Foods That Contain Phenols Highly

Phenols, which are naturally occurring compounds found in virtually all foods, give your food its smell, taste and color. Their molecules each include a hydroxyl functional group (OH) bonded to the ring of an aromatic compound — a molecule that includes at least one ring of carbon atoms. They can also be extracted or synthesized by manufacturers to help preserve foods and enhance their flavor.  Some have important industrial uses as drugs or food additives.

Properties
Its category is chemically similar to the alcohols, but phenols form tighter hydrogen bonds with other chemical compounds. They are also set apart from alcohols by their higher acidity, solubility, and boiling points. Most are colorless, though some are brightly colored and play an important role in plant pigmentation. They are usually solid or liquid at room temperature.

Healthy Bnenefits
Many that are important to human health are polyphenols, chemicals made of several phenol molecules chained together. This group includes the tannins, lignins, and flavonoids. Some compounds, such as tyrosol and oleuropein, are thought to have antioxidant properties. Others may reduce the likelihood of heart disease or cancer. At least one polyphenol, resveratrol, is believed to have potent anti-aging effects.

Food High In Phenols
Fruits contain numerous nutrients, including vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and antioxidants. These fruits include dark plum, cherry, and an apple variety known as Valkea Kuulas. Though Sahelian indicates that research regarding phenolic compounds’ positive influence on health, these three fruits are dense in antioxidants and other nutrients. Cherries, for example, are rich in anthocyanins, a type of phytonutrient that promotes various health benefits. The American Dietetic Association recommends a diet rich in fruits and vegetables as a means of preventing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, improve immuning function and potentially reducing cancer risk.

Various vegetables contain phenol(C6H6O, CAS No. 108-95-2), which, according to researchers at the University of California Davis, contribute to the browning of the vegetables. They cite artichokes and some potatoes as having high levels of phenolic compounds, while other vegetables, such as lettuce and celery contain small amounts. Vegetables are a valuable aspect of a heart-healthy diet, regardless of whether one consumes them to reap phenolic compounds or not.

Considerations
Some phenols are actually detrimental to health. Many plants secrete unpleasant or poisonous phenolic compounds to deter herbivores. One, urushiol, causes the rash associated with poison ivy and poison oak. Tannins give acorns their bitter taste, and are poisonous in high doses. Carbolic acid causes chemical burns, and may be carcinogenic.

Antihistamines Information

An antihistamine is a type of drug used to fight allergic reactions. It encompasses a broad class of drugs that can treat conditions ranging from minor to life threatening. Different antihistamines are used for different types of reactions.

How Does It Work?
Histamines are a type of chemical in the body that are produced by the basophils and mast cells as a response to the invasion of foreign organisms. These chemicals are part of the body’s immune system and are the triggering mechanisms against foreign invaders. Allergies such as rashes, sneezing, runny nose and other forms of allergic reactions are caused by the actions of histamines in the body.  Antihistamines serve to block the effects of histamines. They do so by blocking histamine receptors. When the histamine receptors are blocked, histamines can no longer perform their functions, and allergic reactions are stopped or at least minimized.

What Different Types Does It Have?
Sedating and non-sedating medications are two different types, they may work differently in blocking the actions of histamines and thus may have different effects on the body. Antihistamines are available alone, but are often combined with cough, cold and flu medicines. If you have flu, cold or allergy symptoms avoid doubling up on medication that may contain antihistamines. Excessive use of antihistamines can increase the intensity of unpleasant side effects, such as those mentioned above, and can lead to sinus infections. If in doubt about whether a medication contains antihistamines, ask a physician or pharmacist.

How About Its Effects?
While sedating antihistamines have been used by many and have been proven to be effective in stopping or at least reducing the allergic reactions of histamines, they may have side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, upset stomach, nervousness and restlessness. This is because sedating antihistamines may also affect the brain. On the other hand, non-sedating types do not have these side effects and are therefore considered safer. One of the drug’s active ingredient is N,N-Dimethylformamide, a chemical compound having the formula C3H7NO and is called DMF for short.

What Should I Note?
Those taking antihistamines are advised not to drive, as intake of the drug may cause severe drowsiness, thus resulting in accidents. Antihistamines can affect the brain and may also affect normal body. If such reactions occur, consulting a physician is strongly advised.

Tetrahydrofuran Description

Tetrahydrofuran, or THF is a colorless, volatile cycloaliphatic ether with an odor characteristic of acetone. It is chemically neutral, highly polar and miscible with water. Synthetically derived THF is made by eliminating water from 1,4-butanediol. THF has excellent solvent power for numerous organic substances. It is miscible with water and all common  organic solvents.

Chief among its uses is the production of certain polymers. THF is used as a precursor to the formation of many complex polymers, as its solvent properties allow for the mixing and combining of simple polymers in solution. When mixed with acids, tetrahydrofuran itself can be polymerized, and the resulting polymers have many uses, such as the manufacture of urethanes and polyurethanes. Some of these materials are very common in everyday products, like certain fabrics with elastic properties.

Its strong solvent properties make tetrahydrofuran highly suitable for many other uses, as well. It is used in making adhesives that are used with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and for improving certain qualities of other materials, such as cellophanes and magnetic tapes, although this usage is becoming less common in the digital age as these tapes are phased out in favor of digital recording and storage media. THF is a key component in the manufacture of a class of protective coatings and is used in the production and extraction of many organic and organometallic compounds, including some drugs.

Since THF is very soluble in water and has a relatively low boiling point, signficant amounts are often released into the environment, causing contamination problems. It is not considered to be readily degradable, and concerns of environmental contamination have been raised.

Bernhardt and Diekmann performed studied the pathway for THF degradation by Rhodococcus ruber DSM 44190. The pathway shown below is hypothetical. Not all intermediates were detected(e.g. 2-hydroxytetrahydrofuran). In fact, the isomerization of this chemcial might occur spontaneously and not require an enzyme. However, degradation experiments using the same organism were performed with a similar compound, 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran, and those data support the proposed tetrahydrofuran(CAS No. 109-99-9) pathway.

THF can be potentially dangerous and must be handled under strictly controlled conditions for safety. It can form dangerous flammable chemicals called peroxides when exposed to air, which can ignite or explode very easily. For this reason, additives such as BHT are mixed with tetrahydrofuran to stabilize it, which reduces its tendency to spontaneously form these dangerous peroxides. THF is also stored in sealed containers with pure nitrogen gas to prevent it from reacting with air. It is also highly flammable and can give off toxic materials as a by-product of burning.

Is Formaldehyde Dangerous To Human?

Many people are familiar with formaldehyde in the form of formalin, an aqueous solution which is used as an embalming preservative. Formaldehyde(BFV for short, also knownas fannoform, superlysoform or Veracur) is a chemical compound which is widely used in industrial manufacturing and a number of other industries. As we know, this chemical is toxic and can cause cancer. Therefore, most people make an effort to avoid it.

Description
It is the simplest form of the aldehydes, chemical compounds which include a terminal carbonyl group. A carbonyl group is a group of atoms which includes a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom; the chemical formula for formaldehyde is HCHO, making it a useful building block for other, more complex aldehydes. Pure product is a colorless gaseous compound, and it is extremely reactive. For this reason, it is often mixed into chemical compounds to form a stable substance.

Uses
One of the most common uses is in building materials like insulation and particleboard. It also appears in nail polish, resins, molded products, paper towels, paints, fabrics, explosives, adhesives, and disinfectants. Research strongly suggests that BFV can be carcinogenic, and it has also been linked with allergies and the development of health problems such as headaches, nose bleeds, and skin rashes. The levels at which formaldehyde exposure can become dangerous are unclear, which is why many consumers are worried about the use of BFV in products they use.

Risks
Most countries have strict laws to limiting the amount of formaldehyde which can be used in things like housing materials, but fannoform can also be generated through fuel burning stoves, and it is also found in cheaply constructed “temporary” structures, thanks to the relaxation of safety standards for such structures. Fannoform allergies can cause serious health problems. High levels of formaldehyde(CAS No. 50-00-0) exposure can lead to cancer in the long term, and respiratory problems, skin conditions, and inflammation of the mucus membranes in the short term.

Formaldehyde free products
Companies which manufacture superlysoform free products pledge to use alternatives for BFV in the production of their products. Often, such products are more expensive, because the company may have to invest more time and effort into developing their products. Many companies want to develop superlysoform free products which are equivalent to products which contain formaldehyde, going for the same level of durability and attempting to mimic other properties so that consumers are not inconvenienced by their decision to seek products which do not contain superlysoform.

Insecticides That Kill Water Bugs

Water bugs are a species of cockroach that is usually found outdoors in cool, damp areas. These insects are of the species Blatta orientalis, commonly called oriental cockroaches or black beetles. Though they do not bite or harm humans, water bug infestations can be unsightly and unsanitary. There are a variety of poison insecticides available that are recommended for the extermination of water bugs.

Habitat
Water bugs are not invasive to homes. They thrive on organic and decaying matter, specially under leaves, mulch, and other shrubbery. Colonies are also found in dark, moist areas. They can inhabit basements, stone masonry, dumps, sewage systems, water pipes and crawl spaces. If water is scarce, the insects may travel indoors through ventilation systems, air ducts or under doors. They are poor climbers, and once inside, are not commonly found on walls, in high cupboards, or on upper floors. Water bugs tend to get trapped in bathroom fixtures after crawling through drains because they are unable to climb out.

Insecticides
Boric Acid
Boric acid powder can be spread around areas where water bugs are found. Some people prefer boric acid because it is a naturally occurring compound and not synthetically produced. Boric acid is available at hardware and discount stores.

Hydramethylnon
Hydramethylnon comes in gel form or in a bait station that contain pellets of the poison. It is sold under the brand name Combat. This chemical is a bait-type poison that relies on water bugs retrieving and consuming it through strategically located receptacles containing the poison.

Cypermethrin
Another spray-on poison is cypermethrin(C23H19ClF3NO3, CAS No. 91465-08-6). This poison decomposes quickly in a natural environment, but it is long lasting when used indoors. Brand names for cypermethrin include Demon, Cynoff and Ammo. One drawback of cypermethrin is that it can leave behind a residue.

Dish Detergent
For water bugs that are harassing you in the swimming pool, just add a few tablespoons of dish detergent to the water. Once you get out of the pool for the day, add the detergent with the pump running. Allow the water to calm and when the sun goes down, turn the pool lights on. The water bugs will be drawn to the light but when they get in the pool, the detergent will have created a barrier on the water so that when the bugs go under, they can’t come back up for air.

Dangers Of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

Sodium lauryl sulfate (C12H25NaO4S, is called SLS for short) is a chemical compound used in personal care products, perfumes and cleaning detergents. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration listed it as a food additive and specified regulations and limits of its use. The chemical has been a controversial topic on the Internet as some health advocates purport its possible adverse effects on people.

Its role in these products is usually that of a foaming or a dispersal agent. For example, toothpaste or bubble baths that foam when used contain sodium lauryl sulfate, as well as products that need its components dispersed homogeneously, such as fragrance oils in body spray.

Clinical tests on rabbits demonstrated that 10 percent of sodium lauryl sulfate caused corneal impairment, especially if the chemical was not rinsed out of the eye, according to the Journal of American College of Toxicology. Rinsing reduces irritation to a degree, and if it’s not done promptly, then the damage is severe. Absorption and metabolism studies showed that SLS can destroy properties of proteins, causing deterioration in cell membranes.

According to the Journal of American College of Toxicology, human skin tests conducted showed that skin irritation was directly related to SLS concentration——the higher the concentration, the greater the irritation. It was concluded that the chemical’s contact with human skin should not exceed 1 percent. Additional tests conducted on rabbits found that SLS concentrations of .5 to 10 percent caused slight to moderate skin irritations, and concentrations of 10 to 30 percent caused severe aggravations.

Besides subjecting human and animal test subjects to different degrees of discomfort, critics claim that SLS is retained in the long run in organ tissues like the heart, liver, and brain. In lab animals, testing has been blamed for causing mutagenic effects. If they remain in the eyes for too long, they may also lead to the development of cataracts. Because sodium lauryl sulfate(CAS No. 151-21-3) is corrosive by nature, it can dry out skin by stripping the protective lipids from the surface of the skin, weakening the body’s natural moisture regulation mechanisms. If it eats away at the follicle, hair loss may also be induced.

It has arguably been called one of the most dangerous ingredients in products today. Household essentials like cosmetic cleansers, bath gels, shampoos, and dishwashing detergents contain up to fifteen percent sodium lauryl sulfate. In extreme cases, SLS is argued to be carcinogenic, though not by itself. When exposed to other nitrogen-bearing ingredients of a skin product though, the oxidation reaction that results may form nitrosomines, which are carcinogenic nitrates.

Common Types Of Hair Dyes

Hair dye has become an almost indispensable product for many different men and women. Many ladies and girls have their hair dyed on a regular basis through a salon or at home. However, apparently women don’t like their hair because more women are changing the color of their hair than ever before. But is this obsession with finding the perfect color bad for our hair? The answer is: It depends.

Permanent Dyes
A permanent dye is the longest lasting type of dye. However, these dyes are also the harshest on your hair. The dye uses ammonia and hydrogen peroxide to expand the hair molecules so that they are too big to be washed out. These dyes last until the new hair roots grow in. When you use it, it creates a new color base for your hair, and then re-dyes it to the new color. For this reason, the same base color looks different on other people.

Semi-permanent Dyes
Semi-permanent dyes are the kind that most people use when they visit the hair salon. They are a little less harsh than the permanent dyes, but they last longer than the temporary dyes. These dyes contain ammonia or hydrogen peroxide, and it is possible to get a lighter shade with these dyes. When the dye is placed in the hair, the dye penetrates the hair shaft, and then bonds with the hair molecules already there. This dye usually lasts for about a month.

Temporary Dyes
A temporary die is usually sprayed on, or it can be applied in a gel or mousse. When the hair gets wet, the dye runs out of the hair. This can be very messy. The reason that this happens is that there is no bonding of molecules with this kind of dye.

Common Ingredients
Ammonia and hydrogen peroxide are the main components that keep the hair dye bonded to the hair. They are able to seep inside the hair follicles, taking the dye with them. That is how the dye stays on the hair for longer periods of time. However, there has been some research to suggest that certain chemicals in hair dye can lead to certain cancers.1-Fluoro-4-nitrobenzene (also known as 4-Fluoronitrobenzene or p-fluoronitrobenzene, the CAS number is 350-46-9) is also used in hair dyes.

Long-Term Damage
The FDA has backed off of approving coal tar dyes; if the box has the patch test instructions, that’s all it needs. The problem with continued use however, is that someone can develop an allergy later on in life. Another problem to the hair emerges when women have their hair straightened and colored, too. Also, overuse of dyes, dye sitting too long to develop, and other variables can damage hair. This will typically mean breaks in the shaft of the hair.

Herbicides That Contain 2,4-D

To kill broadleaf weeds without damaging your grass, you will need to use a broadleaf herbicide. Many types of broadleaf herbicide are available. The active ingredient in these herbicides is often listed as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(C8H6Cl2O3, is callled 2,4-D for short). It is a selective broad leaf herbicide used to control several plant species, including bitterweed, Texas blueweed, broomweed, wild buckwheat and burdock.

Escalade low odor herbicide is specially formulated to be an effective weed killer without producing a strong, unpleasant smell. It is especially effective against clover, but will work against all broadleaf weeds. The active ingredients are fluroxypyr; 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid, also known as Dicamba; and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Like spotlight,

Spotlight is a fast-working herbicide that does not damage cool-season or warm-season grasses. This herbicide is highly effective at killing clover and other problematic weeds. It can be used year-round on any kind of turf. Spotlight’s active ingredient is fluroxypyr, which disrupts the nuisance plant’s water intake process.

Trimec plus herbicide is effective not only against broadleaf weeds, but also against several grassy weeds, and is effective against many types of plants, including clover. It is safe to use on turf consisting of bluegrass, ryegrass, zoysiagrass and fescue. The active ingredients in Trimec Plus include monosodium acid methanearsonate; 2,4-D; propionic acid; and dicamba. Do not use it in areas where crabgrass, goosegrass, or dallisgrass is desired; it may also kill many garden plants.

The active ingredients of broadleaf weed control are 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; propionic acid; and Dicamba. It is effective against a wide variety of broadleaf weeds, including dandelion, poison ivy and clover. This herbicide should be used no more than twice a year. Although it won’t kill grass, it will kill flowers, shrubs and vegetables, so it should not be applied near areas where they are growing.

The only active ingredient in weedar 64 broadleaf is 2,4-D and it works by distorting the target plant’s growth. At lower levels, the chemical regulates plant growth, but at higher levels it will kill the plant outright. Weedar 64 is not effective against clover, but kills a wide variety of weeds.

 

Helioplex In Sunscreen

A sunscreen, or chemical protectant, is absorbed by your skin. The chemicals absorb harmful UVA and UVB rays, preventing them from damaging your skin. Some common chemical sunscreen ingredients are avobenzone, mexoryl, helioplex, octylcrylene, tinosorb, and uvinul. Here, helioplex is mianly introduced.

Neutrogena developed the helioplex technology in 2005. It was first introduced in the company’s line of Ultra Sheer Sunblocks with SPF 55. It was engineered to provide stabilization to the sunscreen ingredients in order to prevent the sun from breaking down their effectiveness.

The product is primarily composed of the chemicals avobenzone and oxybenzone. Avobenzone, also referred to as Parsol 1789, can absorb UVA rays to prevent them from penetrating the skin’s surface. On its own, avobenzone can only offer brief protection because it is chemically unstable when exposed to ultraviolet light.

For the most broad spectrum sun protection, oxybenzone is added to provide UVB protection. Oxybenzone is most effective at absorbing UVB sun rays, but can also offer minimal UVA protection. When avobenzone and oxybenzone are joined, they can provide all-around skin protection; however, without an added chemical stabilizer, the effectiveness will not last.

Researchers discovered if both UVA and UVB absorbing properties were combined with the stabilizing solvent Hallbrite TQ, all the chemicals maintained their effectiveness. UVA rays produce milder, more long-term effects than UVB rays and are thought to contribute to the aging of skin. Sunscreen ingredients that absorb UVA rays tend to disintegrate shortly after being exposed to the sun, so traditional sun protection products could not be advertised as offering adequate UVA protection.

The main trademarked formula is the stabilizing property that extends the sun protection abilities of the avobenzone and oxybenzone. Once the stabilizing property is added to the avobenzone and oxybenzone(CAS No. 131-57-7), the two ingredients work together better than if each ingredient was added to skin separately. The properties in the technology absorb both types of ultraviolet sun rays, then alter the rays into safe light rays.

Although sunscreens with this technology can last longer than other sun protection products, they can lose their protection ability, so the sunscreen may need to be periodically reapplied if sweat or water is present on the skin’s surface.

Fluorosilicic Acid Information

Fluorosilicic acid, also called hydrofluorosilicate, is an industrial byproduct with applications in public health, hygiene and arts and crafts. It comes from phosphorite rock used in the manufacturing of phosphate fertilizer.

Fluorosilicic acid preserves fiber strength and sets acid dyes to prevent fabric discoloration. Businesses including hotels and hospitals use fluorosilicic acid as a laundry sour, a cleaning agent added during rinsing to break down residual bleach and remove sodium bicarbonate, a chemical compound that can damage fabrics during ironing or pressing. The acid also dissolves iron and other metallic salts that cause rust stains, graying or yellow discoloration. Laundry sours containing fluorosilicic acid aren’t available for home laundries.

Tanners use fluorosilicic acid to cure and preserve animal hides and skins. It also makes fluorosilicate or fluoride salts which are used to make industrial compounds and metals and to help cool nuclear reactors. The compound is added to cement and applied to wood to preserve both materials, and it’s used in the manufacture of ceramics, glass and paints. Brewing and bottling plants use fluorosilicic acid to sterilize factory equipment. It’s also used in electroplating and glass etching, and to refine lead and acidize oil wells.

Fluorosilicic acid has been the main additive for water fluoridation in the United States since the 1950s. Combined with a related compound called hexafluorosilicate, the acid makes up fluoride mouth rinses. As of 2001, municipalities across the nation added silicofluorides to more than 9,200 water treatment systems serving more than 120 million Americans, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fluoride makers change fluorosilicic acid from its water-based solution into powdered derivatives called sodium fluorosilicate(F6Na2Si, CAS No. 16893-85-9) and sodium fluoride, which suppliers add to drinking water.

However, the acid’s role in water fluoridation is controversial. Scientists at Dartmouth College found in 2001 that children exposed to drinking water containing the acid have higher levels of lead in their blood. Recent studies from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency found that too much of the additive can cause brittle bones as well. Exposure to high levels of fluorosilicic acid vapor or mist in factories can burn the eyes and cause coughing, chest pain and breathing difficulties. But the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services says the amount of fluorosilicic acid in drinking water is too minimal to cause health problems.

Naproxen Used To Relieve Pain

Naproxen(C14H14O3) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is often taken to relieve pain. It works by by decreasing hormones that cause pain and inflammation. People can purchase this drug over-the-counter in brands such as Aleve and also by prescription in higher-dose tablets. The medication is most often taken as a pill or a liquid, and goes by the brand names Aleve, Midol Extended Relief, Naprosyn, and Anaprox.

Naproxen, like other NSAIDs, reduces the levels of prostaglandins in the body, chemicals that cause pain, inflammation and fever. It blocks cyclooxygenase, the enzyme that makes these chemicals. The mechanism of action of naproxen is the same as other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Some other medications in this class include ibuprofen, indomethacin, and ketorolac. They work by suppressing the action of the cyclooxygenase enzyme, which results in decreased production of a variety of chemical compounds that cause pain, inflammation, and blood clots.  It is available over the counter or by prescription.

One of the most common uses of naproxen is to treat pain. It is often used to alleviate symptoms associated with musculoskeletal problems, such as arthritis. Doctors prescribe this medicine to relieve the stiffness, swelling and more intense pain associated with various disorders. These include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis and tendinitis. Patients with gout, a condition that causes swelling, pain, and inflammation of the joints, can also be treated with this medication. Many women take the drug to treat abdominal cramping pain associated with their menstrual cycles. Additionally, the medication can be used as a fever reducer in patients with elevated body temperatures due to acute illness.

Common side effects can include nausea, constipation, headache, abdominal pain, and dizziness. The medication is known to irritate the stomach and harm the protective lining of the gastrointestinal tract, and therefore, patients using this drug for a long time can have an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. Some patients have an allergic reaction to the medication, which can be mild and cause a skin rash, or can be more severe and cause the sudden onset of shortness of breath and swelling. Taking large amounts of naproxen(CAS No. 22204-53-1) can cause problems with the function of the kidneys and the liver.

Patients with diseases such as high blood pressure or heart failure could experience increased problems with their cardiovascular function if they take this medication. Other coexistent diseases such as kidney disease, liver disease, and asthma can be worsened by taking the medication, and patients with these conditions should talk to their doctors or health care providers before taking this medication. Although naproxen is a safe medication for many, it is not recommended for use in some patients. Pregnant women, for example, are discouraged from taking this medication because it could have negative effects on the developing baby.

What Can Calcium Acetate Be Used For?

Calcium acetate, made up of calcium, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It has the formula Ca(C2H3OO)2. Other names such as acetate of lime, calcium ethanoate and calcium diacetate are also known by people. In appearance, the chemical is a white granular powder that does not have any smell. It is used in both the food and pharmaceutical industries in medication and as a food additive that acts as a stabilizer.

Calcium acetate is created by making a calcium salt from acetic acid. The most prolific use of this compound in the food industry is as a stabilizer. Stabilizers perform several functions in manufactured foods, mostly in powdered foods but also in liquid and solid foods. They are able to organize flavoring compounds and give the product a uniform texture. With foods that use an emulsifier to bind ingredients, calcium acetate further binds the ingredients to ensure nothing separates.

Many dairy products, such as drinks, condensed milk, milk powder and cream, use calcium acetate. Cereals and batters, along with edible casings for sausages and many types of pasta need this substance for proper production and storage. It also extends the shelf life for all food in which it is used.

As a medicine, this substance is used to ensure phosphate levels in the blood do not become dangerously high for dialysis patients with kidney disease. When phosphate builds up in the blood it can combine with calcium in the blood and this mixture can cause damage by being deposited on the blood vessel walls. It can also cause itchiness and affect the strength of the bones and joints. Calcium acetate(CAS No. 62-54-4) tablets prevent the absorption of phosphates into the bloodstream as they bind to the phosphate in your food. The combination is then passed out in your stools.

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), this substance is considered to be generally safe on several levels. As a substance by itself, it is considered safe. Most FDA regulations regard calcium acetate’s use in food. As a food coating, ingredient and direct food substance, it is considered to be safe.

Cigarette Filters: Effectiveness & Components

Cigarette filters are designed to decrease the amount of smoke and other chemical particles inhaled by smokers. The reduction of these elements by the cigarette filter serves to reduce lung and throat irritation. However, the filters are mainly made of synthetics and are very harmful to the environment. Although its purpose is to absorb some of the harmful chemicals of tobacco smoke, a filter has its own chemicals that affect smokers and the environment.

History
The first cigarette filter was produced in 1927 after being developed by Hungarian inventor Boris Aivaz. Early cigarette filters were intended more to prevent cigarette users from burning their fingers than to filter chemicals from smoke. It wasn’t until 1954, following the release of the first research linking poor health and cigarette use, that cigarettes with manufactured filters became widely available. Filtered cigarettes, marketed by cigarette companies as a safer alternative to non-filtered cigarettes, would take over the market. Some products in the 1950s were made of materials such as asbestos and charcoal.

Function
Government regulation of cigarettes and their subsequent division into “light” and “low-tar” brands are based on tests of cigarette smoke that has passed through a cellulose acetate filter. Cigarette filters for “light” cigarettes are perforated with tiny holes, which result in lower test readings of tar and other chemicals, because the testing machine clips the product at the very tip. However, these perforated holes are blocked by the lips or fingers of the human smoker, which essentially eliminates their usefulness.

Filter Paper
The cellulose acetate serves as a filter plug, with polyvinyl acetate emulsion used as a glue to attach the plug to the wrapper. The wrapper paper does not allow any air to penetrate it in regular cigarettes and is slightly ventilated to allow some air in in “light” cigarettes. The paper on the outside of the filter is made to not stick to smokers’ lips. Some cigarettes, like Parliament, also use charcoal as a filtering agent to add to the smoothness of the cigarette and create a more desirable ash color.

Filter Plastics
Filters are 95 percent thin plastic threads (cellulose acetate) wound together to create a cotton-like filter. These filters consist of many Y-shaped fibers intertwined that contain the delustrant titanium dioxide and more acetate. Triacetin (also known as Triacetylglycerin or glycerol triacetate, CAS: 102-76-1) and polyethylene are applied to bond the fibers and create the filter. Cigarette companies have tried to replace acetate but smokers prefer the taste the acetate filter produces.

Impact On Environment
Cellulose acetate cigarette filters have been criticized by environmental groups and anti-smoking advocates because of their slow rate of degradation in landfills and in the environment. Although some cigarette companies have estimated that cigarette filters take approximately 10 months to three years to degrade, other studies have put this number at 10 to 15 years.

Paraformaldehyde Information

Paraformaldehyde(synonyms such as polyformaldehyde or polyoxymethylene) is a white solid formed by the combination of formaldehyde and water. It is similar in its chemical compound to formaldehyde and  exhibits the typical characteristics of similar polymers with long-chain polyoxymethylene glycols, namely the ability to turn to liquid when exposed to heat and solidify upon cooling or being frozen to a hard, glass-like material. When it is heated with sodium hydroxide, or lye, in a water solution, it depolymerizes or “dissolves” as it reacts to the water molecules.

This compound is classified as an aldehyde, meaning that it contains a carbonyl group. In the case of this particular substance, the carbon atom is bonded to two hydrogen atoms. It is readily absorbed via the respiratory system, but is quickly metabolized to formate and excreted through the lungs or kidneys.  Aldehydes typically give off a strong odor, as evidenced by the distinct aroma of many familiar botanicals, such as cinnamon and vanilla. Aldehyde-based solutions are also well-known as biological fixatives capable of inhibiting cellular degradation due to the breakdown of enzymes and bacterial replication. That’s why formaldehyde and its derivatives, including paraformaldehyde, are used to preserve tissue samples.

Paraformaldehyde can be synthesized from formaldehyde solutions. In its naturally occurring state, formaldehyde is a water-soluble gas that forms methylene hydrate when hydrated. Methylene hydrate can then be polymerized, which yields the compound as a white precipitate. However, the addition of methanol is necessary to stabilize the polymerization process.

Because of being a condensed form of formalin, or aqueous formaldehyde, it possesses the same characteristics. In fact, it can be substituted in place of aqueous formaldehyde to produce the resinous binding material needed to make particleboard and plywood when combined with melamine, phenol, or other reactive agents. In addition, there are some advantages to doing so. For one thing, it produces a greater yield of raw product. For another, its use reduces the need to remove water from the reactive agent before processing by up to 20 times.

Paraformaldehyde(CAS:30525-89-4) is usually found in a wide variety of consumer goods, including vitamins, personal care products, and household cleaning products. In addition, this compound useful as a fungicide and pesticide. It is also used in the manufacture of fertilizers, fluorescent lights, and certain chemicals used in photography and printing.

What shoule be noted is that there is evidence to indicate that the chemcial is hazardous to human health. Studies have shown that repeated exposure, even in small amounts, may produce nasal squamous cell carcinomas. It is also corrosive to skin and mucous membranes. Therefore, caution should be exercised when handling this substance.

Propanoic Acid Information

Pharmaceutical companies commonly include propionic acid in the formulation of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDS) medications. In low doses, manufacturers use the acid as a preservative and as an antimicrobial agent in foods produced for human consumption. The manufacture of dyes, pharmaceutical compounds, agrochemicals, plastics and artificial flavors are other processes that make use of propanoic acid sometimes as well.

Properties
Consisits of three carbon molecules and is produced naturally by certain bacteria during fermentation, propionic acid is a saturated fatty acid. The compound may also be synthetically created using ethylene or natural gas. In their natural state, propionates are a colorless, oily liquid having a pungent odor. When used as a calcium or sodium salt, propionic acid may be colorless, white and crystallized, or in a powdered form that readily dissolves in water or alcohol.

propanoic acid is relatively acidic. That’s because of the structure of the functional group. When the -OH part of the carboxyl group gives up its hydrogen ion, the oxygen atom is left with a negative charge. This charge, however, is not stuck on this oxygen atom only; rather, it is delocalized over the two oxygen atoms.

Structure
Propanoic acid has the following molecular formula: C3H6O2. The three carbons form a chain; the carbon at the end of the chain has an oxygen atom double-bonded to it and an -OH group attached to it as well. This group of atoms or functional group is collectively called a carboxyl group, and compounds like propanoic acid are called carboxylic acids because they are relatively acidic. Acetic acid, also known as vinegar, is another example of a carboxylic acid.

Synthesis
Propanoic acid can be produced in different ways. For one, propanal can be oxidized to yield the carboxylic acid. Just like other carboxylic acids, it could be prepared by adding hot base or acid to propanenitrile followed by an acid-water workup, or by carbonating the Grignard reagent formed from magnesium and 1-bromopropane(C3H7Br, CAS No. 106-94-5). It can also be made from propanoic anhydride by hydrolysis or alcoholysis; the hydrolysis would form two molecules of the acid, while the alcoholysis would form an ester and the acid.

Medical Uses
Researchers believe that propionic acid can also inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. Pharmaceutical companies commonly include it as an ingredient in NSAIDS. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and other over-the-counter and prescription anti-inflammatory preparations commonly contain propionic acid as an ester. The acidic properties of propionates provide antimicrobial activity against some bacteria. Propionic acid is more commonly used for fungal and mold growth prevention. Its acidic nature allows it to penetrate the cells of microorganisms, and after gaining entrance into the cytoplasm, the acid decreases the cellular pH.

Compositions Of Airbags

Vehicle safety airbags have been generally available since the 1970s, and automakers have improved their cost and efficacy over time. Airbags can be equipped in multiple compartments of a vehicle, though the most common placement are the steering wheel hub and front passenger instrument panel. While the idea of an airbag in a car may seem simple, it takes several components, made of several different materials, for the safety mechanism to function.

Crash Sensor
Sensors measure the severity of the crash to determine if the impact is enough to require airbag inflation. The sensor is a small ball made of steel that is held in place by a spring or a magnet. The ball stays in place unless the vehicle decelerates very rapidly. If the impact is above the deployment threshold, the airbag will inflate. The threshold is between eight and 16 miles per hour, depending if the person in the vehicle is wearing a seat belt, with the higher threshold for belted occupants. When the sensor is activated and the steel ball moves, this turns on an electrical circuit.

The Bag
The bag itself is generally made of a synthetic fabric such as polyamide or nylon. There are small vents within the weave of the fabric, allowing the gas to escape slowly so that it acts more as a soft cushion, rather than a hard barrier. It only takes a few seconds for the pressure inside the bag to decrease to that of atmospheric pressure.

Argon
Hybrid inflators use neutral chemicals like argon (Ar) in a canister, which is heated and released by a pyrotechnic charge. These are typically used in smaller airbags, like passenger-side airbags. Argon is a neutral gas, which does not combust or react, and is typically found in incandescent lights or wherever a completely neutral environment is needed.

Sodium Azide
A small pellet of sodium azide(NaN3) is ignited after the steel sensor activates the electrical circuit. The ignition of this chemical causes a chemical reaction, resulting in nitrogen gas. It is this nitrogen gas that inflates the airbag itself. This gas is harmless, and fills the bag in less than a second. Generally, the entire process from sensor activation to bag deployment takes approximately one-twentieth of a second.

However, it is a highly toxic chemical, with such products as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and ammonia. Drivers frequently complained of burning in the lungs, nostrils, mouth, and skin.Sodium azide(CAS number: 26628-22-8) is being replaced over time by less dangerous compounds, like guanidine nitrate.

Helium
The simplest airbag, called a blow-down or blown-down system, uses compressed helium without a pyrotechnic chemical. A bottle ruptures and rapidly inflates the bag. These are found chiefly in rollover curtain systems, that is, in the head space of a sport vehicle, to prevent injury in case of a rollover.

Another Medication Used To Treat Hypertension

The World Health Organization estimates that 600 million people worldwide suffer from hypertension or high blood pressure. Left untreated, hypertension causes a number of complications, including damage to the heart and cardiovascular system, loss of memory and aneurysms. Enalapril maleate(C24H32N2O9) is a drug prescribed to control these diseases. The drug also is available under the brand name Renitec and Vasotec.

It works by blocking the function of angiotensin, a compound that contracts blood vessels, and is classified among the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Patients on enalapril maleate will experience a reduction in blood pressure as their blood vessels will stay open and relaxed. Therapy with this drug requires periodic followup appointments to make sure it is still effective.

The medication can also be found in the form of enalapril maleate felodipine, a combination drug that includes a calcium channel blocker. Like other drugs used to treat high blood pressure, it can cause side effects like dizziness, nausea, and headaches, especially as the patient adjusts. If side effects persist or are severe, it may be necessary to switch to a different medication or to change the dosage.

There are some medications which produce unwanted side effects when used in conjunction with Renitec. For example, use of Indomethacin with Renitec has the potential to cause low blood pressure, while using the drug with digitalis glycosides sometimes leads to arrhythmia. Renitec is generally not safe to take with lithium, as the combination causes an increased risk of severe side effects from both drugs. When combined with some diuretics or medications that contain potassium, Renitec causes an increase in potassium levels in your blood stream. Over time, this may lead to a condition called hyperkalemia, which damages or interferes with your heart and cardiovascular system. In addition, the combination of Renitec and cholestyramine causes increases in blood-sugar levels.

Water and salt intake need to be watched carefully while taking enalapril maleate(CAS number is 76095-16-4). If patients become dehydrated, they can experience falling blood pressure and may develop shock. Especially in hot climates or while exercising, people should make sure they get plenty of water throughout the day. Generally, salts should not be decreased while on this drug, and a doctor may have specific recommendations about dietary adjustments while taking enalapril maleate. Patients should make sure this medication is noted in their charts so potentially harmful drug interactions can be identified.

 

Effects Of Transparent Oil Paint Colors

Lukas oil paints are high-quality paints from Germany that have a long history of use by both student and professional artists. The oil paints from this company come in a range of transparent colors for washes and detail work and in a range of opaque colors that can mix with transparent colors to provide a variety of new tones. Transparent oil paint colors are colors that are easy to thin to an almost see-through consistency. They are not transparent in the way that glass is, but they are less dense compared to other oil colors.

Transparent oil paints are ideal for mixing, glazing, and adding new color tones to an existing image. Some painters use transparent colors on top of existing colors to add depth to a painting or to bring it together. Experimenting with transparent colors adds a new dimension to your painting.

Transparent earth colors are used for warm glazing effects. As the name indicates, they often originate from the soil, sometimes from a special locale. Gold ocher is a warm, yellow earth color that imparts a lovely mustard hue. Asphaltum is a color that used to be impermanent but is now created in a new way. It has a charcoal hue and is good for toning down brilliant areas or unifying a region of a painting such as a stormy sky. Transparent mars colors are made synthetically from elements and come in a range of hues.

Phthalo colors, derived from copper phthalocyanine(C32H16CuN8, the same name as CuPc or Phthalocyanine blue), come in more or less a continuum of hues ranging from sharp green to intense blue. While transparent, they are powerful pigments and a little goes a long way. Different companies make slightly different varieties of the shades. The basic phthalo blue and phthalo green tend to look rather electric and synthetic. They mix well with zinc white to produce very lively tints. They can be used for glazing as well but won’t yield the warm or subtle color that is often desired from the glazing technique.

The oil composition varies somewhat from paint company to paint company. Some pigments are made from plants, while others are made of rock material. In some instances, minerals are dyed to create pigments. Plain, mineral-based pigments such as titanium create opaque colors that are hard to see through. Pigments made from minerals with dye added or plant material tend to create transparent colors that make excellent glazes. To create an opaque color, mix a transparent color with an opaque color that has a mineral base.

Dimethyl Sulfoxide Used For Interstitial Cystitis

Dimethyl sulfoxide, better known as DMSO or methyl sulfoxide, is a medication commonly used to treat a vast range of health conditions, from bladder infections to skin inflammation to high blood pressure. Several manufacturers produce over-the-counter (OTC) varieties of the drug as well, though in many countries non-prescription versions are not approved or regulated by government product safety boards. Doctors can help their patients determine whether or not the medicine is appropriate for their specific conditions.

History
Before DMSO gained popularity for its medicinal properties, it was used in industry as a solvent in chemical and manufacturing plants. Doctors and medical scientists began exploring the biological applications of the compound in the 1960s, discovering that it has the unique ability to penetrate layers of skin tissue without causing irritation or damage. The medication was found effective in helping other topical medicines, such as antibacterial and antifungal solutions, reach their destinations without affecting the skin. In oral or intravenous form, it can promote the absorption of medicines into internal organs.

For Interstitial Cystitis
According to the FDA (Food and Drug Administration), DMSO is only approved as a treatment for interstitial cystitis, a chronic condition of the bladder that basically causes pain and pressure as well as burning and discomfort to either the bladder alone or the entire region of the pelvis. This particular condition is far more common in women than men. Someone suffering from interstitial cystitis will find periods of relief, through both medication and remission, yet won’t necessarily be “cured” of the condition.

It is held for a specified amount of time (usually 15 minutes, but the doctor may recommend a longer or shorter stretch) and then released naturally through the individual’s urine. The patient should really have no problem going to the bathroom since her bladder will be rather full. While dimethyl sulfoxide solution is being held within the bladder, it is said to lessen any inflammation or swelling caused by the specific bladder condition, as well as reduce any pain isolated to this area of the body. The application is done about every two weeks until the patient is relieved of the symptoms.

Precautions
When methyl sulfoxide(CAS No. 67-68-5) is used as directed by a doctor, the chances of adverse side effects are very low. The most frequently reported side effects include localized drying of skin tissue, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Rarely, a person can have an allergic reaction to the medicine that can cause widespread skin inflammation and breathing problems. Some studies suggest that large quantities of DMSO can lead to future liver and kidney problems. Recently, it has in fact found another use, this time in the treatment of herpes, or at least a herpes outbreak.

How To Make Epoxy Resin?

Epoxy resin is a hard substance created when two substances, a epoxide and a polyamine, are combined. The epoxy is used in many different applications such as creating molds, strengthening fiberglass and in heat-resistant situations.

Composition
Structurally, it most cases consists of the two chemicals : long polymer chains of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin molecules, and polyamine molecules that links these polymer chains into a net-like sheet From a manufacturing standpoint, the two tubes of liquid in a retail epoxy dispenser are filled with separate solutions of epichlorohydrin-bisphenol polymers and polyamine molecules. When mixed together, the hardening or “curing” that results is actually the multiple amine (-NH2) groups in the polyamines breaking open the epicholorhydrins’ trigular epoxy (C-C-O) groups to form a nitrogen-carbon bond.

Production
To begin, producers add a strong sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution to a tank containing bisphenol A solution. The basic hydroxide ions strip hydrogens from the bisphenol to create water. Meanwhile, the Na+ ions help stabilize the bisphenol’s negatively-charged oxygen atoms. Next, a concentrated epichlorohydrin solution (approximately 3 times that of the original bisphenol A solution), is added to the mixture. The charged oxygen atoms on the bisphenol A, knock the chlorine atoms away to bond with the epichlorohydrin molecules. The resulting chloride ions (Cl-) are then neutralized by the sodium ions (Na+) in solution.

When combined, they bond together attaching on a chemical level in a criss-crossed fashion that makes the resulting substance strong. This reaction takes some time to develop and is normally called the curing of the resin. Depending on how thin the two substances are poured, and the mix of hardeners and resins, the curing time can vary. In some cases, heat can be applied to speed the drying time up, but normally it is cured only by time. 2-Methylimidazole(C4H6N2, CAS No. 693-98-1) is used in epoxy resins as a curing agent.

Storage and Results
The chemicals are contained separately until needed so they do not react too soon. When packaged for resale, they are either placed in two separate bottles or one bottle with two compartments. These can generally be found in craft stores. The resulting hardened material is generally a clear substance that has a look like glass. In some cases, a person might have seen an example in a restaurant where items are placed on the tables and sealed with the resin. The customers can still see the items but cannot get to them because they are under the surface of the compound.