors.

What Is Vinyl?
Vinyl derives from ethylene, produced by processing petroleum or natural gas, and chlorine. Chemical reactions combine ethylene and chlorine, creating ethylene dichloride, which is in turn converted into gas and finally undergoes polymerization. This process turns it into the white resin polyvinyl chloride. The addition of chemical additives and modifiers turns the resin into a usable product; the types of additives and modifiers used determine the rigidity of the vinyl.

Semi-rigid Vinyl Products
Many products contain numerous varieties of semi-rigid vinyl. Many consumers may be familiar with semi-rigid vinyl as the material found in luggage tag holders and the thick laminate pages used in crafts and office applications. Industrial and office suppliers use this material in the manufacture of adhesive labels and films, as well as in binders, I.D. badges, overlays, stationery products and tool pouches. Health-care professionals find semi-rigid vinyl in x-ray holders and many carrying cases, such as those used to hold defibrillators.

What’s The Properties Of Semi-rigid Vinyl?
Semi-rigid vinyl contains chemical modifiers that soften the material’s rigidity. These additives include homopolymers and copolymers of butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate. These and other chemicals give semi-rigid vinyl increased flexibility when compared to rigid, hard-plastic PVC materials. Like other types of vinyl, semi-rigid vinyl features a smooth texture and high resistance to both moisture and flames.

Butyl acrylate(CAS: 141-32-2), with the molecular formula C7H12O, is an organic solvent that is a clear and colorless liquid. It has a fruity odor that is characteristic of the organic compound. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) limits the permissible exposure of butyl acrylate in air to only 10 ppm, or parts per million (this equates to 10 milligrams butyl acrylate per liter of air) concentration.

Precautions
As there is no cross-industry standard for the term “semi-rigid vinyl”, products that bear the label may consist of different material contents. Semi-rigid vinyl releases the human carcinogen dioxin when burned. Because of the extensive variety of additives used in semi-rigid and rigid vinyl products, recycling is a difficult process – only vinyls with the same chemical composition can be recycled together.

Why Is Bisphenol A Harmful To People?

Bisphenol A, also known as 4,4′-dihydroxy-2,2-diphenylpropane, or simply BPA, with the molecular formula C15H16O2, is an organic compound composed of two phenol groups that is produced by condensing acetone with carbolic acid. In laymen’s terms, BPA is a synthetic chemical compound used to make some plastics and resins that are used in manufacturing numerous products we use in our daily lives.

Bisphenol A is used as a reactive monomer to polymerize proteins, which initiates a chemical process that leads to the formation of polymer chains. As such, BPA is produced in mass quantities for the primary purpose of manufacturing polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins.

Despite bisphenol A has been used commercially for more than half a century, it has only become familiar to consumers in recent years. This is due to concerns over the impact on the environment and human health. Environmental studies indicate that this organic compound interferes with nitrogen uptake in certain plants, namely legumes such as beans. Several studies have also found levels of BPA in municipal wastewater.

BPA is said by some to also be an environmental contaminant, having been reported in water and sediment at various levels. Many believe that even low-level exposure can be dangerous, as has been shown in some studies with animals. Some studies link BPA exposure to different types of cancers as well as other diseases and disorders. The threats of breast cancer, prostate cancer, diabetes, obesity, and miscarriage may be exacerbated by BPA exposure, and it may increase hyperactivity according to some studies.

In terms of the impact of long-term exposure of Bisphenol A on humans, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has found that nearly 95 percent of Americans over the age of six have low levels of BPA that can be detected in their urine. Researchers believe that the chemical may enter the body through regular consumption of foods and drinks packaged in materials that have been treated with the substance. Aside from consuming canned goods and drinking from plastic bottles, exposure may also come from drinking some wines or even having teeth sealed.

BPA may act as a hormone disruptor, or an element that can interfere with proper hormonal function leading to various health problems. Still, most governments are not prepared to enact a full ban until further testing has been completed, since there are competing studies and study of human exposure has not been done extensively. Due to limited human study, the question of whether or not bisphenol A is dangerous to humans continues to fuel controversy.

Consumers can take other steps to help limit exposure as well, such as choosing glass instead of plastic where possible, not using plastic containers in the microwave or with hot foods or beverages, not putting plastic in the dishwasher, and avoiding strong cleaners such as bleach when cleaning plastics.

Beta-Carotene: Benefits & Risks With Smoking

Beta carotene(β-Carotene), with the molecular formula C40H56, is an organic compound found in many fruits and vegetables. It is primarily responsible for the pigment in orange colored fruits and vegetables, but also contributes to the pigment in red, yellow, and green colored fruits and vegetables. Though some food sources are rich in beta carotene, including cantaloupe, broccoli, spinach, and palm oil, carrots are the major supplier in most diets.

Significance
Beta carotene is accepted as an essential human nutrient, especially when there is a deficiency of vitamin A, which is  needed to promote healthy vision and skin. In fact, when a vitamin A deficiency is suspected, blood tests measuring the levels of β-Carotene are often performed as a result. Without this element it would be difficult to find other sources of vitamin A, though they do exist. The deeper the orange color of a fruit or vegetable is, the more β-Carotene there is present in it, and therefore the more vitamin A there is going to be. It is believed to have antioxidant properties in addition to its provitamin A function.

Benefits
It aids in healthy skin that is able to breathe and is free from excess grime and grit. It also repairs the rods and cones found in the retina of the eye and helps with eyesight in general. When beta carotene is ingested it is broken down in the small intestine by what is called mucosa. This results in the creation of retinal, which is a soluble form of vitamin A that is then distributed through the body, but mainly into the retinas for use in repairing and maintaining healthy eyesight. In addition, studies have found that β-Carotene prevents the decline of cognitive abilities in people over time. This was done in a study of people who took in at least 50 mg every other day.

Researchs
Studies into whether or not beta carotene and vitamin A could help to prevent of decrease the risk of cancer found that it actually increases the risk of lung cancer, especially in smokers or those people who have been exposed to asbestos. If you are a smoker, do not take its supplements and try to limit the amount you eat in general. Try to find a good source of vitamin A from somewhere else.

Warnings
Beta-carotene
(CAS: 7235-40-7), like most other nutritional substances, can be obtained in adequate amounts by eating a well-balanced, healthy diet consisting of fruits and vegetables. However, a doctor may recommend β-Carotene supplements for certain patients. Besides the increase risk of cancer in smokers, too much amount can also result in carotenemia or carotenodermia. This is a mostly harmless disease, though it can be a precursor to more dangerous conditions. This causes a yellowing of the skin, and has been debated as a myth in the past, though it has been proven to be a result of eating an abundance of carrots, which are very high in this nutritional supplement.

Are Pesticides Dangerous To Humans?

Pesticides are substances or mixture of substances that are applied for the purpose of controlling, destroying, repelling and preventing various pests from destroying foods and plants. Pests are organisms that appear on many crops, animals and even humans, and cause damage or destruction. Some examples of various pests include various insects, slugs, snails, plant diseases, weeds, mice and other vermin that carry disease as well as various viruses and bacteria, fungi and prions.  There are also many household products that are considered to be pesticides or contain dangerous pesticide chemicals.

Insecticides are referred to as “systemic” chemicals and can also be either absorbed, fed or injected into plants or animals for defense against various pests. When the insect or pests attempt to feed off of the insecticide-injected plant or animal, the pests ingest the chemical and are destroyed. Pesticides are various chemicals used to defray pests, unwanted plant diseases or fungi. Insecticides also require either direct contact with pests or either ingestion of the insecticide to successfully kill the pest. Some pesticides require direct contact for pests to be destroyed or repelled away, and some require ingestion of the pesticide for the pesticide to work effectively. Some believe that in order to defeat all pests and not just a few; the pesticide may need to be set as bait as opposed to being used as a spray. Introducing pesticides as bait is also believed to be less pricey and much more efficient.

There are presently more than 865 recorded pesticides according to the Environmental Protection Agency. However, fewer than half of the pesticides are employed for the protection of the United States food supply. Large scale spraying that may take place on farms may be dangerous too, as evidenced by numbers of health problems such as the development of cancer in higher rates among farm workers, and among those who live near farms.

Many people were alerted to the potential dangers of pesticides when studies on the product 2-Chloro-5-(chloromethyl)pyridine with the molecular formula C6H5Cl2, which was widely used as a pesticide, revealed that this product affected people and animals. For people, 2-Chloro-5-(chloromethyl)pyridine(CAS: 70258-18-3) could cause increased risk of liver cancer, respiratory problems, damage to the central nervous system, and difficulty with reproduction. Some bird populations were nearly destroyed by the widespread use of this chemical, and in 1972 a number of countries banned its use, though there are still some that use it The chemical was thought safe but evidence found that it contaminated water, could be found in fish that were eaten, and even was present in human breast milk.

Environmentalists advocate for greatly reducing and/or completely eliminating chemical spraying. Others seek a middle ground, where most pesticide use would be reduced or very strictly controlled. Yet other groups believe that most pesticides used today are safe for humans. However, evidence in this area tends not to always support this belief.

Information On Cephalosporins

Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that come in three distinct groups: first generation, second generation and third generation. When it comes to covering more ground in killing gram-negative bacteria, second and third generations are going to be the drug of choice for the doctor; although they don’t work as well with gram-positive bacteria. Third-generation cephalosporins also work better when it comes to drug-resistant bacteria, which is an increasing concern with today’s doctors and scientists.

Uses
Cephalosporin is an antibiotic medication commonly prescribed to treat several different types of infections. It is also an effective prophylaxis, a drug given to hospitalized patients before surgery to prevent bacterial infections. The medication works by breaking down bacterial cell walls and destroying internal structures.

The drug is often the first choice for treating acute and chronic respiratory disorders, including pneumonia and bronchitis. It is also prescribed for ear infections, gastrointestinal tract infections, sinusitis, and skin lesions that are caused by streptococci or staphylococci. When used as a prophylaxis before surgery, the medication prevents bacteria from entering surgical scars and infecting tissue.

Considerations
Most adults are instructed to take between 200 and 500 milligram doses two to three times a day for about two weeks. It is important to follow a doctor’s recommendations exactly to ensure the maximum effects.  In the hospital, the drug is often given intravenously or injected directly into infected skin or muscle tissue. Dosage amounts for oral prescriptions depend on many different factors, including the specific type of infection and the patient’s age and health.

Adverse Effects
More common side effects might include stomach upset and diarrhea, even loss of weight. More serious side effects that should definitely be reported to the patient’s physician might include an infection with Clostridium difficile, or more commonly known as C.Diff. Also, the kidneys could become toxic and shut down. Any number of blood disorders could occur, such as decreases in the number of white blood cells, platelets and even red blood cells, resulting in bleeding, externally and internally. The patient could also go into an allergic shock.

Warnings
Patients generally experience symptom relief within a few days of taking cephalosporin. 1,8-Diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene, or called as Diazabicycloundecene with the molecular formula C9H16N2, is used as a protecting agent for the synthesis of cephalosporin. Patients who are allergic to cephalosporins, of course, shouldn’t take them. By getting plenty of rest, staying hydrated, and maintaining regular dosages, an individual can expect to be symptom-free in less than one month. Infections that persist or worsen despite taking antibiotics need to be re-addressed by the doctor so other treatment remedies can be considered.

Colitis And Bradycardia That Caused By Muscle Relaxants

Muscle relaxants are prescription medications that affect the function of muscles and the nerves in the central nervous system. Although generally regarded as safe, muscle relaxants can cause side effects including sleepiness, vision problems and may become addictive.

Muscle relaxants are given to patients who are experiencing pain and discomfort due to stiffness, sprains, strains or other muscle injury. They are generally used temporarily as part of a rehabilitation program. Muscle relaxants work by altering the signals in the central nervous system and this affect causes the bulk of the side effects.

Most of the side effects caused by muscle relaxants are not serious for most people and will go away when you stop taking them. Common ones include: drowsiness, light-headedness or dizziness, or changes in vision. More serious side effects include swelling, irregular breathing, sore throat, chills and unusual bleeding or bruising.

For those with colitis, some of the adverse side effects of muscle relaxants aggravate symptoms caused by their condition. These effects include nausea, stomach cramps or pain, diarrhea, constipation, and black, bloody or tarry stool. Some of these side effects may decrease over time or may go away after you have ceased taking the medication.

Some muscle relaxants even can cause bradycardia. Bradycardia is a condition that occurs when the heart rate drops to under 60 beats per minute. Bradycardia causes fainting, weakness, fatigue, chest discomfort and shortness of breath. Reading the labels on medications prior to use can prepare patients for any side effects.

Suxamethonium chloride is an odorless muscle relaxant. This drug is used in anesthesia, intensive care and emergency rooms. Suxamethonium chloride is used when a complete paralysis of the body is needed for surgery, intubation or other emergency procedure. An injection of 1.0 to 1.5 mg per kg of body weight causes paralysis within a minute. An injection of 2.0 mg per kg for children causes immediate paralysis. Suxamethonium causes side effects, such as bradycardia, muscle pains, hypertension and cardiac arrest.

1,3-Dimethoxy benzene, with the molecular formula C6H4(OCH3)2, is another one among the muscle relaxants that cause bradycardia. This medication is also used as a sedative. 1,3-Dimethoxy benzene(CAS: 151-10-0) is used in emergency rooms and intensive care units. The drug is administered through an I.V. Fentanyl acts as a semisynthetic. Among the side effects of fentanyl are physical dependence, rigid chest and respiratory problems.

Midazolam is a muscle relaxant used in emergency and critical care rooms. If you’re using anesthetics, cimetidine or narcotics, the midazolam dose should be reduced by 25 percent. Midazolam includes side effects, such as bradycardia, respiratory problems and hypotension.

What’s The Role Of Peptides In Human Body?

Peptides are substances which are composed of linking one or more amino acids with a covalent bond. These compounds are classified as polymers, because they typically link together in long chains. The specific type of covalent bond formed in peptides is known as a peptide bond or amide bond, and it forms when the carboxl group of one amino acid attaches to another. Carboxyl groups are clusters of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen molecules, in case you’re curious.

A peptide classfied as a polymer is sometimes confusing to people who are not familiar with this use of the term “polymer”. While many people mean “plastics” when they talk about polymers, in chemistry, a polymer is any sort of repeating chain connected with covalent bonds. Polymers can get extremely complex, as one might imagine. When a peptide chain gets especially long, it turns into a protein. Peptides and proteins represent a wide world of possibilities, and many molecular biologists spend years researching the functions of single peptides and proteins to learn more about how the body works.

Some common types of peptides classified by function include hormones, neuropeptides, and alkaloids. When classified by synthesis, peptides can be ribosomal, nonribosomal, and peptonic. The classification system of peptides is considered an imperfect science because one peptide can belong to multiple groups simultaneously and scientists continue to debate when a peptide should be classified as a protein, or a protein as a peptide. Many scientists agree that a peptide does not conform easily to a specific pattern, whereas a protein is more distinct in nature to conformation.

A peptide can perform a wide range of functions in the body, depending on which amino acids are involved. Some can regulate hormones, for example, while others can have an antibiotic function. The body is also equipped to break down and reuse peptides; if you eat meat, for example, the enzymes in your intestines break down the protein at its amide bonds to create an assortment of peptides which may be digested or excreted, depending on the needs of your body.

In regard to the classification of peptides due to their synthesis, most are the ribosomal type(typically synthesized by FMOC-thr(tBu)-OH, better known as FMOC-O-tert-Butyl-L-threonine with the molecular formula C23H27NO5); this peptide type is synthesized when the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) on the cell is translated. During translation, a chemical process occurs where one carboxyl group on an amino acid couples with another amino acid to create the beginning of an amino acid chain. Ribosomal peptides are often made up of 30 to 40 amino acids joined together. The nonribosomal type of peptide is synthesized when there are enzymatic catalysts present.

Famous Medical Purposes of Ethyl Alcohol

Ethyl alcohol, CH3CH2OH, also commonly referred to as ethanol or grain alcohol, is a clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic, agreeable odor. In dilute aqueous solution, it has a somewhat sweet flavor, but in more concentrated solutions it has a burning taste. Ethanol is a group of chemical compounds whose molecules contain a hydroxyl group, –OH, bonded to a carbon atom. Aside from being the most common type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages and certain recreational drugs, it is often used in medicine as an antidote to combat the effects of other types of drugs or alcohol.

Early medical uses of ethanol were primarily for pain relief in the form of liquors. This was before the use of anesthesia, and these methods were effective because of alcohol’s intoxicating and sometimes numbing effects on the body. This use for ethanol is commonly known and often conjures images of war with physicians giving patients a shot of whiskey before performing surgery or removing limbs injured in battle.

Ethyl alcohol can also be used as an antidote to help reverse or lessen the effects of certain chemicals, primarily other alcohols like methanol. Once ethanol is added to the system, it competes with the other alcohols to be broken down by the body, and slows down the metabolism of other chemicals into the bloodstream where they typically become toxic to the body.

More modern uses for ethyl alcohol include using it for antiseptic purposes, most commonly in antiseptic wipes and hand sanitizers. It is effective at killing most bacteria, fungi, and many viruses on the hands and skin and is a useful alternative to hand soaps. Medical professionals often use gel sanitizers before treating patients to prevent the spread of harmful bacteria.

Physicians also used to prescribe ethanol as a form of antidepressant, due to its effects on the brain. Modern physicians now understand that alcohol consumed in an effort to numb uncomfortable feelings eventually leads to a dependency and addiction. In fact, ethyl alcohol is a depressant rather than the opposite, and can lead to depressive thoughts and feelings with extended use.

When ingested, ethyl alcohol can cause stomach irritation resulting in nausea and vomiting. Since it is an intoxicating agent, those who consume alcohol may experience dizziness, feelings of euphoria or an alcohol induced “high,” and loss of consciousness if ingested in large enough amounts. Long-term consumption of ethyl alcohol may cause serious liver damage and depression, as well as leading to alcohol dependency.

How Does Detergent Remove Dirt?

We almost use household cleaning products such as detergents everyday, washing clothes, dishes and so on. Despite of detergents wide uses, we may know noting about them except realize that they can break down dirt. Now, let’s have a quick glance at how do they work.

Reduces Tension
Detergent reduces the surface tension of water, allowing the water to penetrate and completely wet the fabrics that need to be cleaned. The laundry detergent lowers the interfacial tension between the fabric and the laundry detergent and water solution. At the same time, it also lowers the interfacial tension between the oil and the laundry detergent and water solution, allowing stains on the fabric to be lifted. The surfactant molecules in the laundry detergent are strongly attracted to the water and lift the soil from the fabric that normally would not dissolve in water alone.

Ehances Repulsion
Once the dirt is dispersed into the solution, the anionic surfactants found in the laundry detergent actually adhere to the surface of the dirt as well as the surface of the fabric being laundered. The result is a negative charge on the surface of the dirt and the fabric, which causes electrostatic repulsion. It is the electrostatic repulsion that actually prevents the dirt and grime from landing back onto the fabric and staying immersed in the water.

Main Component
Detergents use acids to break down dirt, grime and tarnish. Among these acids is sulfonic acid, an organosulfur compound, or a compound that contains sulfur. A quick glance at the label of numerous cleaners and detergents will show that there are various types of sulfonic acids, including methane sulfonic acid, arylalkyl sufonic acid and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid(commonly known as sodium salt or LAS), among others. Although they differ in composition, each of these sulfonic acids serves as a chemical catalyst.

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid(CAS: 27176-87-0) — commonly appears as an ingredient in laundry detergent. In addition to detergents, sulfonic acid compounds often lend themselves to stripping and cleaning agents such as floor cleaners, hard surface cleaners, metal polishes and grout, tile and bathroom cleaners. Methanesulfonic acid often appears in all-purpose liquid spray cleaners. Sometimes called “green acid,” this type of organic sulfonic acid produces no odors or toxic fumes, contains no nitrogen or halogens and is easily biodegradable.

Information On Carboxymethyl Cellulose

Carboxymethyl cellulose(cellulose gum, cellulose,carboxymethyl ether or CMC) is a versatile, cost-effective and easy-to-use thickening agent that has numerous industrial applications. It is a substance commonly found in many household products, from certain foods to hair gels and laxatives. Cellulose gum is a key ingredient that helps maintain certain characteristics such as stabilizing a dough product, providing thickness to a gel or helping to keep two liquids mixed together. Most importantly, CMC has been shown to be safe in all of its applications.

Properties
Carboxymethyl cellulose(CAS number:9000-11-7) is registered by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) of the American Chemical Society. Its CAS number is 9004-32-4. Its chemical formula is C6H7O2(OH)2OCH2COONa. It dissolves easily in both cold and hot water. It appears as a fibrous, grainy, white powder that has good thermal stability enzyme resistance, emulsification and stickiness.

Manufacture
CMC is farmed from trees and cotton and is therefore readily renewable, abundant and cheap. According to R. Sinha in the book “Outlines of Polymer Technology: Manufacture of Polymers,” the chemcial was first produced in 1917 and commercially manufactured in the 1930s. In “Twinkie, Deconstructed,” author Steve Ettlinger notes that CMC will absorb 15 to 20 times its starting weight when combined with water.

Food Uses
Been mentioned in Danisco.com, carboxymethyl cellulose is used mostly in the food and beverage industry in applications such as frozen dough, juices, concentrated beverages, dressings, soups, ice cream, processed cheeses, fruit preparation and emulsified meat products.

According to Alan Imeson in the book “Food Stabilisers, Thickeners and Gelling Agents,” cellulose gum is helpful in stabilizing the pH of protein beverages. It is also used to maintain the sweetness of high-sugar food substances such as fondants, frostings and syrups. It controls the growth of ice crystals in frozen desserts and ice cream.

Other Uses
Cellulose gum is used in oilfield drilling liquids and personal care products (toothpaste, hair gel, shampoo, lotions and ointments) and in some medicines such as laxatives and antacids. The textile industry uses cellulose gum in the production of ceramics and paper. Crude product is used on a smaller scale in laundry detergents.

Safety
Because cellulose,carboxymethyl ether passes through the human’s digestive system intact and provides no negative side effects, it can be considered completely safe. One of the testaments to the safety aspect of cellulose gum is its increasingly popular use as an ingredient in foods and beverages. It is able to provide necessary characteristics to many foods and beverages without harming the body.

A Prescription Medication That Treats Hypertension

Candesartan cilexetil(trade name is Atacand) is an angiotensin II receptor blocker and prescription medication often prescribed to treat hypertension, or high blood pressure. The medicine operates by allowing the blood vessels to relax, which ultimately leads to greater ease of blood flow. Reducing the blood pressure can have a lot of positive effects, such as preventing medical problems from strokes to heart attacks.

Indications
Treating hypertension can help reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and even kidney failure. Another reason people use Atacand is to help protect kidneys from damage caused by diabetes, or diabetic nephropathy. Candesartan cilexetil also is used to treat some cases of congestive heart failure, a disorder in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood through the body. Atacand helps the heart regain more efficiency. Besides, it shows potential as a treatment for decreasing the severity and duration of migraine headaches.

Considerations
Best results occur when the medication is taken at the same time each day. The proper dosage for children will be determined on an individual basis, by weight. It is available in the form of a tablet, however children may use a liquid medicine if they have trouble swallowing the pill. Adults will typically take 16 milligrams (mg) of candesartan cilexetil once daily, however the doctor may increase this amount as needed. Patients usually must take Atacand for two to six weeks before seeing results in blood pressure readings.

Side Effects
Patients may notice sneezing, a runny or stuffy nose, congestion and ear pain. People may also notice blurred vision, dizziness, and lightheadedness, particularly while the body adjusts to the medication. These side effects are usually short-lived, but if you have any of them, and they are particularly persistent, or get stronger with time, you need to make your doctor aware of the situation.

There are also various rare and severe side effects. These side effects could lead to some dangerous consequences, so it is absolutely crucial to seek emergency medical attention if you notice any signs of them. These potentially harmful side effects include lingering nausea and throwing up, stomach pain, abnormal exhaustion, yellowing of the skin or the eyes (also known as jaundice), muscle ache and darker colored urine than usual.

Candesartan Cilexetil(CAS: 145040-37-5) may interact with other medicines or supplements. Patients should discuss possible interactions with their doctors, including lithium, diuretics or water pills, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as naproxen and ibuprofen. In addition, patients must avoid the use of potassium supplements or any salt substitutes that contain potassium.

A Most Widely Used Stool Softener

Butanedioicacid,2-sulfo-,1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester,sodium salt (its superlist name is docusate sodium) is an ingredient in medical products such as laxatives and stool softeners and it is probably the most widely used stool softener. There are many forms available over-the-counter, but a prescription strength is also available.

Stool softeners are a form of laxative, and are the gentlest on the bowels. They work by increasing the amount of water in the stool, and do not irritate the intestinal lining. While typically used to prevent constipation, they are sometimes used to treat occasional constipation.

The ordinary forms of docusate sodium available are pills, a liquid suspension, and drops. All oral forms must be taken with a full glass of water, or as instructed by a health care provider. Adequate water consumption is important while taking this medication. When taken orally, docusate sodium is effective within one to three days. Taken rectally, it is effective within five to twenty minutes. If a bowel movement has not been produced within the time frame stated on the packaging, a health care provider should be consulted.

One of the most common docusate sodium side effects is constipation, which can be accompanied by a myriad of additional side effects. Constipation is often accompanied by uncomfortable abdominal cramping and pain. Sometimes finally having a bowel movement can be extremely painful, and the situation can result in a loss of appetite. In addition, the gas and bloating associated with constipation can result in headaches, nausea, and an extremely large abdomen as if the patient overate.

The drug should not be taken together with mineral oil. Some mineral oil may be absorbed by the body if taken with docusate sodium. This can lead to mineral oil toxicity, or overdose. Symptoms of overdose include diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and dehydration.

Allergic reactions can be a concern when taking this medication. Swelling or itching, especially around the face or in the mouth, can be a sign of an allergic reaction. In addition, dizziness and skin irritations such as rashes are among the most common side effects of Butanedioicacid,2-sulfo-,1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester, sodium salt (1:1) caused by an allergic reaction. Life-threatening allergic reactions are unlikely with this medication, but emergency medical help should be sought.

Diarrhea is a another side effect of docusate sodium(CAS: 577-11-7) that can result in other issues. For instance, diarrhea can cause dehydration due to an unusual amount of liquids lost in bowel movements. This means that diarrhea can lead to thirst, as well as additional stomach pain and tenderness. Especially severe diarrhea should be brought to a medical professional’s attention, because it is potentially fatal, even though unlikely for an otherwise healthy adult.

Facts About Cellular respiration You May Not Know

Cellular respiration is divided into two parts of metabolism. The first half is about the cell breaks down molecules into energy, or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) while the second half of metabolism involves the use of that cellular energy to build molecules such as tissues and organs, and it is referred to as anabolism.

Cellular respiration also is called oxidative metabolism because it uses a set of chemical reactions to change the oxidative state of the initial products. In animals and simpler organisms, respiration involves glucose and oxygen. The oxygen does not come into play until the end, when free electrons need something to which to bind. Carbon dioxide and water are the byproducts of the reaction. Oxidative metabolism begins with the breakdown of organic nutrients such as carbohydrates, sugars, proteins, vitamins and fats. Glucose, a simple sugar, is the most common nutrient to be broken down in a process known as glycolysis, or glucose metabolism.

ATP commonly is known as the fuel and currency of the cell because of the vital function it plays, according to Estrella Mountain Community College. Without this material, cells, tissues and bodily systems would be unable to sustain themselves. In addition to its role as a fuel, ATP is also recyclable. Once a cell uses the ATP molecules produced through cellular respiration, ADP and phosphate molecules are leftover byproducts. ADP and phosphate molecules are two of the materials needed to manufacture ATP, so leftover byproducts from one respiration cycle can be picked up and used within the next respiration cycle.

In the citric acid cycle, oxidation of the carbon atoms results in the production of carbon dioxide and energy. There are two pyruvate molecules input into the mitochondria from one glucose metabolism reaction, so the TCA cycle involves two cycle turns for completion. Each turn produces one ATP, and so at the completion, two ATP are produced. Oxidative metabolism is an efficient process in that it produces numerous byproducts, known as reaction intermediates, for instance, FMOC-L-Phenylalanine(an pharmaceutical intermediate, other names such as FMOC-PHE or FMOC-Phenylalanine), that are almost immediately used for anabolism after catabolism is complete.

Oxidative metabolism is affected by diseases such as type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes prevents glucose from entering the cell, and if it is left untreated, there will be no glucose available for normal production of energy via glycolysis. The body will then resort to the breakdown of fatty acids to fuel itself. The breakdown of fatty acids results in an acidic byproduct known as ketone bodies. If let untreated, the quantity of ketone bodies acidifies the potenz hydrogen (pH) of the blood and leads to the life-threatening condition ketoacidosis.

What Is 1,2-Dichloroethane?

1,2-dichloroethane, commonly known as ethylene dichloride nowdays, is a liquid organic compound classified as an organochloride. Just like ethylene dichloride is considered an outdated name for 1,2-dichloroethane, it was also once called as Dutch oil in honor of the Dutch scientists who first synthesized this compound from ethylene and chlorine gases in the late 18th century. The chemical structure of ethylene dichloride consists of a covalent bond between its hydrogen atoms and two chlorine atoms, meaning that they share electron pairs between them.

Market Condition
Today, the compound is produced in large quantities from the same basic materials using either chlorinated iron or copper as a catalyst. In fact, the commercial production of this solvent in the US, which began in 1922, eventually earned a place in the top 50 highest volume industrial chemicals produced in the country. In addition, large amounts of this chemical are imported into the US each year from Japan and several Western European countries.

Specific Uses
The famous use of ethylene dichloride is applied in industry to produce vinyl chloride, used to manufacture polyvinyl chloride (PVC). It is also used to make polystyrene, a thermoplastic, and styrene butadiene (SBR) latex, an adhesive coating used to bond cement, concrete, and asphalt. In addition, the chemical is used as an industrial solvent to remove oil and grease, as well as in the manufacturing of other chlorinated solvents, such as perchloroethylene, otherwise known as dry cleaning fluid.

As a good apolar aprotic solvent, 1,2-dichloroethane is used as degreaser and paint remover. As a useful ‘building block’ reagent, it is used as an intermediate in the production of various organic compounds such as ethylenediamine. In the laboratory it is occasionally used as a source of chlorine, with elimination of ethene and chloride. Via several steps, 1,2-dichloroethane is a precursor to 1,1,1-trichloroethane, which is used in dry cleaning. At one time, 1,2-dichloroethane was used as an anti-knock additive in leaded fuels.

Toxcity
A small amount ot exposure to Ethane,1,2-dichloro- (CAS: 107-06-2) was once thought to be primarily an occupational hazard, the EPA has discovered that this solvent is also present in significant amounts in rural air, as well as in surface water and groundwater. As might be expected, the World Health Organization (WHO) reports similar findings in Western Europe in regions where this chemical is manufactured. In addition, according to the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), this substance has been detected in human breast milk. In terms of environmental impact, 1,2-dichloroethane persists in the ground, but biodegrades in the air within 300 days. However, this substance is toxic to fish and contributes to acid rainfall.