Cosmetic & Medical Uses Of Salicylic Acid

Salicylic acid(C7H6O3) is a natural product which has been used in the treatment of disease for thousands of years. You may be familiar with this acid; chances are that you have a bottle of it around the house somewhere, although you may know it better as aspirin.  In addition to being produced naturally from plants, it can also be synthesized through a chemical reaction, which is the production method of choice for commercial use.

Introduction
Salicylic acid is a beta hydroxy acid derived from the bark of a willow tree. It has both cosmetic and medicinal uses. It is often found in skin care products because of its ability to treat acne, psoriasis, warts and other skin conditions. The Greek physician Hippocrates was among the first to identify the bitter extract of the willow bark as a substance that eased minor aches and reduced fevers. It is probably best known as a component similar to aspirin because the chemcial is a metabolite of aspirin. The active extract of the bark was isolated by Henri Leroux, a French pharmacist and Raffaela Pira, an Italian chemist in 1828.

In nature, this acid forms in the bark of the willow tree, also known as salix. People all over the world have observed that preparations of willow bark can be used to treat headaches and skin conditions for centuries; the Greeks, for example, prepared a white powder from willow bark, while Native Americans used willow bark to make therapeutic teas.

Medical Uses
Salicylic acid has been used to treat fevers since ancient times. In modern times, it is also used to treat pain and prevent heart disease. The pain and fever reliever, aspirin, is actually derived from a compound of salicylic acid.  It’s ability to suppress thomboxanes is especially helpful in preventing blood clots and heart attacks. It works by suppressing the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, which can cause blood clots and other health problems. The acid used in aspirin is different from the acid used in topical skin care products. It is important not to get the two different types confused.

Cosmetic Uses
It’s basically a chemical agent that aids in the process of exfoliation by eliminating surface skin cells and opening up pores. When applied to the skin, salicylic acid(CAS number: 69-72-7) works by causing the cells of the epidermis to shed properly. This prevents skin pores from getting clogged up and subsequently being infected with bacteria. For this reason, it is also used in dandruff shampoos to speed up the process of shedding. The most efficient way to apply salicylic acid as a topical solution is through cosmetic pads that have been soaked in the acid, which are then applied to the skin daily.

How Is Vanilla Extract Made?

Vanilla extract has been used for more than one hundred years. The early extract was more like a syrup than the commercial variety today. The flavor is derived from a blend of natural and artificial flavors; the highest quality extracts include real vanilla beans in their formulations. The two varieties of vanilla bean used commercially for extract are Bourbon and Tahitian.

History
Vanilla extract is made from the vanilla bean. It is one of the most expensive crops in the world to grow. It is grown in Mexico, Tahiti and Indonesia. The bean is derived from the fruit of the orchid. The first extracts were made at pharmacies and apothecary shops.

Significance
Pure vanilla extract is made by percolating chopped vanilla beans with ethyl alcohol and water. The extraction process takes 48 hours. Then the flavors mix with the beans in a tank for several days or weeks. The mixture is filtered into a holding tank where it is eventually bottled into this product.

Ingredients
Artificial caramel coloring is one of the most common ingredients in vanilla extracts. This component adds no flavor to the extract itself, but is added to imitate the deep coloring of vanilla beans themselves. There are some products on the market (in addition to homemade extracts) that do not utilize caramel coloring and are thus clearer in appearance.

Despite its bitter taste when sampled alone, sugar is a very important component of vanilla extract. Sugar is an excellent vehicle for infusing vanilla into, whether the flavoring is authentic or artificial. Sugar also serves to balance the ethyl content in extract, making it more palatable in prepared dishes.

Ethyl vanillin(also called as Bourbonal, sometimes the chemical name is 3-Ethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, CAS No. 121-32-4) is the ingredient in artificial and imitation vanilla extracts that provides the predominant flavor. Quality wise, there are slight variations in the formulation of vanillin resulting in more or less authentic vanilla flavor. One of the easiest ways to immediately tell the difference between a true vanilla extract and an artificial one is whether vanillin is listed as an ingredient (for reference, ethyl vanillin is the same thing as vanillin).

There are several types of vanilla beans that can be utilized as an ingredient in extract; one of the most popular (and expensive) is the Madagascar vanilla bean grown and shipped from East Africa. Top of the line vanilla extracts will almost always require derivatives of real vanilla beans in their formulation. The strong vanilla flavor can be extracted from both the tiny beans and the thin pod from which they are retrieved.

Foods Contains Sorbic Acid

The high moisture content in some foods causes the growth of micro-organisms. Sorbic acid(C6H8O2) is a natural preservative that is often used to prevent the spoilage or moulding of these products. It also has antimicrobial activity, which helps fight against certain kinds of bacteria, including mold and yeast, such as those found in wines. However, it only inhibits certain types of bacteria and, therefore, cannot be used alone to preserve the freshness of all types of products.

Jellies
Sorbic acid is added to jellies to extend the normal shelf life of the product and to prevent the growth of yeast and fungi. According to Professional Friends of Wine, most fruits or berries do not have a high enough sugar content for natural fermentation, so this acid is added. Grapes, however, are the only fruit with an adequate level of sugar and a balance of acid and nutrients to sustain a natural fermentation. The other fruits typically used to make jellies or even wine may ferment, but additional sugar, sorbic acid and other preservatives such as soluble potassium salt and potassium sorbate are added to prevent spoilage.

Fruits and Vegetables
Sorbic acid is used in various fruits and vegetables, including cherries, olives, pickles, figs, prunes and relishes. The acid acts as a fungistat and prevents fungi within the fruits and vegetables from growing, but does not actually kill the fungi. When used in coleslaw and salads, such as potato salad, tuna salad and other prepared salads containing fruits and vegetables, the shelf life of the product is extended.

Bread
Sorbic acid is widely used in bread and other bakery products. According to Free Patents Online, it is added to dough before baking to extend the shelf life of bakery products by a couple weeks. The chemical functions as a preservative by inhibiting the formation of mold and retarding the fermentation of the dough. It is normally added carefully to the dough, to ensure even distribution. Sometimes the sorbic acid(CAS No. 110-44-1) is mixed in with the flour prior to making the dough.

Meat and Poultry
When fresh poultry is dipped into potassium sorbate, the amount of sustainable bacteria within the food is reduced. The shelf life of the fresh poultry is doubled, as long as the product is kept refrigerated. The progression of mold growth is inhibited on country-cured hams when sprayed with its solution. Fish products are also dipped into a solution of sorbic acid to extend shelf life and reduce yeast and mold growth within the product.

Drysol Used To Reduce Sweat

Drysol is a prescription medication that comprised of aluminum chloride hexahydrate.  It is used to treat hyperhidrosis, a condition in which people sweat excessively. Hyperhidrosis is the secretion of sweat in amounts greater than is necessary to cool the body. Some patients use this medication for excessive sweating on the scalp as well.

Forms
Drysol comes packaged in a white box with blue writing. It appears across the middle of the small box in the same blue color. Inside the box is the medication container, which is a tube-shaped white plastic bottle with blue writing. Also, the drug appears on the outside of the tube in blue writing. There is a screw-on top attached to the tube, and an applicator sponge that goes on the top underneath the cap. The patient inserts the applicator top before the first use.

Usage
Follow any doctor’s instructions regarding Drysol usage. Most commonly, doctors recommend application once a day. Nighttime is the best time to apply it, since patients cannot wear it with other antiperspirants or deodorants. After applying this drug, some find that blowing air on the area with the cool setting of a hair dryer helps it to dry more quickly. Wearing a plastic barrier helps increase the amount that stays on the skin. Wash the skin thoroughly the next morning before applying a regular antiperspirant or deodorant.

Ingredients
Drysol is effective due to the formulation of aluminum chloride hexahydrate in anhydrous ethyl alcohol, as this also helps prevent skin irritation. Most over-the-counter antiperspirants feature between 15 percent and 25 percent aluminum, whereas its features closer to 40 percent. It is more effective than typical over-the-counter antiperspirants mainly because it contains aluminum chloride and alcohol which, when coupled together, are more effective in preventing sweating.

Funciotn
Drysol works in that the aluminum chloride(AlCl3, CAS No. 7446-70-0) is absorbed into the top layer of armpit skin. As the aluminum ions absorb into the cells, water is absorbed with them. This causes the cells to swell. Once swollen, the cells squeeze sweat glands shut, thereby eliminating the escape of perspiration. After the cells retain all the water they can, water starts passing back out of the cells, and the cells eventually return to their original size. The sweating process then re-begins, at which time it is vital to apply more.

Considerations
Drysol can discolor clothes and metals. Wear an old T-shirt to prevent staining of sheets or other bedding. Avoid using it on open wounds, recently shaved skin, broken skin or irritated skin. The medication is an FDA pregnancy category C drug, which means it can be harmful to a baby.

Sorbitol — A Sugar Substitute

Sorbitol(C6H1406), sometimes also called as D-glucitol or D-Sorbitol, is a slow-metabolizing sugar alcohol that has 1/3 fewer calories than sugar derived from fruits, corn and seaweed. It has several cosmetic and medical applications and is added to oral health products.

This sweetener is actually a sugar alcohol that is also known as glucitol. It is a white powder or liquid that is sweet in taste and odorless. Unlike other sugar alternatives, however, it has only about 60% of the sweetness of sugar, but it is 10 times sweeter than xylitol. It is very slow to metabolize in the body, which lessens the chance of increased levels of insulin. This makes sorbitol a good sweetener for diabetics.

Since it’s very slow to be metabolized by the body, sorbitol does not cause insulin levels to increase as much as sugar. The product also doesn’t lead to tooth decay and is used in many sugar-free cough syrups. It is a popular addition to gel toothpastes as it helps add transparency.

Sorbitol is one of the most familiar sugar substitutes and is a frequent addition to diet foods. Low calorie candies, ice cream, baked goods, and chewing gum are commonly made with this sweetener. Foods made with this ingredient stay fresh and moist longer than those made with most other nutritive sweeteners. A small amount added to peanut butter improves spreadability and keeps it from becoming dry and crumbly. It is also added to shredded coconut to keep the flakes moist.

Sorbitol is added to soaps, especially transparent glycerin bar soaps. It has moisturizing qualities and may be found in lotions and moisturizing soaps. Therefore, the alcohol has been used in cosmetic products for close to a century and is a Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) product by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA).  Mouthwashes and toothpastes are made more transparent and pleasant tasting with the addition of this sugar alcohol, as are cough drops and syrups. Hair gels and shampoos also frequently contain it.

Laxatives are sometimes made with this alcohol, usually in liquid or enema form. When used in this form, the bowel is stimulated as it retains water within the colon and increases muscle movement. It is also used as an irrigation solution during urinary and prostrate surgeries to prevent infection and is administered by injection. D-glucitol can be combined with Kayexalate to eliminate excess potassium from the body when medically necessary. Most people, including the elderly, can usually use these products safely.

Though safe in small to moderate amounts, the substance does have some harmful side effects when too much is consumed. They include dry mouth, excessive thirst, dehydration, and edema. When larger amounts are ingested, it can cause abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and bloating.

L-ascorbic Acid In Broccoli

Most people are familiar with L-ascorbic acid(C6H8O6), more commonly referred to as ascorbic acid or vitamin C. Vitamin C is known for its antioxidant properties. It is a molecular bond of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Humans are unable to synthesis vitamin C; therefore, it must be attained from supplements or a balanced diet.

History
The concept of the vitamin, a nutrient essential for health, was not established until 1912. Vitamin C was first isolated by Hungarian and American researchers in 1932. A few years after this discovery, vitamin C was the first vitamin to be synthesized in a lab. By 1934, vitamin C was the first mass-produced vitamin supplement.

Benefits
As vitamin C, ascorbic acid was once invaluable in preventing diseases like scurvy, caused by lengthy ship voyages. To combat scurvy, sailors and passengers were often given oranges, which are high in ascorbic acid. While most animals synthesize ascorbic acid naturally, humans and primates do not. It is essential to the body’s processes, and all humans must consume it through either food or supplementation. Vitamin C helps to produce collagen. It is also vital in the production of dopamine and adrenaline, and necessary to the function of almost all major organs.

L-ascorbic acid is required for the production of the protein collagen, which is found in the tendons, skin, bones, cartilage, ligaments and blood vessels. Collagen and vitamin C are necessary to support the body tissues, heal wounds and help maintain blood vessel structure. Vitamin C also functions as a cofactor assisting biochemical reactions, as an antioxidant preventing the degradation of substances in the body, and as a detoxifier reducing the toxicity of medications and chemicals.

Food Resources
Fresh fruits and vegetables are the best source of natural L-ascorbic acid – particularly citrus fruits and vegetables such as broccoli and parsley. Vitamin C is available from animal sources, but cooking destroys the nutrient. Vitamin C supplements are one of the most common dietary supplements and are readily available in most countries. Since most cooking methods deplete the content of vitamin C, one of the best methods for adding it to one’s diet is to eat citrus fruits raw, or to very lightly cook green vegetables like broccoli.

Meloxicam Used For arthritis

Meloxicam(C14H13N3O4S2) is a medication that is prescribed to treat several different kinds of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The drug is also used by doctors as an analgesic. In the veterinary field, it is used under the name Metacam

Definition
Meloxicam was approved for use in the United State by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in April of 2000. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the Oxicam family. NSAID drugs are distinguished from steroidal drugs, which tend to share similarities with NSAIDs in the function of limiting inflammation and pain. The most commonly known NSAIDs are over-the-counter medications such as Ibuprofen and Aspirin. Naprosyn Piroxicam and the medication are some of the the more potent prescription NSAIDs.

Function
Meloxicam treats pain and or inflammation by preventing a substance called cyclooxygenase from inducing the synthesis of prostaglandins. By blocking the enzymes that produce prostaglandins, the inflammation process is interrupted. Prostaglandin synthesis is the main cause of the symptoms such as pain, swelling and tenderness which are commonly associated with arthritis and other inflammatory diseases.

Dosage
This medication is taken orally, or by mouth, as a tablet or as a liquid solution. Adults will typically be prescribed a dose of 7.5 milligrams (mg) once daily, with a maximum dosage of 15 mg. The maximum dosage for a child is 7.5 mg. Patients should take meloxicam with a full glass of water, with or without a meal. They may not lie down for at least half an hour following the dosage.

Also, this drug should not be used with other NSAIDs or drugs that posses properties associated with NSAIDs simultaneously. Drugs like Cidofovir should be avoided as well as over-the-counter drugs like Ibuprofen and Aspirin. Patients with heart complications, ulcers, liver or kidney disease, allergic reactions to any medications, asthma and smoking habits should consult their doctor before using Meloxicam.

Side Effects
Some side effects may occur while using meloxicam(CAS No. 71125-38-7), which should be reported to the prescribing physician if they become bothersome or persistent. Patients may experience a runny nose, cough, and a sore throat. Diarrhea, flatulence, and constipation have also been reported. Some people have experienced stomach upset and drowsiness.

More serious side effects may also happen, which require immediate medical care. Rarely, meloxicam may cause liver disease. Possible indications of this can include dark urine, jaundice, and extreme fatigue. Some patients may experience an allergic reaction, which often presents with severe dizziness, facial swelling, and trouble breathing.

Camphor Spirit Information

Camphor spirit is otherwise known as gum camphor, laurel camphor or simply camphor.  It is available as camphora and synthetic tablets and has a long tradition of use, both topically and via steam or direct inhalation.

Ingredients
Camphor is a substance derived from the camphor tree, Cinnamomum camphora. It can also be produced synthetically. It is a white crystalline substance and has a strong, distinctive, penetrating odor. The spirit portion of camphor spirit refers to some sort of alcohol, often a pure ethyl alcohol. An herbal spirit, such as camphor spirit, is often called a “tincture.”

Skin Problems
Spirit of camphor may be used as a rubefacient, which is applied to the skin for the purpose of relieving pain. It may relieve muscular pain when mixed with an alcohol solution and applied to the skin. Spirit of camphor may be applied to the skin and used as an analgesic or a counter-irritant when used in liniments. It works as a counter-irritant in neuralgia and fibrosis. It may also work as a counter-irritant for similar conditions. Camphor may be used in dermatology in the form of a lotion to work as a skin anesthetic and an anti-pruritic.

Topical Pain Relief
Camphor has been used to relieve pain via topical application. To use a camphor spirit as pain relief, for sore muscles or a sore throat, a bandage could be soaked in camphor spirit and applied to the sore area. Camphor spirit should never be used on broken skin or open wounds.

Steam Inhalant
Camphor spirit can be used to relieve and reduce coughing from cold, sinus infection or allergic irritation. Use of a camphor substance in a steam vaporizer can help relieve coughing by working with the steam to moisten breathing passages, thus calming the cough reflex.

Dentistry
Spirit of camphor is useful to dentists when their patients require a procedure, such as on a root canal. When the root canal becomes infected, the antibacterial used by the dentist may contain camphor. It is mixed with parachlorophenol( C6H5ClO,better known as P-Chlorophenol or 4-Chlorophenol), with camphor making up 65 percent of the substance and parachlorophenol making up 35 percent of the substance. It may also be used in dentistry to treat periapical infections.

Risks
Internal use of camphor is highly discouraged due to the possibility poisoning. It can also be harmful to young children if it is used as a nose ointment for infants. Spirit of camphor may be dangerous as a vapor and flammable if it comes in contact with a high amount of heat.

How To Deodorize Your Toilet?

Supermarkets generally carry an array of commercial bathroom deodorizers in sprays and solids. With the advent of deodorizers that suction to the inside of the toilet bowl, water can now pass across the deodorizer as it fills the bowl. This prevents the deodorizer from sitting in the toilet tank. The cartridge uses suction to secure to the toilet bowl. Therefore, to remove the deodorizer, you simply have to break the suction.

White Vinegar
This kitchen staple comes recommended by “Good Housekeeping” as one of the top ways to quickly freshen up the smell of your toilet bowl. For proper deodorizing, pour 1 cup of white vinegar into your toilet bowl and let it soak for five minutes or more. During this time, the vinegar disinfects and deodorizes while also helping to lift away stains. When the time is up, scrub the toilet and flush it.

Tea Tree Oil
This minty oil works as a natural antiseptic, helping to zap bacteria that may emit bad smells. It’s also one of the top ways to clean your toilet bowl and get rid of ugly stains, reports “Real Simple” magazine. Mix 1 cup of water with 1 tsp. of tea tree oil and spray it all along the top of your toilet bowl’s rim. Let is soak for 30 minutes before scrubbing and flushing.

Mrs. Meyers Toilet Bowl Cleaner
This cleaner comes praised by National Geographic Society’s “The Green Guide.” Criteria used by the society include an analysis of its ingredient list–the magazine specifically looked for natural and biodegradable products–and its efficacy for battling odors and stains. It also comes praised by Grist, which liked that it cleaned well while also imparting a lemony scent.

Cascade
Pour 1 teaspoon of Cascade dishwasher detergent into the toilet. Brush the toilet bowl well with a toilet brush and let the Cascade solution sit for 10 minutes. Brush the toilet bowl again and flush the solution down. The phosphates in the Cascade will create a sparkling clean toilet. One Of its ingredients is 1,4-Dichlorobenzene(also known as p-Dibromobenzene, the CAS number is 106-37-6), which is a effective space deodorant for toilets.

Baking Soda
Baking soda is a naturally occurring salt that works as both a cleaner and deodorizer. Mix four tablespoons of baking soda with one quart of warm water. Dip a sponge in and wipe down bathroom surfaces. As it scrubs away soap scum on sinks and tubs, it also clears away bathroom odors.

Heterocyclic Amines In Muscle Meats May Pose Cancer Risk

Heterocyclic amines, also sometime referred to as HCAs, are chemical compounds containing at least one heterocyclic ring, which by definition has atoms of at least two different elements, plus the compound has at least one amine group.A cyclic chemical compound is composed of elemental atoms bonded together in the form of a ring. Amines are complex organic compounds derived from the basic structure of ammonia, which is three hydrogen atoms bonded to a nitrogen.

Many amines are fundamental to organic life. Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins that make all living tissues, are constructed from amines. When they are connected to a heterocyclic compound, however, their effects are quite variable and not completely understood. One example of a heterocyclic amine is thiamine, otherwise known as Vitamin B1. Other examples of heterocyclic amines are toxic carcinogens, known to cause cancer in humans.

Heterocyclic amines consist of at least one ring of two or more different elements. Bonded to this ring is at least one amine. From the basic structure of ammonia, one or more of its hydrogen atoms are replaced by what’s called a substituent. It can be a different element, or even a complex functional group of elements that would otherwise be unstable were it not bonded to the nitrogen atom. Most amines have a string structure and are base chemicals, also termed alkali, the opposite of acidic.

As early as 1981 Doll and Peto suggested that 90% of colon cancer cases in the US might be prevented by changes in the diet but the specific factors that are responsible have still not been fully established. The prevailing hypotheses have been that colorectal cancer risk is increased by dietary fat and decreased by dietary fibre intake. However, although carcinogenic heterocyclic amines are formed during frying of meat, especially at high temperatures, few epidemiological analytical studies on diet and colorectal cancer considered the method of cooking, and, particularly, the preference for browning of the meat surface, until the early 1990s .

Research has shown that cooking certain meats at high temperatures creates chemicals that are not present in uncooked meats. A few of these chemicals may increase cancer risk. For example, heterocyclic amines are the carcinogenic chemicals formed from the cooking of muscle meats such as beef, pork, fowl, and fish. HCAs form when amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and creatine (a chemical found in muscles) react at high cooking temperatures. Ceric ammonium nitrate, also known as ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate with the formula (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6, is commonly used for the synthesis of HCAs. Researchers have identified 17 different HCAs resulting from the cooking of muscle meats that may pose human cancer risk.

Research conducted by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as well as by Japanese and European scientists indicates that HCAs are created within muscle meats during most types of high temperature cooking.

Chemicals Used In Nail Polish

There’s nothing like a pair of well-manicured hands. Therefore women even men pamper themselves with nail polish to signify class, glamor and maybe a little bit of wealth. Unfortunately, nail polish causes more than admiring glances because of the ingredients in it. Different brands of fingernail polish can include different ingredients. Regular commercial polish is full of dangerous chemicals that pose serious health threats to humans.

Toluene
Toluene is a chemical used in nail polish. It is a clear and colorless liquid used to make dyes and paints. Toluene is also used for paint thinners and explosives. This dangerous chemical has been known to affect the function of the central nervous system, according to greenlivingtips.com. Exposure to toluene can cause headaches, fatigue and dizziness. This chemical in nail polish has also been linked to kidney and liver failure.

Ethyl Acetate
Ethyl acetate evaporates from the nail, which causes the polish to dry and harden. This means that you’re breathing in the fumes from the chemical as your manicure sets. This solvent can pass through the skin, and prolonged exposure to the fumes can lead to lung, heart, kidney, and liver damage.

Formaldehyde
One of the ingredients in nail polish is formaldehyde. This chemical is used for its preservative qualities. However, formaldehyde can cause dangerous health effects. Exposure to the chemical can cause wheezing, coughing and irritation to the throat, according to greenlivingtips.com. Formaldehyde is also harmful when it comes into direct contact with skin. Skin irritation and rashes occur from exposure to this chemical.

Phthalic Anhydride


Phthalic anhydride
(CAS number: 85-44-9) is the organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO)2O. It is the anhydride of phthalic acid. This colourless solid is an important industrial chemical While used in nail polish, the chemical becomes a major health concern because it may be toxic to human immune and respiratory systems, and can cause cancer, organ damage, and membrane irritation.

Dibutyl Phthalate
Phthalates are easily absorbed chemicals that keep nail polish chip-free. The European Union has banned them, but they’re legal in the United States. They’re linked to early puberty in girls, low sperm count in men, sexual deformities and problems with fetal development.

Budesonide Treatment Of Crohn’s Disease

Budesonide(or S-budesonide) is a prescription medication used to treat manage Crohn’s disease, an inflammatory condition of the digestive tract that causes severe abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. It is classified as a glucocorticoid, a class of steroids that reduce the immune system’s natural inflammatory responses. It is also used as a maintenance therapy for asthma. By following doctors’ instructions and attending regular checkups, most people respond well to the medication and experience significant symptom relief after just a few doses.

Function
Glucocorticoids such as budesonide are synthetic hormones that seek out and bind to receptor sites on body cells. The immune system responds to their presence by stopping the release of inflammation-inducing chemicals. Without triggers from the immune system, inflamed muscle tissue and mucous membranes gradually begin to relax, expand, and heal. Normal functioning is restored once pain and swelling are fully relieved.

For Crohn’s Disease
At the beginning of therapy with budesonide for Crohn’s Disease, the recommended dose is 9 mg each day. The capsules are available as 3 mg each. Take 3 capsules daily, usually in the morning. Treatment at this dose will continue for up to 8 weeks at which time your doctor will discuss your symptoms with you. If they are still troublesome, another 8 weeks of treatment is suggested. Once the symptoms are under control, a maintenance dose of 6 mg daily may be ordered and the goal is to keep your digestive tract calm. If there is a flare-up, the initial sequence may be repeated.

For Asthma
Budesonide treatment for management of asthma is by inhalation using an inhaler which contains powdered medication or with liquid turned into a mist using a nebulizer. It is important to use this medication at regular intervals. If the medicine is ordered twice daily, take it as close to 12 hours apart as possible. For example, at 8 in the morning and 8 at night. If ordered once daily, take it at the same time each day. Following nebulizer treatment, wash your face to prevent skin irritation. Store unopened vials of s-budesonide in the foil package it comes in and discard any opened vials.

Considerations
The most common s-budesonide(CAS number:51333-22-3) side effects are headache, dizziness, nausea, and fatigue. Some people have indigestion, stomach cramps, and gas after taking a dose. Nasal sprays and inhaled solutions may cause runny noses, sneezing, and coughing. Rarely, the drug can induce a serious allergic reaction that may cause skin hives, airway constriction, chest pains, and breathing difficulties. All side effects should be reported to the prescribing doctor, and severe reactions should be assessed and treated at the emergency room to prevent potentially serious complications.

Information On L-Cysteine Hydrochloride

It can be difficult to determine if some types of additives are derived from animals or not. This is because it all depends on how the additive has been manufactured in the first place. However, the use of E Numbers on ingredients lists has become unfashionable, particularly in the UK. This is because the representation of E Numbers tend to be associated with the negative health affects on the consumer. L-Cysteine hydrochloride is showed on the lists, here, let’s talk about this chemical.

Properties
L-Cysteine hydrochloride(C3H8ClNO2S) is a nonessential amino acid in human development. It is freely soluble in water, alcohol, acetic acid, and ammonia water, but is insoluble in ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, benzene, carbon disulfide, and carbon tetrachloride. In neutral or slightly alkaline aqueous solutions, it is oxidized to cystine by air. It is more stable in acidic solutions. American Regent had temporarily suspended manufacture of most drug products including L-cysteine hydrochloride injection in April, 2011.

Manufacture
Calculate the quantity of each ingredient for the amount to be prepared. Accurately weigh or measure each ingredient. Mix the cysteine in about 40 mL of Sterile Water for Injection. Add sufficient hydrochloric acid 2N solution to a pH of 1 to 2.5 to form a clear solution. Add sufficient Sterile Water for Injection to final volume; mix well. Filter into sterile containers. Package and label. This formulation should be prepared according to strict aseptic compounding technique in a laminar airflow hood in a cleanroom or via isolation barrier technology by a compounding pharmacist who is validated in aseptic compounding. This is a high-risk preparation.

Hydrochloric acid (HCl) occurs as a clear, colorless, fuming aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride that has a pungent odor. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is 36.5% to 38.0% w/w concentration. It has a specific gravity of 1.18 g/cm3, is miscible with water, and is soluble in ethanol. The pH of a 10% v/v aqueous solution is 0.1. Hydrochloric acid should be stored in well-closed glass or other inert containers.

Function
L-Cysteine hydrochloride anhydrous(CAS number is 52-89-1) solution is intended for use only after dilution as an additive to crystalline amino acid injections to meet the nutritional amino acid requirements of infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN).

Premature or sick infants may receive TPN before starting other feedings or when they cannot absorb nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract for a significant period of time. TPN confers a level of nutrition that is superior to standard IV feedings, which provide simply sugars and salts. L-Cysteine hydrochloride 50 mg/mL injection is used for TPN in infants.

Breathalyzer Used For Testing Alcohol

Invented as breath-analyzing products by Smith and Wesson in the late 1950s, but now, breathalyzers are instruments that are utilized in a number of professions to determine the amount of blood alcohol content by analyzing a breath sample obtained from an individual. Literally dozens of breathalyzer models exist, most hand-held. Because of their frequent use as evidence in criminal courts, their design and performance is subject to highly prescribed regulations.

Alcohol is not digested in the body; it is simply absorbed into the tissues of the mouth, throat, stomach and intestines and eventually excreted. In part, alcohol leaves the body via the breath; because the percent of the total blood alcohol that exists this way is predictable, the alcohol content of the breath can be used to calculate the total blood alcohol content, or BAC.

While the principles behind breathalyzers are sound, they can only more or less estimate BAC since they do not measure it directly. An artificially high or low reading can result due to several different factors, all of which are frequently exploited by defense lawyers. For starters, body temperature and blood composition can alter the partition ratio — individuals with reduced blood content will show an artificially high BAC reading.

The breathalyzer works on the principle of estimating the blood alcohol content of an individual based on a sample of breath that is obtained from the suspect. When a police officer pulls over a driver on the suspicion that the individual may be intoxicated, it is not uncommon for the officer to ask the driver to take what is known as a field sobriety test. Essentially, this involves using a hand held breathalyzer.

The hand-held breathalyzer uses electrochemical fuel cell technology to identify the elements found in the sample, of course, searching specifically for alcohol. Some devices use an infrared spectrophotometer to scan the sample, identify alcohol and calculate its percentage content. The BAC is then figured based on a partition ratio, the ratio of breath alcohol to blood alcohol, of anywhere between 1700 and 2400. The output of the breathalyzer is a blood alcohol reading expressed as a percentage of the blood that is alcohol.

Potassium dichromate(K2Cr2O7, also called as potassium bichromate) is the active ingredient in a breathalyzer. Alcohol exhaled into the breathalyzer initiates a chemical reaction that indicates the amount of alcohol in the breath, therefore in the blood. Alcohol in the breath turns the red-orange potassium dichromate in the breathalyzer yellow, blue or green, depending on the amount of alcohol. The potassium dichromate breathalyzer test is as accurate as blood and urine tests in determining blood alcohol content

Most breathalyzers also cannot differentiate between ethyl alcohol and chemically similarly compounds such as ketones, acetone and gasoline, so the presence of these substances in the testing environment or in the subject’s metabolic system will also produce a falsely high reading.

Greenhouse Advantages

Greenhouses are structures that collect solar energy, usually to provide a climate-controlled environment in which plants can be grown. It allows growers several advantages over those who grow their plants outdoors in the natural environment and weather. Greenhouses have some advantages over traditional outdoor growing that make them popular for those who place a great deal of importance on the success and quality of their plants.

Multiple Crops
Plants are seasonal in most cases. Those that produce fruits, vegetables or flowers typically do so only during certain times of the year.The timing varies depending on the climate where the plants grow. In warmer weather climates, for example, flowers can continue to bloom for several months longer than they would in a place with short summers.

Heat and Ventilation
Because different materials absorb and release heat energy at different rates, the materials placed inside a greenhouse will determine how quickly the heat that enters through the glazing will remain inside the greenhouse. Concrete, rocks and water all retain heat for long periods of time and can be used to keep a greenhouse warm overnight.

High Quality Produce
Control over the conditions inside a greenhouse allows the grower to set up an environment that is ideal for the particular species being grown. With ideal weather, produce tends to grow healthier and larger than it would in unpredictable conditions. At the very least, the results are fairly predictable. Growers who know what conditions make for the very best produce can set up their greenhouses to allow for the highest quality plants possible.

Air And Sunshine
In some cases, additional technologies may be needed to keep the desired conditions inside a greenhouse. Horticulture lamps can be employed when there is not enough sunlight. When heat retention is the issue, materials that store heat through a phase change can be used. Chemical compounds such as sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate(Na2S2O3?5H2O, CAS No. 10102-17-7) and calcium chloride hexahydrate can be placed inside the greenhouse where they will melt during the day, absorbing heat from the sun. At night, these materials will turn back into solids and release their stored heat into the air inside the greenhouse.

Glazing
The materials available for greenhouse construction have continued to evolve over time. New materials and manufacturing methods allow for several types of glazing to be used, both for letting sunlight enter the greenhouse and to retain the appropriate amount of heat inside. Because plants grow more evenly under diffused sunlight, glazing that breaks up the spectrum of sunlight while allowing the full range of radiation to pass through is ideal. This includes glass with a rough surface, fiberglass panels and double-layered plastic glazing (polyethylene).

Gram Negative Bacteria Information

Gram-negative bacteria are one kind of bacteria which do not turn purple in the Gram staining process used as a basic step in the identification of bacteria. Gram positive and negative bacteria are two broad divisions of all bacteria, with the major difference between the two lying in the structure of their cell membranes. While both types can cause infectious diseases, this kind of bacteria are a major concern to public health because their cell structure makes them resistant to antibiotics.

Discovery
The Gram stain was developed in 1884 by Hans Christian Gram. In this process, bacteria is fixed on a slide and then bathed in crystal violet, the primary staining solution. All of the cells on the slide turn purple, after which a mordant such as iodine is added to fix the color. Then, a decolorizer is added to the slide. If the bacteria is Gram-negative, the decolorizer will wash the crystal violet away, because the permeable cell wall does not allow the crystal violet to stain the bacteria. Then, a secondary stain is added, turning Gram-negative bacteria a pale pink, but having no effect on the already purple Gram-positive bacteria.

Features
These bacteria have thin cell walls with an outer layer composed of proteins and lypopolysaccharide. The main danger of Gram-negative bacteria is that its infections do not respond to standard antibiotic treatment. For instance, the bacteria resist the effects of penicillin and cephalosporin because these antibiotics work by disrupting cell walls, which they lack. The outer membrane resists the effects of many types of antibiotics because it is impermeable to the antibiotic. This means that infections caused by the bacteria are very difficult to treat.

Gram staining can provide insight into the composition of a bacterium’s cell wall, so it is a routine step in examining new bacteria in the laboratory. Once bacteria has been subjected to a Gram stain, additional research will be needed to identify the bacteria, the source, and how infections caused by the bacteria might be treated, but the Gram stain provides a good first step.

Ways Of Infections
These bacteria survive for a long time on surfaces and are often contracted through catheters, ventilators or wounds. Once inside the body, Gram-negative bacteria typically invade the bloodstream, causing infection. They are often involved in urinary infections and ventilator-assisted pneumonia. Patients with weakened immune systems are particularly susceptible, although patients with stronger immune systems can and do acquire these types of infections.

Treatment
The treatment is difficult or impossible due to these bacteria are so resistant to antibiotics. Amikacin sulfate salt(also called as Sterile or Cashimy, CAS number is 39831-55-5) is used to treat infections caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms, especially gram-negative bacteria. There are other two antibiotics that were developed in the 1940s, colistin and polymyxin B, which both are capable of treating infection from them. Treatment with these drugs can lead to nerve and kidney damage and kidney failure. Some strains of Gram-negative bacteria are also resistant to these antibiotics.

The stain also has the added benefit of highlighting the key structures of bacteria, including the inner structures of the cell, making them easier to see and understand. Gram staining doesn’t work on all bacteria, however; Gram-indeterminate and Gram-variable bacteria cannot be identified this way.

A Treatment Of Systemic Herpes

Acycloguanosine is an anti-herpes drug that is frequently prescribed to combat various strains of the herpes virus, most notably herpes simplex virus type 1. Since the raw crystalline powder has the lengthy chemical name of 2-amino-1,9-dihydro-9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6H-purin-6-one, it is most commonly referred to in clinical settings as acycloguanosine. However, it is marketed as a pharmaceutical under the trade names Cyclovir,Acyclovir, Acivir, Zovirax, and Herpex, with the medication being recognized as the standard International Non-proprietary Name for this drug.

Forms and Dosage
The drug comes in tablet, capsule, or liquid form, which may contain 200, 400, or 800mg of active ingredient. It is formulated into topical creams for the treatment of herpes simplex outbreaks affecting the mouth or genitals. In addition, the drug is available as an ophthalmic ointment or drops on a three percent concentration to treat keratitis of the cornea. It may also be given by injection in 25mg/mL concentration to immunosupressed patients that are infected with varicella-zoster, the virus that causes chicken pox in children and shingles in adults.

Function
As being highly selective toward thymidine kinase, an enzyme “programmed” by herpes simplex and varicella-zoster, this drug has the ability to inhibit viral replication. This promotes a chain of enzymatic reactions and phosphorylation to bring about the conversion of Acyclovir to acyclovir monophosphate and ultimately to acyclovir triphosphate. The antiviral actvity triggered by these events can be observed both in vitro and in vivo, which means outside as well as inside the body, respectively. In addition, acycloguanosine is a prodrug, meaning that it becomes active when introduced into the body in an inactive form and subsequently metabolized. This is fortunate since the drug is otherwise poorly absorbed.

For Herpes
Herpes is a very common viral infection, and a majority of humans in most populations will have been exposed to at least one strain of this virus by the time they reach late middle-age. A herpes infection typically produces painful lesions that ooze for a short period and then scab over and begin to heal. The infection remains dormant in the body after this and may break out to produce lesions again at a later date.

No drug can cure herpes, or any other viral infection, but antiviral medications such as acycloguanosine(CAS No. 59277-89-3) can help the body to gain the upper hand in the struggle against a viral infection. The use of acyclovir for herpes treatment is part of standard medical practice in most regions because this drug is typically highly effective. This drug is most effective when administered intravenously but is still generally potent when given orally. Almost all strains of the herpes simplex virus respond well to treatment with this medicine, although limited resistance does occasionally emerge.

Significance Of Manganese In Industry And Body

The chemical element of manganese is designated with a chemical symbol of Mn and has an atomic number of 25. Here are some basic facts about this chemical, its uses and examples of how the element is a vital component in everything from steel production to the health of the human body.

For Health
In human body, the use of manganese as an essential trace mineral that is considered to be both a brain and a nerve food. The mineral is considered to be essential for the formation of healthy red blood cells, proper pituitary gland function, and the maintenance of good eyesight. Many herbal supplements that are meant to combat mental and physical fatigue, digestion problems, and nervous conditions will contain herbs such as ginger and catnip, both known to contain significant amounts of the mineral. It is safe to say that Mn is an essential part of our lives in more ways than one.

One of the more noticeable manganese deficiency symptoms has to do with the proper healing of wounds such as cuts and scratches. Since the mineral aids in the creation of collagen, the deficiency will make it more difficult for the natural healing process to take place. Women may experience problems with the menstrual cycle as a result of a deficien0cy. The cycle may become erratic in both timing and the severity of the cycle itself.

Uses
The most significant of all the industrial uses of manganese is steel production which uses more than 85% of all this mined. It can be used in several different alloying processes to improve the durability of steel. The ore is particularly useful in increasing steel’s resistance to oxidation, so the mineral is often used to make stainless steel. The addition of it to steel can also improve the overall strength and workability of the material. Hadfield Steel is one example of a mixture of steel and Mn, and is known for both these properties.

A number of other uses are common today. Fore example, the inclusion of manganese(CAS:7439-96-5) in gasoline additives has been shown to boost octane ratings and helps to minimize engine knocking. In glass making, it helps to remove the green tinge that is something left by the presence of iron particles. Its phosphates help to deal with rust and corrosion on steel surfaces. Its oxide has a brown appearance that can be used in paints.

The element is also used sparingly in the manufacture of coins in various countries. Current, the European Union uses manganese to produce one- and two- Euro coins, while in the United States, the one dollar coin contains high levels of Mn.

The Effects Of Paper Manufacturing On Human

Around 1440 the first printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg, an invention that would change the world. Mechanized, mass production printing would become increasingly sophisticated and efficient. But now, it is hard to imagine something as commonplace and necessary as paper as representing a devastating environmental and health hazard.

Global Warming
Carbon dioxide is a byproduct of paper production. Carbon dioxide is also a greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming. According to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), global warming is “very likely” caused largely by humans. They report a 90 percent likelihood. If this is true, there is no doubt that the mass production of paper is a contributor.

Methanol
Dioxin persists in the environment and can build up in bodily tissues, leading to cancer and liver dysfunction. Methanol may be released in the log-pulping process, and the substance is highly toxic to humans. High enough doses result in central nervous system damage and blindness, and long-term exposure causes liver damage. Evaporated methanol reacts in the air to form formaldehyde, a probable carcinogen, which also causes headaches and irritation of the eyes and throat.

Acid Rain
The manufacturing of paper produces nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide are primary agents in acid rain. Acid rain has been responsible for increasing the acidic levels of lakes and subsequently rivers. These rising acidic levels have negatively impacted the fish and associated wildlife populations due to toxic levels of acidity.

Sulfur Compounds
Volatile sulfur-based compounds are used at multiple stages in the paper manufacturing process, and while most of the sulfur is generally recovered, some is released as sulfur dioxide, a compound that contributes to acid rain. Other volatile sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfide and methyl disulfide(C2H6S2, better known as dimethyl disulphide), pollute the air and give paper plants their characteristic “rotten egg” smell, making nearby areas unpleasant to live and work in.

Improvement
Paper bleached with hydrogen peroxide results in chlorine-free paper and a reduction of dioxins, thereby reducing the incidence of cancer and liver problems in surrounding areas. Recycling reduces the demand for virgin wood and thus reduces the need for toxic chemicals associated with pulping. New technologies are allowing for safer methods of pulping and for the production of nontoxic vegetable inks, reducing the risk of sickness from exposure to chemical toxins.

Ingredients Used In Common Fragrance

Fragrance can range from a simple concoction to a complicated mix of chemicals and additives, from natural substances to organic substances, as well as synthetic chemicals used to give a scent to products, such as shampoo, soap, cosmetics, and perfume. The best part of learning about perfume is that you can make your own easily and without spending a lot of money.

History
Fragrance has been used for thousands of years since it was first discovered. The ancient Egyptians buried pots of it with their mummies. The ancient Greeks also used perfume. In Marie Antoinette’s time, 18th century men and women would wear it to cover their body odor, since they did not bathe as often as we do in today’s society. Victorians had simple versions of perfume as well. Throughout the years, its basic function has stayed the same—to make you smell good.

Types
Almost all charming men like natural scents like water or pine and can share a woman’s taste for musky scents as well. On the contrary, women’s perfume often smells flowery, like roses or honeysuckle. Some women may prefer powdery scents, such as the light scent of baby powder. Still other women may like musky scents, such as amber or myrrh.

Ingredients
A major ingredient of most perfumes in alcoho. Natural ingredients used in fragrance include essential oils extracted from plants and flowers, and animal products such as musk from male deer, ambergris from sperm whales and castor from beavers. In addition to the oils and animal products, perfume may have a number of synthetic compounds. These allow commercial fragrances to be cheaply mass-produced, but they are also often the source of allergies and skin irritations.

Ethyl acetate and 1′-Acetonaphthone(C12H10O, CAS No. 941-98-0), which are commonly found in colognes, shaving products, and nail-care products, may cause skin and eye irritation, as well as dizziness in certain individuals. Limonene, which is a common ingredient found in perfumes and soaps, is thought to be carcinogenic with prolonged use or skin contact.

DTY
You can simply pick a favorite bunch of flowers, crush them to release their natural oils, then mix them with a bottle of plain lotion. The lotion then must sit for a week or so until the oils have been absorbed. The wearer can then remove the flowers from the lotion, or leave them in for effect. This can be done with any flower or plant.