What Does The LCD Mean?

If you want to know what is the LCD, you’d better learn the informationn about liquid crystals. You may think the substance is a kind of liquid due to the name. Actually liquid crystals are neither solid nor liquid–they are a state of matter actually intermediate between the two. Liquid crystals can usually flow like a liquid, but their molecules are oriented in a somewhat-organized arrangement like the molecules or atoms in a crystal.

These liquid crystal materials were discovered and used heavily in the 1970s, and since then they’re become ever more popular in a variety of different electronic devices that we find all around us today.

Characteristics
Molecules in liquid crystals tend to adopt the same orientations so that they line up in rows along parallel axes which differs from liquids. The arrangement of the molecules is ordered and organized even though the molecules can continue to flow past each other. Most liquid crystals form from materials with long, rod-like molecules that have a partial positive charge on one end and a partial negative charge on the other.

As well, there are several different classes of liquid crystals. In nematic phase crystals, although the molecules are all lined up in the same way like long rows of cars, they are also staggered so that one row may be a little farther ahead or behind the next. In smetic phase crystals, the molecules form into layers or sheets that can slide past each other. Like smetic phase crystals, cholesteric phase crystals also have layers; the molecules in each layer are at a different angle from the molecules in other layers.

LCD and Its Uses
LCD(liquid crystal displays) are typically made using nematic phase crystals; the arrangement of the molecules only permits light with a certain polarization (light waves at a certain angle or tile) to get through. In the presence of an electric field, however, the molecules realign so that they block the polarized light, creating a dark spot or bar on the screen.

Liquid crystal(commonly prepared by 4-Fluorophenol, the molecular is C6H5FO) displays change color in the presence of electrical fields, and it’s this technology that’s part of what’s allowed televisions to get smaller and smaller over the years. The same is true of computer monitors, and especially true of laptop screens. While there have been other technological advances that have contributed to the minimizing of these machines, if not for the contribution of liquid crystals, chances are that our sleek entertainment technology would still be a lot bulkier.

A Common Drug That Treating Prostate Cancer

Bicalutamide(marketed as Casodex, Cosudex, Calutide, Kalumid) is an oral medication that is used in the treatment of prostate cancer. It belongs to a group of drugs called non-steroidal antiandrogens, and it works by blocking male hormones. It was first launched in 1995 as a combination treatment (with surgical or medical castration) for advanced prostate cancer and subsequently launched as monotherapy for the treatment of earlier stages of the disease.

Bicalutamide is used in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. In metastatic cancer, the disease has started in the prostate before spreading to other parts of the body. Typically the drug is taken once a day, either in the morning or evening. It comes in tablet form and can be taken without food. To avoid harmful drug interactions, the patient should make sure to discuss all other medications, including vitamins and herbal supplements, with his or her doctor before taking bicalutamide. It may cause problems with liver function and use should be avoided if a patient has ever had liver disease.

Regarded as a non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide works by blocking the action of androgens, or male hormones, such as testosterone. When used together with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone such as leuprolide, bicalutamide helps to stop the growth and spread of cancer cells. It does not destroy existing cancer cells, so it is not considered a cure.

It’s important to follow the doctor’s instructions exactly and to take the correct amount. During treatment, injections of a type of drug called a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone will be given at set intervals, such as once every four weeks.  Even if a patient feels better, he or she should not discontinue use unless instructed by the doctor. In addition, bicalutamide, prepared by an intermediate called as 4-Amino-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile(CAS: 654-70-6), should never be used by a woman because if she becomes pregnant it can cause abnormalities in the unborn baby.

Potentially serious side effects that a doctor should be notified about include body aches, fever, chills, nausea, stomach pain, shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, swollen hands or feet, easy bruising or bleeding, or blood in the urine. Some common milder side effects are dizziness, weakness, headaches, hot flashes, back pain, digestive issues, weight gain or loss, cold symptoms, swollen or painful breasts, loss of sexual desire, and increased urination at night. Liver damage is possible and blood should be tested and monitored to ensure the medication is working with minimum possible side effects.

Can Drywall Really Dry Wall?

Drywall, also known as plasterboard, wallboard or gypsum board is a panel made of gypsum plaster pressed between two thick sheets of paper. It is used to make interior walls and ceilings. They are used to finish the interior walls and ceilings of buildings. The panels vary in size and thickness and are typically attached to wooden beams and studs. There are many different types of panels, including ones that provide water proofing and sound proofing.

Drywalls are available in 4 by 8 foot (1.2 by 2.4 meter) sheets as well as 4 by 12 foot (1.2 by 3.6 meter) sheets. The smaller panels are the ones most commonly used in construction because they are easier to transport. The panels also range in thickness from 1/2 to 5/8 inch (1.27 to 1.58 cm). The first is most often used on walls while the latter is typically used on ceilings.

Different Uses Various From Different Types
Standard drywalls consist of a gypsum interior and a thick paper exterior. Gypsum, also known as calcium sulphate dihydroxide, is a compound mineral that occurs naturally in nature. Panels are installed and finished off with compound before painting, to allow for a smooth and seamless finish. Although smooth finishes are the standard, drywall panels also allow for textured finishes.

Another type of drywall available is sound proofing drywall. Instead of the standard interior, the inside of soundproofing drywall panels is a combination of products. The exterior is still standard paper but the interior consists of ceramics, viscoelastic polymers and gypsum. Sound proofing drywall can provide sound dampening to the equivalent of eight to ten standard drywall panels.

In addition to sound proofing drywall, panels known as green board are used in areas exposed to a high degree of moisture, like bathrooms and basements. Although the panel exteriors are still covered in paper, the paper is much thicker and resistant to moisture and water. The panels are also coated in wax to help prevent water retention. These drywall panels can help prevent mold from accumulating in an area where moisture is present.

Some buildings that require additional fire proofing use fire rated drywall panels. In these panels, fiber strands are added to the gypsum to increase the life of a drywall panel when facing the threat of fire. Similar panels are used in areas exposed to heavier use like dorm rooms. In addition to the fiber, the exterior paper coating that typically add 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide(the IUPAC name is 2,2-Dibromo-2-cyanoacetamide with the CAS number is 10222-01-2) as a preservative is also made thicker.

Drywall is easily damaged by exposure to water. While it can be waterproofed through covalent waterproofing, if waterproofing is absent or if the waterproofing layer is punctured, water will cause drywall to swell and eventually disintegrate, requiring replacement.

Did You Use Sunscreen?

Applying sunscreen to a beauty and skincare routine, such as wearing makeup with sunscreen, can help boost protection against the deadly effects of sun exposure like skin cancer. Too, cosmetics with the product can help prevent age spots and provide wrinkle prevention. The downfall to this skin care product is that usually it doesn’t provide enough sun protection factor (SPF) for people to use it as an independent product.

Skin cancer is the most dangerous health problem sun exposure can cause. This is because, unlike some of the other skin ailments sun exposure leads to, skin cancer can be fatal. Therefore, perhaps the most obvious benefit to makeup with sunscreen is the convenient sun protection it provides.

Putting this cosmetic on face can help prevent other kinds of skin problems, too. For example, sun exposure is known to lead to the development of wrinkles, especially premature wrinkles, as well as age spots. Keeping the face covered with a sun protection product can not only help protect against skin cancer, but also help with wrinkle and age spot prevention, too.

Most contain organic compounds (as in carbon based, not grown without pesticides), such as para amino benzoic acid or oxybenzone. These compounds work to absorb the sun’s rays before they have a chance to reach your skin. Note that they will not block 100% of UV rays. They will simply filter and disperse them, reducing their impact considerably.

Some sunscreens have chemicals that block the sun, providing an extra layer of protection. (Often these products are referred to as “sun block.”) In them a chemical such as dibenzoylmethane(DBM, often called as 2-Benzoylacetophenone with the molecular formula C15H12O2), works to completely reflect the sun’s rays. The rays simply bounce off of it it before they can reach your skin. Sometimes you see this kind of cosmetic in colors, like blue or white, since an opaque surface makes this action easier.

Generally, people shouldn’t rely entirely on makeup with sunscreen for complete sun protection. Most cosmetics with sunscreen listed in the ingredients don’t provide a high enough SPF for the makeup to fully protect the person’s skin from UVA and UVB rays. Still, some people find using a separate sunscreen under or above their makeup is messy and inconvenient. Often, a separate lotion or moisturizer acts as a barrier between the skin and the sunscreen, making it difficult or impossible forit to penetrate and cover the skin.

Activated Charcoal: Medical Uses and Side Effects

Currently, the uses of activated charcoal(CAS: 7440-44-0, also called activated carbon) differ according to whether they are approved by physicians or alternative medicine practitioners. Studies of the effectiveness of treatments with activated charcoal have been conducted, and dosages have been standardized for some maladies. The most widely accepted uses of activated carbon are as treatments for poisoning and overdoses.

Common Medical Uses
Activated charcoal is not an antidote for all medication overdoses, but it is effective for quinine, carbamazepine, and phenobarbitals, among other medications listed in medical records. Used as an antidote, the activated carbon absorbs organic chemicals in the stomach before the chemicals can spread through the body. Effectiveness as an antidote, however, is dependent upon the amount of poison ingested and how quickly medical attention is received. Some physicians treat adults with oral doses of its laxatives to purge poisons from the body quickly; patients receiving this treatment should be carefully monitored for diarrhea.

Alternative medicine practitioners have other uses for activated charcoal; some use it as a general detoxifying agent when treating recreational amphetamine and cocaine use, or even as a hangover remedy for alcohol use. Other uses include combating blood pathogens such as viruses, harmful bacteria, and systemic infections. Additionally, for those with buildups of toxins in their systems due to exposure to chemicals and toxic substances at work, practitioners use activated carbon along with special diets and saunas to treat compromised immune systems.

Side Effects
Most activated charcoal side effects are fairly benign, but the possibility of more severe effects is one of the reasons it should only be used under a doctor’s supervision.

The most common side effects is a tendency to turn the patient’s stools black. Normally, black stool is a cause for concern, but in this case, it usually only represents the charcoal clearing from the body. Diarrhea can often occur following this treatment, but unless it continues for a prolonged amount of time afterward, it is not a dangerous effect. Vomiting is another common side effect, but does not usually indicate a severe reaction.

Somewhat less common activated carbon side effects are also related to the gastrointestinal tract. These can include constipation, as well as a swelling or pain in the stomach. Constipation is often due to the charcoal absorbing water from the GI tract, and usually doesn’t require further medical attention.

Other side effects involve more severe forms of the mechanisms underlying constipation. Charcoal can absorb water, and occasionally this can lead to dehydration. Persistent constipation can result in a blockage of the GI tract, which can also be dangerous if left untreated. Allergic reactions may sometimes occur as one of the activated charcoal side effects.

What Is 4,4′-Methylenedianiline?

4,4′-Methylenedianiline(MDA, also known as 4,4′-Diaminodiphenylmethane, CAS:101-77-9) is a light brown crystalline solid with a faint amine odor. It is very slightly soluble in water and soluble in alcohol, benzene, and ether. It is combustible when exposed to heat or flame. When heated to decomposition, it emits toxic fumes of aniline and nitrogen oxides (NOx). It is estimated that the 4,4′-methylenedianiline produced domestically is 40%-70% pure, while the imported product is approximately 98% pure. The dihydrochloride is a crystalline solid that is soluble in water. No other data were available.

Applications
Approximately 98% of the 4,4′-methylenedianiline produced domestically is used as a chemical intermediate in the closed-system production of isocyanates and polyisocyanates. These are used extensively in the manufacture of rigid polyurethane foams for insulation and semiflexible polyurethane foams for automobile safety cushioning. MDA is also used in the production of wire coatings, in the determination of tungsten and sulfates, as an analytical reagent, a corrosion inhibitor, and a monomer for polyamide and polyimide resins. No data were available on the use of the dihydrochloride other than its use as a research chemical.

Research On Carcinogenicity
There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of MDA and its dihydrochloride in experimental animals. When administered in the drinking water, 4,4′-methylenedianiline dihydrochloride increased the incidences of thyroid follicular cell carcinomas and neoplastic nodules of the liver in male rats; follicular cell and C-cell adenomas of the thyroid gland in female rats; thyroid follicular cell adenomas and hepatocellular carcinomas in mice of both sexes, adrenal pheochromocytomas in male mice; and hepatocellular adenomas and malignant lymphomas in female mice. In a study in rats in which MDA was administered orally in conjunction with a known carcinogen, the incidence of thyroid tumors was greater than that produced by the carcinogen alone.

MDA Drug
It is not well-known that MDA is also a schedule one drug in the United States, which means that the law considers it illegal with no legitimate medical use. However, ITdoes have an underground drug following. Side effects can potentially cause death or very serious health problems. It can cause severe liver damage in as little as one dose, reports the US EPA. 4,4′-methylenedianiline may also result in vomiting, muscle cramps, jaundice, and general weakness.

The US EPA reports that there are no known clinical trials on the long-term effects of MDA in humans. However, long-term exposure in rats is associated with an increased incidence of tumors.

Description Of Protein Precipitation

Protein precipitation is a method used to extract and purify proteins held in a solution. There is a tendency for proteins in solution to clump together and precipitate out due to the attraction between the negatively and positively charged parts of the molecules and the mutual attraction of the hydrophobic parts.

Counteracting this tendency, however, is the fact that in an aqueous solution, water molecules, which are polar, will tend to arrange themselves around the protein molecules due to the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged parts of the water and protein molecules. This results in the protein molecules being kept apart and remaining in solution, but there are various methods for achieving precipitation of proteins.

The most commonly used method of protein precipitation is by adding a solution of a salt, a technique often referred to as “salting out.” At low concentrations, salt can help stabilize proteins in solution and thereby enhance their solubility. At higher concentrations, however, the salt reduces the amount of water available to hydrate the proteins and, past a certain threshold, the proteins will begin to precipitate.

Ammonium sulfate is the most popular salt for this procedure, because it has very high solubility in water even at very low temperature. Typically you want to keep your solution cold to inhibit the activity of proteases, proteins that chop up other proteins. The salt concentration is usually described by percentage of saturation, where 25 percent is 25 percent of saturation (the concentration at which no more salt can dissolve).

Some proteins are more water-soluble than others. This has the effect of reducing the dielectric constant, which in this context can be regarded as a measure of the polarity of a solvent. A reduction in polarity means there is less of a tendency for solvent molecules to cluster around those of the protein, so that there is less of a water barrier between protein molecules and a greater tendency toward protein precipitation. As the salt concentration increases, the less soluble and more hydrophobic proteins will precipitate first. Closely related proteins can’t be separated by salting out, because they will precipitate at roughly the same salt concentration, but proteins that have very different structures and characteristics can often be separated in this way.

Other methods of protein precipitation include non-ionic hydrophilic polymers that usually prepared by 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate(HEMA, the molecular is C6H10O3 and the CAS NO. is 868-77-9) and metal ions. The former reduce the amount of water available to form a barrier between protein molecules, allowing them to clump together and precipitate. Positively charged metal ions can bond with negatively charged parts of the protein molecule, reducing the tendency of the protein to attract a layer of water molecules around it, again allowing the protein molecules to interact with one another and precipitate out of solution. Metal ions are effective even in very dilute solutions.

Facts About Preservatives You Should Know

Preservatives are chemicals  prolong the shelf life of food by slowing down their natural breakdown, mainly by altering the action of bacteria and other microorganisms. People commonly classify preservatives as “natural” or “artificial,” depending on the method of production, and as “antimicrobial,” “antioxidant” or “chelating” agents, depending on the primary mode of action. In recent years, they have earned a particularly unsavory reputation, especially within the ever-widening health-conscious circle.

Natural
Salt, sugar, vinegar and alcohol are good examples of naturally-occurring preservatives. For centuries, people have resorted to salting, pickling and making jams and jellies to extend the life of their fresh meats and produce. Other natural material, such as ascorbic and citric acid, slow the discoloration of fruits and vegetables by retarding enzymatic action.

Artificial
Artificial substances are, as the name implies, man-made, and constitute the vast majority of food additives and preservatives today. They have long been a point of contention among food manufacturers, consumers and nutritionists. Its components include tartrazine, which is an artificial food coloring; nitrites; nitrates; sulfites; monosodium glutamate (MSG); and artificial sweeteners such as aspartame.

Effects
Artificial food coloring, sulfites, nitrites and nitrates can cause or are suspected of causing allergic reactions. They also are potential carcinogens, which are substances known to increase the risk of cancer. Other preservatives can pose the risk of cardiovascular disease; kidney, liver or digestive problems; or behavioral changes and hyperactivity in children. Despite this, the FDA and other international food regulatory organizations carefully monitors their use. In truth, the human body is just as likely to have unfavorable reactions to flavoring or coloring agents as to preservatives.

Preservative-Free Diets
In response to consumers jumping on the healthy-living bandwagon, food manufacturers have adapted by plastering their products with labels claiming that they use no artificial preservatives(usually contain 2,4-Dichlorobenzyl alcohol having the formula C7H6Cl2O, CAS number: 1777-82-8). The fact remains, however, that as long as customers demand that their food reach their pantries—as well as stomachs—in prime condition at a later time and date, they will be used.

As pesticides and preservative coatings are often necessary to keep fruits and vegetables fresh on supermarket shelves, therfore, growing your own food or buying exclusively from organic farmers remains the only true way of achieving a 100% preservative-free diet.

Herbicides Used on Vegetables

If grass grows in garden, it will make people people relaxed and happy. However, if it grows in farmland so extensively that we may call it weeds , farmers won’t be happy. At this time, herbicide is used.

Just as pesticide is used to rid an area of unwanted pests, herbicide is used to get rid of unwanted plant life. Unwanted plants include weeds, brush, unproductive bushes or trees, and other growth that takes nutrients away from crops and other useful plants. Herbicides allow growers to spend more time growing and less time weeding. Growers often use them to stop weeds dead in their tracks, so they don’t succeed in robbing the nutrients intended for plants.

Herbicides are available in two main types: nonselective and selective. A nonselective herbicide is used to kill all growth and is generally reserved for agricultural use or for clearing large or heavily overgrown areas. On the other hand, a selective product is used to target certain types of plant life. This form works to curb growth, usually through some type of hormone disruption, and should not effect other vegetation.

For the home gardener, nonselective herbicide is rarely required. An organic, selective herbicide is the better choice for maintaining grass and home gardens. Farmers, orchard owners, developers and park services may use nonselective forms to treat large areas and prepare land for future use.

Nonselective herbicides are ideal for eradicating vegetation. In other words, they kill everything. As a result, nonselective products are typically used in trenches that border the rows of the actual vegetable plants to form a defensive barrier so the weeds do not grow on the soil for the vegetable plants. One of the most widely used nonselective herbicides for fresh vegetables and more than 100 other types of crops is the chemical weed killer named Paraquat.

Pre- and postemergent herbicides work to prevent weeds from growing and are applied to control them once they appear. Metribuzin is a chemical that is used in many pre- and postemergent herbicides. Metribuzin(commonly contain trimethyl pyruvic acid, or IUPAC name 3,3-dimethyl-2-oxobutanoic acid) works by inhibiting photosynthesis — the biological process that allows vegetation to develop. This chemical is effective on annual grasses and many types of broadleaf weeds. Trade names for metribuzin include Sencoral, Sencorex, Lexone and Bay 94337.

One problem with using a selective herbicide is that it can create resistant species of weeds and parasitic vegetation. Herbicide effectively kills most weeds of the particular type is used against, but at least a few plants generally survive. Those that survive can produce resistant offspring.

Metronidazole Treatment For Acne

Metronidazole(sometimes called as 2-Methyl-5-nitroimidazole-1-ethanol), known by a number of trade names including Flagyl, is an antibiotic medication useful for treatment of infections with anaerobic organisms such as some bacteria and protozoans. This medication is available by prescription only and can usually only be obtained after an examination, as doctors want to avoid prescribing it when a patient does not need it. A variety of formats are available including liquids, topical creams, and tablets designed for different applications, and this medication is also approved for veterinary use.

Metronidazole is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including bacterial vaginosis, abscess, protozoal infections of the gut, and Clostridium difficile infection. This drug works by targeting the DNA of anerobic organisms in the body. One advantage to using metronidazole is that it usually leaves aerobic organisms like beneficial gut fauna alone, and it also does not target human cells. This reduces harmful side effects. The drug also tends to have a soothing effect on the bowel and may be prescribed in the treatment of colitis and diarrhea.

Besides, metronidazole for acne is an effective treatment, but it is mainly useful for treatment of the swelling and redness caused by the condition. Studies have shown that the medicine can be effective when administered in a gel form with 1 percent concentration and that it can be effective in combination with benzoyl peroxide. Metronidazole is used in a topical gel form for the treatment of acne rosacea, which is more common in adults than teenagers.

The topical cream version of metronidazole for acne is the one that is most commonly used. It is an antibiotic drug that has been developed as a cream for treatment of acne rosacea. Although the actual mechanism by which it works is a mystery to doctors, it is believed to attack the DNA of bacteria and prevent them from creating new DNA. The drug works primarily against bacteria that do not require oxygen to survive and multiply. When metronidazole for acne is prescribed, it works primarily as an anti-inflammatory, reducing the inflammation and redness associated with the condition.

Side effects are rare with 2-Methyl-5-nitroimidazole-1-ethanol(CAS:443-48-1) cream, and if they do occur, they are unlikely to be particularly severe. Some patients have experienced side effects such as nausea, skin redness, itching or a burning or stinging sensation in the skin. These side effects are not likely but can occur in some patients, along with the possibility of an allergic reaction to the cream.

Others fear the medication may have teratogenic effects because it is designed to target and damage DNA. Studies on the issue have been inconclusive and patients should talk to their obstetricians about the safety of using this medication during pregnancy, and should make sure their doctors are aware of a pregnancy when prescriptions are being written.

Medicinal Herb For Cleaning Your Lungs

Asthma is a respiratory disease in which the airways of the lungs become inflamed, causing symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and chest tightness. In addition, whether you are suffering from asthma disease, have just quit smoking or are on a quest for total body health, there are herbs you can take to clean out your lungs.

Skullcap
Chinese skullcap is an herb that prevents the histamine that causes sudden flareups from being released, THR advises. Histamine is an organic compound located in skin cells, lung cells and liver cells. When allergens enter the body, more histamine is created and causes asthma symptoms, such as mucous buildup and airway constriction.

Mullein
Mullein is a traditional herbal expectorant. Mullein contains two constituents, mucilage and saponin, that soothe your mucous membranes and promote mucous discharge and removal. You can buy dried mullein tea leaves from health food stores and online retailers.

You can make a mullein tea by steeping 1 or 2 tsps. of dried mullein leaves in 1 cup of boiling water for 15 minutes. Drink the tea while it is still warm. Mullein tea can be consumed three to four times daily.

Cardamom
Cardamom, an ancient Chinese and Indian medicinal herb, is a powerful lung cleanser. Cardamom contains the phytochemical cineole, which breaks up lung congestion while boosting your central nervous system. Cardamom can be bought in Indian and Chinese spice shops, in health food stores or from online retailers.

You can make a cardamom expectorant tea by steeping 1 tsp. of powdered cardamom into 1 cup of boiling water. You can also make a stronger cardamom decoction by adding 15 cardamom pods and 15 clove buds to 10 cups of boiling water. Boil for 10 minutes then transfer the mixture to a thermos. Drink the warm mixture throughout the day.

Anise
The herb anise, a common lozenge and cough medicine ingredient, is an effective lung expectorant. Anise contains alpha-pinene and creosol(also called as 2-Methoxy-4-methylphenol, with the molecular formula C8H10O2), two elements that loosen phlegm, stimulate lung secretions and clear out congestion. Anise seeds, which are considered the most potent part of the herb, can be found at health food stores, through online retailers and in the spice aisle at many larger food stores.

To make anise tea, you must first crush 1 to 2 tsps. of anise seeds with either the back of a spoon or a mortar and pestle. Then pour 1 cup of boiling water over the crushed seeds and steep the mixture for at least 10 minutes. Allow the tea to slightly cool before drinking. Drink this lung-cleansing remedy once in the morning and once before you go to bed.

What Are Sartans?

Sartans, better known as angiotensin receptor antagonists, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), are chemicals that constitute a pharmaceutical group named for their ability to suppress angiotensin. This is a peptide, or organic compound formed out of two or more amino acids, which constricts blood vessels. Angiotensin receptor antagonists are used to monitor the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS).

The development of sartans began toward the end of the 19th century, when a pair of physiologists discovered that rabbits developed hypertension when injected with renin. It was not until four decades later, however, that further research revealed that renin, acting on its own, does not cause high blood pressure, but catalyzes the creation of the peptides responsible for this condition. By the 1970s, it was well established that angiotensin II, as part of the renin-angiotensin system, causes harm to the heart and kidneys, consequently leading to the debut of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to suppress not angiotensin II itself, but the enzyme that forms it.

The human body produces a chemical known as angiotensin II. Angiotensin II does two things, both of which can affect blood pressure. First, it is responsible for contracting the muscles surrounding blood vessels. Second, it is responsible for causing the adrenal cortex to release the hormone aldosterone. This substance causes the blood vessels to narrow and keep blood circulating in the body. In most people, the effects of angiotensin II are beneficial and necessary for the cardiovascular system to function properly. The particular type of angiotensin that ARBs work against is angiotensin II.

When patients take an angiotensin receptor blocker, the medication binds to spots inside the blood vessels meant to interact with angiotensin II. This prevents the chemical from reaching these regions. As a result of the drug, angiotensin becomes unable to exert its effects upon the body. The blood vessels remain relaxed and wide, allowing blood to flow through the body easily. Ultimately, blood pressure levels decrease, and stress on the heart also lessens due to the angiotensin receptor blocker.

By the end of the century, however, several angiotensin receptor antagonists had hit the pharmaceutical market. Doctors sometimes refer to the class of drugs as sartans(usually contain C8H11ClN2O namely 2-Butyl-5-chloro-1H-imidazole-4-carbaldehyde, or you may call it 2-Butyl-4-chloro-5-formylimidazole). Pharmaceutical companies may manufacture an angiotensin receptor blocker under a variety of names, including candesartan, valsartan, irbesartan, losartan, olmesartan, and telmisartan.  Besides controlling hypertension, ARBs are used to prevent kidney failure, congestive heart failure, diabetes and stroke, and physicians typically turn to them when patients cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors.

A Research Of 2-Bromothiophene Adsorption

Adsorption behaviors of 2-bromothiophene on the Rh(111) surface were discussed with DFT.

As an important organic synthesis intermediate, 2-bromothiophene(also known as 2-Thienyl bromide, CAS number:1003-09-4) can be used as the intermediate to synthesize antibiotic, anticholinergic (such as thihexinol) and antithrombotic (such as clopidogrel) complexes in medical industry. Halogenated thiophene has more and more extensive applications as a synthesis intermediate, and its environmental hazards also have come into our sight. So far, there are very few researches on the toxicity of halogenated thiophene. Thiophene and benzene have similar conjugate structures, and since halogenated benzene and its organic halides have great toxicity, their environmental pollution is well-known. Therefore, dehalogenation researches of halogenated thiophene have significant effect for environmental protection.

Based on the projected position of the centroid of 2-bromothiophen molecule on the Rh(111) surface, the adsorption sites for adsorption parallel to the surface include bridge, fcc, hcp, hol, top and so on. Especially, bridge and hol adsorption sites are mainly identified by S and C(3)–C(4) atoms for 2-bromothiophene molecule. That is to say, bridge adsorption site indicates that its molecule parallel to the surface is above the two metal atoms with minimum distance on the surface at the direction between S and C(3)–C(4) (direction parallel to the two-fold axis of thiophene), and C(2) and C(5) atoms of 2-bromothiophene ring are above fcc and hcp of the metal basically. Hol adsorption site indicates that S and C(3)–C(4) atoms of the chemical are above fcc and hcp of the metal basically.

According to organic chemistry theory and electronegativity analysis, in free 2-bromothiophene molecule, sulphur atom shall be with positive charge, hydrogen atom with positive charge, and carbon atom with negative charge. The C(2) atom linked to Br atom will have slightly positive charge with electron withdrawing effect of Br atom (electronegativity of 2.8) and with hyperconjugation action between long-pair electron in Br and large  π bond.

The results revealed that adsorption at the parallel hol site and bridge site was the most stable. After adsorption, bond length of 2-bromothiophene changed significantly. Molecular plane was distorted, and C–H (Br,S) in the molecule was oblique and upswept against the metal surface. Vertical adsorption site was less stable than the plane adsorption site, but there was no distortion for the thiophene ring after adsorption. Aromaticity of 2-bromothiophene was destroyed at the hol and bridge adsorption sites, and the carbon atom in the thiophene ring presented quasi-sp hybridization. After adsorption at the parallel hol, it obtained 0.86 electrons in total, and Rh(111) surface lost 2.08 electrons in all.

Fruit Trees Borer Control

Insect larvae, depending on the species, injure fruit trees by feeding on their foliage, sucking their sap or by drilling holes in the wood. Borers do the latter. Susceptible fruit trees include pears, apple, quince and peach trees. Among the variety of borers that attack fruit trees, peachtree borer larvae causes the most damage to stone fruit trees. Controlling the population of fruit tree borers requires keen observation, immediate action, regular maintenance and long-term monitoring to prevent further infestations.

Fruit tree borers lay their eggs beneath the bark of peach trees. A gummy substance at the base of the tree indicates the presence of these insects, which feed on the interior of the tree and weaken it, making it more susceptible to other diseases and pest problems. Peach tree borers cause the tree’s growth to decline, and severe infestations can become fatal, especially in young or weak peach trees. Drought- and winter-related injuries make trees more likely to contract them.

Prevention
Keep trees in full vigor by cultivating and fertilizing where necessary. Wrapping the trunk (from ground level to the lower branches) with burlap or several thicknesses of old newspapers before the adults start to emerge in the spring can be very helpful in preventing egg-laying on the bark of newly planted trees. Apply the wrapping in May and maintain it during the first season or two, or until the trees are making good growth.

Spray insecticide
One of the most important parts of controlling peach tree borers is the use of preventative pesticide sprays. Applying a spray in the early spring helps prevent peach tree borer larvae from surviving inside the bark of the peach tree, reducing the population and stopping the insects from damaging the tree.

Crystallized Fumigant
A crystallized fumigant placed in the soil is an effective treatment for severe infestations, but it can damage the tree as well. Clear away organic matter from the top of the soil and bury the fumigant crystals 1 to 2 inches from the base of the tree and cover them with dirt. According to Colorado State University, the 1,4-dichlorobenzene(C6H4Cl2, also called as para-dichlorobenzene or p-DCB) moth crystals produce a gas that kills off the larvae of peach tree borers.

Pesticides
Pesticide sprays are vital if a peach tree borer infestation is discovered. The larvae can be found by cutting back a section of the bark; they appear as small, white insects beneath the bark. The adult insects look like wasps. Pheromone traps are effective for catching and killing male peach tree borers. Pesticide sprays applied to the peach trees help kill off female and male borers, reducing the population and stopping them from reproducing.

Treatment To Purify Water

Water that is biologically contaminated or toxic must be purified before it is suitable for drinking and other purposes. Biologically contaminated water contains bacteria, and sometimes viruses and protozoa, that may cause gastrointestinal issues or other illness if consumed. Toxic water may also contain chemicals, such as pesticides, which are toxic to humans and many other animals. Water can undergo one or many purification processes, depending on the purpose for which it will be used.

Pre-Treatment
Ground water pumping must be separated from containment water resources in order to avoid the possible spreading of contamination. The physical infrastructure should be made using appropriate materials and constructed in such a manner so accidental contamination can’t occur. Pre-conditioning can be done by treating with soda ash (or sodium carbonate) to form the precipitate of calcium carbonate through the common-ion effect. Subsequently, many techniques are used to remove the fine particles and inorganic materials.

Sedimentation
Another good method of purifying water is by adjusting its pH value. Hydrated lime is extensively applied to maintain the pH of water for further treatment. Hydrated lime is most commonly used for pH adjustment of municipal water bodies, as it is easily available and inexpensive. Ionic water is highly corrosive, and contains excessive amounts of carbon dioxide. The lime causes the carbon dioxide to precipitate out to form calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate can be easily separated from water through filtration.

The longer the water is in the sedimentation tank and the deeper the tank is, the more floc will fall and be removed. The fallen floc becomes a layer of sludge on the bottom of the basin and must be cleaned regularly.

Flocculation
Flocculation is a process that makes water clear. Coagulants such as aluminum hydroxide and the homopolymer polyDADMAC(all written for Diallyldimethyl Ammoniumchloride, CAS: 7398-69-8) are useful for flocculating water. After adding these agents, water treatment facilities stir the water until particulate matter begins to stick together and becomes suspended. Once the matter is suspended, it’s easy to remove.

Disinfection
Disinfection involves the use of chemicals such as chlorine for purification. Chlorine kills pathogens that have survived the previous steps of filtration; E. coli may be one of them. Most public water systems require chemical disinfection.

Advantages and Disadvantages Of Well-known Agrochemicals

When a farmer is faced with a problem affecting his crop, he must first identify the source. Manual or machine-assisted weeding can solve some problems. Other problems may require the use of agrochemicals. Many global farmers rely on the different types of agrochemicals on the market.

Insecticides
Insecticides are common type of agrochemical used  which are applied in a variety of ways, from sprays to slow-release diffusion. Their purpose is to target destructive insects and either kill them or otherwise force them away from crops. Organophosphates are one type of insecticide that interferes with the transmission of nerve impulses in insects. These cause insects to convulse or even become paralyzed. Pyrethroids are another type that has similar results. These include some of the most toxic insecticides, however. Insect growth regulators are a safer type of insecticide.

Herbicides
An herbicide is popularly used agrochemical that is meant to kill weeds that pose a danger to farming crops. There are three types of herbicides: pre-plant, pre-emergence and post-emergence. These are all terms related to when the herbicide should be applied, either before a crop is planted, before it sprouts or after it has grown. Variables that affect what type to use include the type of crop it is applied to, the species of weed that is targeted, soil type, climate conditions and the chemical nature of the particular herbicide. Glyphosate, a type of pre-plant herbicide, is good for killing weeds in bare fields. These herbicides typically kill all plants, though, not just weeds. Butachlor is a type of pre-emergence herbicide. These should be chosen so that they don’t affect the crop in question and are typically applied to the soil surface. Post-emergence herbicide, like 2,4-D, should be applied directly to weeds.

Advantages
The primary reason that farmers and gardeners use chemicals is to grow bigger fruits, bigger vegetables or brighter flower blooms. Fertilizing agrochemicals such as diallylamine(C6H11N, also called as Di-2-propenylamine) inject much needed nutrient chemicals, such as nitrogren or potassium, directly into the soil to help plants grow. Different types of herbicides kill unnecessary weeds, allowing only the plant of choice to grow without competition for food.

Disadvantages
Nitrogen is often regarded as a highly effective and cheap fertilizer. However, repeated use of the chemical can cause an imbalance in the pH of the soil, eventually rendering it useless for growth of any kind. Many agrochemicals are highly dangerous to humans and animals in their concentrated forms. For example, ammonia in low concentrations is generally harmless to humans, but high concentrations of the gaseous fertilizer anhydrous ammonia can drift over long distances and prove fatal to human.

Have You Ever Used Citric Acid?

Citric acid(C6H8O7, CAS number:77-92-9 ) powder is a somewhat weak, organic acid that is typically derived from adding mold cultures to sugars. It was first discovered by the 8th century Arabic chemist Geben, but not purified to its current form until the 18th century. The acid has the ability to soften hard water in an environmentally-safe manner and can, therefore, also be used in cleaning agents. One can find the product for a relatively cheap price in bulk amounts.

Sour Or Bitter Taste Of Citric Acid
The naturally sour or bitter taste of citric acid powder makes it useful when adding flavoring. Sour candy often contains the acid in some form. Many fruit juices naturally contain the chemical, though more powder may be added if one desires a stronger citrus taste. Many brands of sodas and beers often utilize trace amounts of the powdered acid as well. The powder can add flavor to medicine preparations, masking the taste of the chemical components.

Food Production
Citric acid powder is commonly added to both carbonated and non-carbonated soft drinks as a flavoring agent, adding a tart taste to the beverage, and as a preservative due to its anti-microbial properties. It is added to candy to add a tart flavor, but also to stabilize the sugars and enhance texture . The product is used in the production of jams and jellies to help control the food’s pH level, assisting in its consistency and shelf life. It can also be found in processed cheese to stabilize and emulsify the oil and water content of the cheese and keep it from separating.

Those who enjoy canning and preserving their own foods in the home often use citric acid powder in the process. The acid has the ability to slow the growth of bacteria, likely preventing spoilage. One needs only a small amount of powder for canning, drying, or freezing foods.

Household and Industrial Uses
Citric acid powder is widely used in various types of cleaning agents. Due to its ability to soften water, the powder can help to create the bubbly foam that many consumers expect from cleaners. One can mix his own product simply by adding the powder to water, though one should first look for directions online; too much in the mixture could harm some surfaces. Many consumers have experienced success in cleaning dishwashers, coffee makers, and other appliances with citric acid powder and water. As the acid is safe to consume in small amounts, this method of cleansing should be safe.

The powder can be found in many vitamin shops and health food stores. Consumers may, however, wish to check the trustworthiness of a manufacturer before buying from them, as cheap, non-food-grade versions of the product are out there. It is typically a good idea to read the customer reviews available on most retailers’ websites.

The Sparkle Of Chrome Green Tourmaline

Chrome is a special variety of green tourmaline that owes its vivid green hue to trace amounts of chromium and vanadium. It should not be surprising, therefore, that the finest chrome tourmaline tends to resemble the finer examples of emerald and tsavorite. Chrome tourmaline is actually a distinct tourmaline variety called chrome dravite, found in East Africa. It is often associated with tsavorite garnet; miners will usually concentrate their efforts on tsavorite, as it fetches higher prices.

History
The chrome green tourmaline was found long ago in Africa, in the Ural Mountains in Russia and other passes in Europe, but more important discoveries were made in North Amrican and South America. Gem-quality stones were discovered in the early nineteenth century in the United States in the state of Maine, on Mount Mica near the city of Paris. In 1972, the mine nearby Newry, in the same regin, gave an exceptional quality PRODUCTION for a short time became the world’s leading source of high quality stones. Around 1860, the first expeditions in search of gold explorers led the San Diego County, California, where they discovered the pink tourmaline.

Another rare variety is particularly attractive chrome tourmaline from Tanzania, a very attractive green color caused by chromium, which is the same coloring agent of the emerald.

Hue
Like emerald and tsavorite garnet, fine chrome tourmaline is a visually pure “forest” green with slightly yellowish to bluish secondary hues. The blue will normally show itself in incandescent light, the yellow will be more visible in daylight. The same criterion applied to tsavorite garnet and emerald is applicable to chrome tourmaline. A blue secondary hue is preferred to yellow. The product, unlike emerald, can never be said to be too blue. A visibly pure to slightly (five to fifteen percent) bluish green gem between seventy and seventy-five percent tone is the most desirable.

Crystal
Generally speaking, the material is simply more opaque than emerald or tsavorite garnet. Its hue is vivid but it is also dense. A chrome tourmaline that meets the criteria discussed above and that exhibits good crystal — that is, one that retains its transparency in incandescent light — is the crème de la crème of this species.

Multicolor effect
As tourmaline is the most dichroic of gemstones, a strong multicolor effect is to be expected. However, perhaps due to its unique chemical composition and its distinctly dark tone, multicolor effect is rarely observed in the chrome green(CAS No.:1308-38-9) gemstone.

The rarity factor
Chrome tourmaline is quite rare generally, and particularly rare in sizes over one carat. A stone of fine quality over one carat is very rare. Therefore, the collector should expect a large percentage increase in the price of stones in carat-plus sizes. The next jump in rarity occurs at five carats. Stones of fine quality above ten carats are extremely rare, so rare in fact that I have never seen one.

Encouraging Progress On Treating Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease that, over the course of seven to ten years, renders its sufferers unable to remember much about their lives, recognize their loved ones, engage in coordinated movement, speak properly, or use the toilet on their own. It probably does not kill people directly, but impairs their ability to take care of themselves, making them much more susceptible to other ailments and consequently leading to their death. The disease is the most common cause of dementia and causes the decrease of intellectual and social abilities severe enough to interfere with a victim’s daily life.

According to the Alzheimer’s Association, 5.3 million Americans have Alzheimer’s disease. There is no cure for this disease. Early detection is one of the best ways to combat the ill effects of Alzheimer’s disease because early detection means early treatment, which can afford the best quality of life for a victim of the disease. Carbon nanotubes used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans are in the forefront of leading research and testing for helping health professionals make the earliest possible diagnosis for those who may have or develop the disease.

Because elderly people suffer from various forms of senility, it wasn’t until 1906 that Alzheimer’s was identified as an independent entity with its own symptoms and pathology. Alzheimer’s disease is not contagious, but emerges in people later in life based on their genetics and certain risk factors, such as smoking and inadequate exercise. Though the original cause of the disease was thought to be failure in the production of the essential neurotransmitter acetylcholine, modern experts tend to focus on the buildup of an extracellular plaque called beta amyloid.

Early detection and diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease is important for early treatment with drugs that may decrease the progression of the disease. An MRI of the brain is a sensitive test that produces clear images without using X-rays. MRI utilizes a large magnet, radio waves, and a computer to produce brain images. An MRI can rule out other causes of dementia, such as tumors or strokes. It also might help to show the physical and functional changes in the brain associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, nanotechnology has been added to MRI, and PET scans are being done on some children of parents who have the illness.

Carbon nanotubes are long, thin cylinders of carbon. They were discovered in 1991 by S. Iijima. They are large molecules that have a special size and useful physical properties. What makes them so different is that nanotubes have a very broad range of electronic, thermal, and structural properties that can change. The carbon-carbon bond is very strong, making carbon nanotubes(CAS Number 308068-56-6) very hardy and resistant to most kinds of deformation. Scientists have long been interested in wrapping proteins around carbon nanotubes, and the process is used for various applications in imaging, biosensing, and cellular delivery, according to a study discussed in the Dec. 13 issue of “Science Daily.” Tools of this kind are useful when studying certain diseases. For example, an abnormal zinc balance is a characteristic of brain disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Sulfate-Free Shampoos

When it comes to shampoo, many people think the sudsier the better. In fact, the very ingredient that causes those foaming bubbles is also responsible for hair damage. The “Journal of the American College of Toxicology” has reported that sodium lauryl sulfate, the foaming ingredient found in nearly all your everyday drugstore shampoos, puts not only your hair at risk, but your health as well. For this reason, more people are investing in the slightly more pricey sulfate-free shampoos

A sulfate-free shampoo is a shampoo that does not contain sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES, also known as sodium laureth sulphate). It is a popular chemical in commercial hygiene and cleaning products. The chemical is particularly useful in applications where the removal of oily residues is needed. While the sulfates used in hygiene products have not been shown to be carcinogenic, the chemicals can irritate the scalp, excessively strip essential oils, and cause hair to be dry.

When first using a sulfate-free shampoo, most people often feel as if their hair is not getting clean because sulfates are responsible for creating that thick, rich lather that many people desire when shampooing. This can take some getting used to because the hair will not feel as dried out, and some users may associate that stripped feeling with being clean. The hair will be clean, but will be softer and silkier.

Shampoos that contain sulfates, and even those that do not, are surrounded by controversy. There are reports that claim sulfates are dangerous. There are also claims that sulfate-free shampoos and conditioners merely replace the missing sulfates with extra ingredients and other potentially dangerous chemicals. The onus is on the consumer to check the labels of any sulfate-free products, and look for natural ingredients.

SLES(CAS: 9004-82-4) is a powerful surfactant. The term surfactant is actually a shortened form of surface active agent — a chemical agent that lowers the surface tension of liquids, to allow them to be spread more efficiently. It basically stabilizes a mix of oil and water through surface tension stabilization.

Life Solutions Scalp Therapy Shampoo provides soothing, sulfate-free cleansing. This gentle formula promotes circulation to the hair follicles without stripping hair color. Despite its lack of sodium lauryl ether sulfate, this shampoo is able to work up a decent lather. For about $24 per bottle, Scalp Therapy is a average-cost choice for those looking to make the switch from harmful shampoos to healthful, sulfate-free ones.

Sulfate-free beauty products are generally more expensive, and are becoming more readily available. Beauty and bath products that are green — products that do not contain any unnatural chemicals that may be harmful to the environment — have become very popular. Sulfate-free shampoos and conditioners are in greater demand because of environmental concerns, as well as for health reasons.