Different Types Of Alcohol Chemicals

Alcohol products are all around you, from cleaning supplies to face cleaner to the fuel in your car or the wine you drink with dinner. In chemistry, there are three major types of alcohol. These include isopropyl alcohol, methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol. Each of these types of alcohol has separate properties, so it is important to distinguish which type of alcohol you have for reasons of safety.

Methyl Alcohol
Methyl alcohol, also called methanol and wood alcohol, is used primarily as an industrial solvent. It is also used to make formaldehyde for plastics, paint and plywood. Methyl alcohol is used in windshield wiper fluid. For example, it is a component in paint remover and photocopier developer. People also use methyl alcohol to make other chemicals. This is because a by-product of degrading methanol is formaldehyde, which may be used to make everything from plastics to explosives. It also works to fuel internal combustion engines and keep fuel from freezing. The chemical formula for methyl alcohol is CH3OH.

Ethyl Alcohol
Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is the type in wine, beer, liquor, mouthwash or cold medicine. People usually take ethyl alcohol in a diluted concentration–the level of the concentration is known as the proof of the alcoholic beverage. Ethanol is also used in gasoline, It can be made from corn, sugar cane and potatoes, much like drinking alcohol is distilled from food crops such as wheat, potatoes and corn.

Isopropyl Alcohol
Isopropyl alcohol also is called isopropanol or 2-propanol. More commonly, it is known as rubbing alcohol due to the practice of physicians rubbing the substance on the body for cooling and disinfecting. Produced by combining water and propylene, rubbing alcohol works well for sterilization. Its high evaporation rate makes it a first choice for cleaning electronics, although it is found in everyday cleaning products, as well. Isopropyl alcohol also is found in cosmetics, including lotions. The chemical formula for this type of alcohol is C3H8O.

Butyl Alcohol
Adhesives and varnishes are traditionally made from butyl alcohol. Floor polishes and other cleaners sometimes contain it. Butyl alcohol(C4H10O), also known as 1-butanol or Butanol, also may be present in eye makeup, foundation and lipstick. It is also a component of gasoline and brake fluid, according to the Dow Chemical Co. website.

Ethylene Glycol
Ethylene glycol is primarily used in the manufacture of automotive antifreeze. It is extremely toxic if ingested.

Terazosin Treatments

Terazosin, an alpha-adrenergic blocker, is a generic medication commonly marketed under the brand name Hytrin. It can help lower high blood pressure, as well as alleviate symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is an enlarged prostate.It also encourages the prostate and bladder muscles to relax in order to reduce symptoms like difficult or painful urination and urgent or frequent urination.

A study completed in 2008 indicates terazosin controls excessive sweating caused by antidepressant use. In this study, conducted by physician Rajnish Mago of Thomas Jefferson University, this medicine decreased the severity and the amount of time patients were affected by hyperhydrosis.

Terazosin causes the veins and arteries to relax and widen, thus improving blood flow. This makes the meidication an effective treatment for high blood pressure. It also is an effective treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or enlarged prostate. It relaxes muscles of the prostate and bladder neck.

Men with BPH may experience contrasting symptoms, including urinary hesitancy and urinary urgency. Their symptoms can include dribbling when trying to urinate, weak stream, incomplete bladder emptying and painful urination. Terazosin provides relief for these symptoms.

Terazosin is not a cure for high blood pressure or an enlarged prostate. Patients with hypertension should also follow a diet and exercise plan to treat their condition. Those taking it for BPH may not notice the full effect of the drug until they have followed their treatment plan for four to six weeks. It should not be abruptly discontinued. Doing so will necessitate a gradual dose increase if the patient takes the medicine again.

An initial dose of terazosin should not exceed 1 milligram (mg) to allow the body to adjust to the drug. The doctor may gradually increase the dosage. Patients are encouraged to take a dose at bedtime to reduce the risk of falling due to fainting or dizziness. Usually, it will only be taken once daily. Those who experience stomach upset should take the dose with milk or a snack. 4-Amino-2-chloro-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (C10H10ClN3O2,CAS No. 23680-84-4) is an ntermediate of  in the production of this drug.

Before using terazosin, patients should disclose their other medical conditions, medications, and supplements to avoid a potential interaction. Women who take this drug for high blood pressure should discuss the potential risks of using it while pregnant. As of 2011, it is unknown whether it passes into breast milk. Those who have liver disease, prostate cancer, or low blood pressure may be unable to use terazosin. This alpha blocker may interact with other high blood pressure medications and other medications for an enlarged prostate.

How To Get Rid Of Mites?

Mites are vermin that feed off the blood of certain animals and can get into homes and cause allergic reactions for many people. They are not known to be biting mites, but they can attack by stripping off layers of skin, creating painful sores and blisters. You can get rid of then through stringent sanitization and cleaning, repairing fissures and holes in floors or walls, and employing the use of chemicals. Fortunately, there are several actions that can be taken to help you accomplish mite elimination.

Since they are too small to be seen with the naked eye, you will likely sense their presence by either feeling them on your skin or having some sort of allergic reaction. The first step to eradicating these household mites is to strip all bedding from your mattress and wash it thoroughly in disinfectant soap and hot water. This should be done biweekly as a preventative measure even if you do not have a bed mite infestation.

The cleaning process, however, is just beginning. Either remove carpeting, or sprinkle carpets with Borax and leave it on overnight. Borax will help to kill mites by dehydrating them. Do just one room at a time so you can close it off to pets and children. After the borax has been left on the carpet over night, vacuum it up and throw out the bag as soon as you are finished. Vacuum curtains, furniture and pet products.

Another important step in wiping out bed mites is a meticulous repairing of any fissures, cracks, or other small openings in walls, flooring, and even furniture. The insects love dark, moist places, and these spots are a preferred nesting place, second only to mattresses and pillows. By going over holes with filler or sealant, you can keep more mites out and focus on destroying the ones that have already infested the area.

In the bedroom, use non-organic bed linens or linens with a high thread count so mites are not attracted to them. Protect your mattress by using a latex rubber mattress cover and wash all bed linens regularly in hot water.

There are other chemical products on the market which are not considered pesticides and contain benzyl benzoate(also known as Ascabin or Ascabiol, CAS No. 120-51-4) and tannic acid. These two ingredients have shown great success in getting rid of bed mites and their associated allergens. Chemical-free pest control options are also widely available.

While there are many chemicals that you can use to de-mite your house, there are also natural products that help get rid of mites as well. If you choose to go the natural route, stalk up on empty containers and spray bottles and then fill them with products such as tea tree oil, fennel, eucalyptus, mint oil, lemon juice, cedar oil and marigold.

Detergents That Are Eco-Friendly

As interest in green living grows, an increasing array of environmentally-friendly detergents are becoming available. Of the many types, some are more effective than others at cleaning. Many different types of green products are available for the laundry, for hand and machine washing dishes, and for general-purpose cleaning. These products may contain primarily plant-based ingredients, have packaging made from recycled materials or have eliminated some of the potentially harmful chemicals in conventional products.

Environmentally aware consumers and corporations have begun seeking greener alternatives to petroleum-based conventional detergents. In some environmentally-friendly detergent, plant-based ingredients have replaced petroleum-based in some cleaning products. These replacements are more expensive than petroleum but present fewer environmental issues. Both eco-friendly liquid and powered laundry products as well as dish types and all-purpose green cleaners use oils from coconut, palm, corn and other plants instead of petroleum.

Many conventional detergent manufacturers make laundry products free of fragrances and dyes, or have replaced chlorine bleach. As consumer interest and demand for green products has grown, companies have begun to do more than just eliminating problematic ingredients. Eliminating harmful ingredients represents one aspect of the eco-friendly spectrum of products. For example, laundry detergent manufacturers have reduced or replaced phosphates as a water-softening chemical due to their effect on algal growth and oxygen depletion in waterways. Companies offer a spectrum of environmentally-friendly detergents and household cleaning products.

For example, simple green is a common eco-friendly product line available at most supermarket chain stores. The line uses non-toxic, biodegradable and environmentally-friendly ingredients that clean your household surface thoroughly without use of toxic chemically-based cleaning ingredients. The line includes basic all-purpose surface cleaners, toilet and bathtub cleaners, kitchen de-greasing cleaners and products designed to remove pets stains and odors. EDTA disodium salt dihydrate(CAS No. 6381-92-6) is used in the production of various detergents.

In addition to the many types of environmentally-friendly detergents, products that differ completely from conventional detergents are being developed. Anti-bacterial products containing nanoparticles of silver are being researched and developed. Soap nuts, the dried fruits of a tree native to India and Nepal, are a source of natural surfactants called saponins. The hard fruits can be placed in a cotton bag in the washing machine and reused several times. They can also be boiled to create a liquid used in place of all-purpose cleaners.

Risperdal Used For Psychotic Disorders

Risperdal ( known generically as risperidone) is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia, manic depression, and certain forms of autism.  Like other generics, these drugs are designed to be pharmaceutically identical to the trademarked drug, but they are much less expensive, making them an appealing option to insurance companies and patients who have limited funds available.

Forms
The drug is available in the form of tablets and a liquid, with dosages which can be adjusted to meet the specific needs of the patient. Like many other antipsychotics, the drug often needs to be adjusted so that it will be effective for a specific patient, and it can have dangerous interactions with other medications and with alcohol.

Funciotn
It can be used for adult and adolescent schizophrenia, and it is also useful in the short term management of manic episodes, although it is not designed for long term use in people with manic depression. This drug is an atypical or second generation antipsychotic, acting to alter the brain chemistry of the patient to alleviate symptoms. Risperdal has also been shown to be useful for people with autism who experience irritability and aggression.

Effects
Individuals with dementia cannot use Risperdal, as the drug is associated with dangerous side effects including death for these patients. The safety of the drug in pregnant and breastfeeding women is now known, and the drug is not recommended for people with a history of seizures, suicidal thoughts, liver disease, diabetes, kidney disease, or heart disease. When the drug is prescribed, patients should be careful to list all of the medications and drugs they use so that the doctor can ensure that the drug will not cross-react with another medication.

Drowsiness and increased need for sleep are common side effects of Risperdal. If these side effects become bothersome, discuss what options are available to you with your physician. Risk of developing diabetes increases when taking  Risperidal(CAS No. 106266-06-2). Being overweight and having a family history of diabetes increase this risk. Close monitoring of diabetes is necessary for diabetics taking this medication.

There is a warning that now applies to Risperdal side effects in certain populations. In people who are elderly and who have dementia, this medication is strongly discouraged. It greatly elevates risk for sudden death and it should not in most cases be used.

Toluene Information

Toluene, or methylbenzene, is a clear liquid that is insoluble in water and smells like paint thinner. It is miscible with most organic solvents and is commonly used as an organic solvent itself.  Despite the chemical’s known hazards, enough evidence does not exist to list it definitively as a carcinogen.

Feature
Toluene consists of a six-membered ring of carbon atoms, with hydrogen atoms attached to five of the carbons and a methyl (CH3) group attached to the sixth. It is classified as an aromatic compound because of its structure. Instead of adjacent carbon atoms being connected by distinct single or double bonds, the ring of carbon atoms is held together by single bonds plus a ring of electrons (a continuous pi bond), which are not localized as in normal carbon-containing molecules.

Source and Production
Toluene is a naturally-occurring component of crude oil. It is produced in petroleum refining and is also produced as a byproduct in production of coke for the steel industry. In a chemistry lab product can be made from the reaction of benzene and methyl chloride in the presence of aluminum chloride or by the reaction of bromobenzene with methyl bromide and sodium in a dry ether solvent, among other reactions.

Uses
Toluene is primarily used as an octane-boosting additive to gasoline. It is also used as a solvent in paints, household aerosols, adhesives, solvent-based cleaning agents, and synthetic fragrances. Toluene is also used to make benzene and other organic chemicals and in the production of polymers such as nylon and polyethylene terephthalate (used to make soda bottles). In addition, methylbenzene is used in leather tanning and printing operations.

Safety
Toluene
(CAS No. 108-88-3) has been abused as an inhalant, and when used this way it can cause permanent changes to the human brain through repeated exposure in high concentrations. In daily living, people can be exposed to its vapors from car exhaust, contaminated air in a workplace or from breathing the vapors while painting machinery or polishing the fingernails with certain nail lacquers. Exposure also can occur when living near a site that has been contaminated, such as a waste or dump site, or when working daily with products that have been made with the chemical, such as heating oil, kerosene and gasoline.

Exposure threatens children as well as adults. Children can experience symptoms similar to those adults face when exposed to the chemical. Pregnant women also are greatly affected because exposure to high levels can lead to physical birth defects and also affect a baby’s mental capabilities.

High Protein Diet to Maintain Muscle Growth

A high-protein diet can lead to healthy skin and improved muscle mass. Protein contains amino acids that help with the production of collagen to create thicker, healthier skin. If you want to use a high-protein diet to build muscles, you will find that a lot of food has protein in it. However, there are a few foods that are better sources of protein that others.

Daily Requirements
The amount of protein that you need to eat depends upon your weight and body fat percentage. Convert your body weight from pounds into kilograms by dividing the pounds by 2.2. For example, 150 lbs. is 68.18kg. Once you have your body fat percentage, you will need to multiply it by your weight (in kilograms). Take the number you get from that calculation and subtract it from your body weight to get your lean mass weight.

Now that you have the lean mass body weight, you can figure out how much protein you need to eat each day. Get this amount by multiplying your lean mass body weight by 2.75. For example, 57.95kg multiplied by 2.75 equals 159.36g for the 150-lb. person with 15 percent body fat.

Calories in the Protein Diet
A protein-enriched diet includes 30 percent to 50 percent of the calories from protein, with a low amount of carbohydrates. This is a dramatic increase from the 10 percent to 15 percent of protein found in the typical diet. This increase in protein should benefit your skin with the addition of the L-Lysine and L-Proline(C5H9NO2, CAS No. 147-85-3) found in protein, two amino acids to increase collagen production, and help protect cells from bacterial and viral infections.

Types of Food in a Protein Diet
Consider the protein rich foods that make up a high-protein diet, such as nuts, eggs, fish and meat. These foods are rich in protein, but also may contain high levels of saturated fat. Choose fish for its high level of protein and low saturated fats. You may enjoy meat for its protein, yet some meats are high in fat. Seek the leaner cuts of meat. Lentil beans are rich in protein, while containing a low level of fat.

Dairy foods such as eggs, cheese, yogurt and milk all have a decent protein content that can help build muscles. Like beef, dairy products can be full of saturated fat. Only low-fat dairy products should be used for this reason.

Industrial Uses for Sulphuric Acid

Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is an extremely corrosive liquid that is viscous, colorless and odorless. Since its discovery, it has been employed in a wide variety of uses around the globe. It is a key component in batteries, wastewater treatment, ore production, and fertilizer creation. Sixty-five percent of all fertilizers available on the market today are created from a combination of it and other chemicals.

History
Sulfuric acid was discovered in the 8th century by an alchemist named Jabir Ibn Hayyan. When sulfur compounds are burned, sulfur dioxide gas is left behind. When sulfur dioxide gas is heated to 450 degrees, the combination turns into sulfur trioxide. Jabir Ibn Hayyan mixed sulfur trioxide with water to create sulfuric acid. A century later, Ibn Zakariya al-Razi, a Persian physician and alchemist, continued studying the acid and discovered it had the ability to destroy iron and copper oxide.

Feature
Due to the acid’s unstable properties, it is essential for those combining sulfuric acid with water to add it to the water and not the other way around. If water is poured into sulfuric acid, a volatile explosion of boiling water can be created. Though the acid is non-flammable, it can create hydrogen gas, which is highly volatile.

Uses
Fertilizers
According to Florida State College at Jacksonville, about 65 percent of the world’s sulfuric acid is used to manufacture agricultural fertilizers. To produce ammonium sulfate fertilizers and phosphate fertilizers, the chemical reacts with ammonia to create a form of ammonium nitrate used in the fertilizers. Sulfuric acid(CAS No. 7664-93-9) also converts insoluble calcium phosphate into soluble mixtures of compounds, such as Ca(H2PO4)2 and 2CaSO4.2H2O, which can be crushed and used as “superphosphate” fertilizers.

Batteries
Lead-acid storage batteries for cars and other vehicles are some of the few consumer products that contain sulfuric acid. Often called “battery acid” or “electrolyte,” a generic term used to describe non-metallic substances that conduct electricity when dissolved in water, sulfuric acid is quite dangerous, and should only be handled by trained, authorized professionals. These batteries can weigh upward of 60 lbs., and carrier lifts are often used to move batteries that contain sulfuric acid in auto shops.

Calcium Stearate: Advantages & Disadvantages

Calcium stearate( C36H70CaO4) is a non-toxic, white powdery substance. It is a calcium salt derived from calcium oxide and stearic acid that is commonly found in cosmetics, plastics and food products. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has generally recognized it as safe when used as a food additive.

Calcium stearate was first used in 1924 to improve the texture of bread dough and reduce dust levels in flour. Its unique properties made it useful in many other non-food industries. The substance reduces friction when added to substances, increasing flow rate and preventing caking. It may also be used in gels or to add bulk to cosmetic powders. In addition to its insolubility in water, it is also insoluble in acetone, ether, and cold alcohol.

One of the greatest advantages of calcium stearate is that it can be used in a variety of products to accomplish a number of different goals. In cosmetics, food and other products, it is used to prevent caking, improve texture and thicken materials. This substance is also used as a flow agent, which means that it reduces friction and facilitates the flow of other substances. The pharmaceutical industry uses this substance in many different medications, and the industrial industry uses it for its ability to waterproof various materials.

When certain types of fatty acids are heated with an alkaline substance, the resulting salt is known as soap. Stearic acid is one of the most widely used components of soaps. Calcium stearate is a synthetic ingredient formed through a reaction when stearic acid and calcium oxide are heated together. It is the most important type of calcium salt. Yet due to its lack of solubility, the salt is not commonly used in soap in modern times, having been replaced by synthetic substances that are water soluble.

Calcium stearate(CAS No. 1592-23-0) is frequently found in cosmetics, especially aerosol hair styling products. The substance is also found in cosmetic powders, ointments, and packaging. Despite a very low risk for dermal irritation, topical contact may cause redness, itching, and eye irritation.

While calcium stearate is sometimes used in surfactants, there are some disadvantages of using it in soaps and other cleansers. When combined with water, this substance does not form a creamy lather. Instead, it creates a slimy substance known as soap scum. Soap scum will not only accumulate on tubs and showers, but it can also leave an unwanted film on the skin and hair. For these reasons, many manufacturers have begun using more effective surfactants in their products.

Ethanolamine Description

Ethanolamine(C2H7NO), also called 2-aminoethanol or monoethanolamine (often abbreviated as ETA or MEA), is an organic chemical compound that is both a primary amine and a primary alcohol (due to a hydroxyl group), making it useful in a variety of industrial applications. The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) classifies ethanolamine as having an Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) rating at 1,000 parts per million (ppm) concentration for skin exposure or 30 ppm for inhaled concentrations.

It is a toxic, flammable, corrosive, colorless, viscous liquid with an odor similar to that of ammonia. It is also toxic and corrosive upon exposure to human skin, despite being used in various cosmetics such as hair waving agents and soaps. At room temperature, ethanolamine takes on a thick, clear liquid form that is flammable, and has an odor like that of ammonia. Ethanolamine is the second-most-abundant head group for phospholipids, substances found in biological membranes, and is also used in messenger molecules such as palmitoylethanolamide which has an effect on CB1 receptors.

Thye chemical is generally classed as a primary amine chemical but can also be labeled as a primary alcohol, and it is most frequently used as both an agricultural fungicide and microbicide in nations such as New Zealand. The capability of ethanolamine to bind to various other compounds makes it useful as a scrubbing agent to remove highly toxic hydrogen sulphide gas, H2S in crude oil production or carbon dioxide gas, CO2, in various industries. This also makes it useful as a binding agent in dry cleaning, wool treatment, and to enhance the performance characteristics of various paints and polishes.

Aqueous solutions of Ethanolamine (solutions of MEA in water) are used as a gas stream scrubbing liquid in amine treaters. For example, aqueous MEA is used to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas. Aqueous solutions can weakly dissolve certain kinds of gases from a mixed gas stream. The MEA in such solutions, acting as a weak base, then neutralizes acidic compounds dissolved in the solution to turn the molecules into an ionic form, making them polar and considerably more soluble in a cold MEA solution, and thus keeping such acidic gases dissolved in this gas-scrubbing solution.

Since ethanolamine poses serious risks to human health through corrosive skin burns, damage to the eyes, or through inhalation damage to the respiratory tract, it must be handled with caution. Prolonged human exposure to very low concentrations of the compound have also been shown to degrade teeth and jaw bones, as well as lead to respiratory ailments such as bronchial pneumonia, as well as have detrimental effects on the internal organs of the liver and kidneys.

Household Window Cleaner Tips

According to the Sierra Club, grocery store shelves are stocked with toxic household cleaners that contain chemicals such as alkylphenol ethoxylates, which are linked to hormone disruption, as well as monoethanolamine, a suspected trigger of asthma attacks.

The toxins in window cleaner can contribute to indoor contamination and can be poisonous if ingested. Additionally, if a window cleaner is mixed with another cleaner, such as bleach, it can become very toxic. Many homeowners are interested in homemade window cleaners that do not harm valuable houseplants or cause illness.

Glass cleaners contain isopropanol. According to the Dow Chemical Company, overexposure to isopropanol can cause discomfort to the eyes, nose and throat. Overexposure can lead to respiratory problems.

When you make your own nontoxic household cleaners, you know exactly what goes into each recipe. You can clean your oven knowing that the ingredients are benign yet effective, instead of worrying about toxic ingredients. Many oven cleaners contain butyl glycol or butyl cellosolve, which can affect the nervous system, kidneys and liver, according to Dow Chemical, the manufacturer of these ingredients.

Clean windows from the top down to prevent drips. Mix 3 tablespoons of white vinegar with 0.5 teaspoon of mild Castile soap and 2 cups of water to fill a hand-held sprayer. Spray the window and clean it off with a damp squeegee or soft cloth. Tiny scratches on a window can be polished with toothpaste before washing. The slight abrasive ingredient in toothpaste smoothes rough scratched areas and doesn’t harm plants.

Butyl cellosolve(also known as 2-Ethoxyethanol or 2EE, CAS No. 110-80-5) is the ingredient in window cleaners that can be toxic to breathe, while ammonia is the ingredient that’s harmful for plants. The effect of ammonia on plants is death or a slow growth rate. Butyl cellosolve is on California’s list of toxic air pollutants because of animal studies showing it causes reproductive harm. Many homeowners are interested in homemade window cleaners that do not harm valuable houseplants or cause illness

Mix 1 teaspoon of castile soap and 1 tablespoon of fresh lemon juice in 2 cups of water for a non-toxic and effective window cleaner. Use as a spray or apply with a soft cloth such as a T-shirt rag or cloth diaper. Clean windows on a cloudy day to avoid streaking. Microfiber cloths are also an inexpensive alternative for the final polishing. Remove caked on dirt in window corners with a toothbrush, cotton swab or a pencil tip covered in cloth.

Fire Retardants Chemicals

Knowing what chemicals are in the products around you is important for your safety and health. Chemicals used to make certain products fireproof are commonly referred to as flame retardants.  During a fire, firefighters use a foam that is sprayed on similarly to water.  Various chemicals, depending on the type of fire being controlled, help to suffocate the fire by removing the oxygen from the immediate area where the burn is located.

Coatings on Furniture and Clothing
Flame retardant coatings on materials can react in different ways. Aluminum trihydrate is a compound that acts as a flame retardant. Near 200 degrees it becomes aluminum oxide and water. Boron mixes that are coated on materials react with heat by creating water that absorbs the energy of the fire. In some cases it will also release a boric acid. The acid will aid in charring the surface that will keep gasses from being emitted from the material that is being burned. Magnesium hydroxide reacts at really high temperatures above 300 degrees. Once it reaches high temperatures, it reacts in much the same way as aluminum trihydrate by forming a gas near the surface of the object that slows the burn by blocking the flames.

Brominated Flame Retardants
Brominated flame retardants, or BFRs, are the most widely used flame-retardant product as of 2011. BFRs can be used in everything from textiles for clothing and curtains to plastics for baby bottles and electronics. There are up to 70 different BFRs being synthesized for market use. They include decabromodiphenyl ether, which is considered benign and completely safe, and tetrabromobisphenol A, which is considered toxic.

Minerals
Mineral compounds that are made into chemicals and then used as flame retardants make up a large portion of the fireproofing chemicals. They include borates, which are chemical and mineral compounds that occur naturally and are the most commonly used mineral-based flame retardant. They also include asbestos and red phosphorus, as well as the less common aluminium hydroxide, hydromagnesite and antimony trioxide(Sb2O3, sometimes called as Antimony(III) oxide or diantimony trioxide). These compounds are the least used of the flame retardants and when used tend to be found in plastics and various construction materials.

Controversy
There is a lot of speculation about the safety of BFRs and the risk they pose to consumers. Several BFRs have gone out of production because of health risks, and in several European countries the use of BFRs is banned altogether.  Lobbyists, however, have argued that the benefits of lives saved by flame retardants outweighs the risk posed to consumers.

Chlorogenic Acid In Coffee

Chlorogenic acid (C16H18O9) is an antioxidant and phenolic compound, which, in ways that are not yet fully clear, can modulate and/or suppress the immune response. The acid is a natural compound found in a wide array of plants. It is a polyphenol that is an important intermediary compound in plant metabolism, and also has a broad range of antimicrobial properties. This chemical has also been found to inhibit the release of glucose into the blood, and appears to help people lose weight.

Many of the polyphenols function as antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid is able to neutralize several classes of carcinogenic compounds before they can damage DNA, thus preventing mutations from occurring and causing cancer. It also inhibits oxidation of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or bad cholesterol. Such oxidation can damage the arteries and cause atherosclerosis. Limiting this is thought to help prevent cardiovascular disease.

The primary dietary sources of chlorogenic acid are coffee and tea1, both caffeinated and decaffeinated. Green coffee beans typically contain 6-7% of this component (range: 4-10%); roasted coffee beans contain somewhat less, as the roasting transforms this acid into other molecules, which may still retain the same functions as chlorogenic acid.

A number of population studies identified coffee drinkers, who drank at least five cups a day, as being substantially less likely to get Type 2 diabetes. Further research has suggested the reason for this as being the effects of chlorogenic acid on glucose metabolism. Glucose is stored in the liver in a polysaccharide called glycogen, which is a long, branched chain of insoluble glucose molecules. In a process known as glycogenolysis, the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase releases free glucose into the bloodstream, where it circulates to various organs.

The quantity of this substance in most plants is miniscule. However, a few types of plants accumulate chlorogenic acid(CAS No. 327-97-9), especially in the skin, in quantities sufficient to have a physiological effect on individuals who consume them. If glycogenolysis is inhibited, the body gets its energy from fat cells. This reduces blood glucose levels, helping to reduce the symptoms of diabetes. Also, reducing the number of fat stores should help in losing weight.

While one must always be cautious when using weight loss supplements, there is some data — from the manufacturer — to suggest that this product does result in weight loss. he biological effects of chlorogenic acid have led to its being marketed for weight reduction in Europe. The substance is obtained from green coffee and sold as Svetol, which is typically included as an ingredient in mints, chewing gum, and coffee.

L’Oreal Hair Coloring Tips

Hair color in the U.S. is quite common, and though most hair-care experts recommend that you have your hair professionally dyed, many people choose to do it at home. L’Oreal Hair Color is a popular hair coloring brand. Some formulas are designed to last longer than others; however, following the L’Oreal Hair Color advice below will assure that the color remains on the hair for at least six to eight weeks before touch-ups are needed.

Basics
According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are both in-salon and at-home hair dye products. The products are generally classified by their level of permanence. Their strength ranges from a rinse, which easily washes out after one shampoo, to permanent, which cannot be washed out with shampoo. The hair dye bottle normally states what type of dye it is. The FDA stipulates that you should follow all of the instructions carefully.

Preparing Hair before Coloring
If any type of coloring product has been used within two weeks, or if hair has been chemically processed or treated in some way, such as perming, straightening, or other styling process within two weeks, then at least that much time should elapse before L’Oreal Hair Color is applied. A few days before the coloring is applied, deep condition the hair. This means using a conditioning product that will remain on the hair for longer than one to three minutes. Fifteen to thirty minutes is a sufficient amount of time to obtain deep conditioning results.They will help protect the hair during the coloring procedure.

Colorant’s Ingredients
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Household Products Database, L’Oreal’s Open Haircolor has isoascorbic acid, polyglyceryl-4 oleyl ether, oleic acid, oleyl alcohol, phenyl methyl pyrazolone, sodium metabisulfite, fragrance/perfume, monoethanolamine (MEA), polyglyceryl-2 oleyl ether, resorcinol, water, trideceth-2 carboxamide MEA, pentasodium pentetate, 2-Amino-3-hydroxypyridine(C5H6N2O, CAS No. 16867-03-1), ammonium hydroxide, hexylene glycol, PEG-2 oleamine, ammonium acetate, sodium diethylaminopropyl cocoaspartamide, p-aminophenol and 2-methylresorcinol. These are all used in the colorant of the hair dye kit.

Cleansing Routine after Coloring
After using L’Oreal Hair Color, hair should be washed with a shampoo that protects the color, and aids in retaining the shade as long as possible. If necessary, a color-protecting conditioner should also be used. Styling products can be used, but should either help protect the color also or should not alter the shade, nor should they strip the color from the hair in any way.

Latex Gloves Description

Chemicals can be highly dangerous. Some are flammable or react violently with other chemicals. Protect your eyes with goggles and your hands with gloves. Latex comes from the rubber tree, which is cultivated in wet tropical environments such as Southeast Asia, West Africa and Brazil. It is then made into various products, the most common being the latex glove. People in the United States use billions of latex gloves per year for different purposes

Latex
Latex is a natural rubber harvested from the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. It is a polymer, made up of extremely large molecules composed of many identical molecular subunits. Starch is a polymer, consisting of repeated subunits of sugar. The molecular subunits in latex are a molecule called isoprene. Latex effectively protects against some chemicals, but there are better choices for certain other chemicals.

Benefits
Latex gloves are cheaper than gloves made from synthetic material. The latex gloves are generally more comfortable to wear than synthetic gloves, and the rubbery nature of the latex allows the glove to be more flexible and less stiff than synthetic materials. This flexibility of movement is more efficient for people who must have have nimble fingers, such as surgeons.

Food Handling
Latex gloves are used in the food service industry to prepare and handle foods in a way that eliminates contamination. A box of latex gloves can generally be found in every kitchen to provide the workers the option of protection. It is also advantageous when a worker has a cut or abrasion and the bandage needs to be covered with something extra that allows a wide range of mobility.

Latex Gloves
Latex gloves offer very good protection (low permeation rate and high breakthrough time) against ethanol, isopropyl alcohol and ethylene glycol, and moderately good protection from methanol and acetone. They offer very poor protection against isobutyl alcohol(also known as Isobutanol or 2-Methyl-1-propanol, C4H10O) and carbon tetrachloride. If you are ever in doubt, glove manufacturers can provide the permeation rate and breakthrough times for a wide array of chemicals so you can determine which gloves are appropriate.

Surgery
The most common place latex gloves are used is in the medical field. They protects the nurses and doctors from potentially harmful bodily fluids. They are unique in that they protect the hands but also allow the ability to grip fine objects such as scalpels and forceps. Latex gloves are also an economical choice, which allows for disposal after every use.

Biotin Benefits

Biotin is a B-complex vitamin, also known as Vitamin B-7, D-Biotin or Vitamin H. It is a water-soluble vitamin that does not get stored in the body like fat-soluble vitamins. So in order for it to work efficiently, it needs to be taken regularly because it is constantly being lost with urination.

History
Biotin was originally discovered in the late 1930s while researching dietary needs of chickens. Researchers were able to determine that a glycoprotein called avidin that is present in eggs can bind with the substance and prevent absorption.

Sources
Biotin can be found naturally in foods including liver, cauliflower, salmon, bananas, egg yolks, carrots, legumes and mushrooms. It is also found in brewer’s and nutritional yeast.

Biotin Deficiency
Since the daily requirements for biotin are small, biological deficiency is rare. Frequent consumption of raw eggs or alcohol can result in biotin deficiencies. Biotin deficiency can lead to hair loss, skin rash, high cholesterol and other cardiovascular problems. Metabolic complications including low blood sugar, high amounts of ammonia in the blood and acidosis can occur.

Benefits
Many health and beauty products that promote hair and nail strength include biotin. However, the usefulness of externally applied products like shampoo is questionable, as it is not easily absorbed through the skin. In order to reap the health benefits of Vitamin B-7, the vitamin must typically be consumed in supplement form.

Hair loss can occur in both men and women. Vitamin B-7 is often used by itself and in conjunction with other vitamin blends for slowing the hair loss process and keeping hair healthier. The only catch is it only helps when biotin deficiency is the underlying reason for the hair loss.

Diabetes is a condition characterized by the pancreas not releasing insulin properly. This leads to sporadic dips and valleys in blood sugar levels. D-Biotin(CAS No. 58-85-5) improves the body’s ability to release insulin in response to elevated blood sugar levels. It also aids the liver in processing glucose, which makes insulin resistance less severe.

Warnnings
Though biotin deficiency is rare, it is serious. Vitamin B-7 deficiency is usually a congenital condition, but it can also be caused by excessive consumption of raw egg white over a period of many months or years. If untreated, Vitamin B-7 deficiency can present serious and potentially fatal neurological symptoms. In early stages, the deficiency is marked by hair and skin conditions including dryness, alopecia, eczema, rashes, and fungal infections. Luckily, the deficiency is easily treated with its supplements.

Topiramate — An Anticonvulsant Medication

Topiramate, the generic name for Topamax, is a prescription medication known best for its effects on migraine headaches. Though it is more known for its use with migraines, Topamax is also used to treat monotherapy and adjunctive therapy epilepsy and seizures.

Function
Seizures often result from abnormal activities of nerve cells in the brain. Brain chemicals, also known as neurotransmitters, are important in the communication between these nerve cells. The action of topiramate is believed to affect or alter the production of brain chemicals, thus, seizure in patients are prevented or suppressed.

Topamax works before a migraine happens, rather than taking the medication after the first signs of a headache. Used as a preventative measure, Topamax works by keeping the chemicals under control that excite your nervous system. One of the believed causes of migraines are nerve cells that get overexcited, causing severe pain. Topamax works to keep those cells under control. With seizures, this medication works by not allowing the nerve cells to get so excited as to cause a seizure.

Usage
Doctors often start patients on lower dosages, and then increase the dosage gradually until an effective dosage is determined. In children from two to 16 years old, it is usually given in combination with other drugs. Patients are often instructed to maintain regular fluid intake of six to eight glasses daily to prevent the development of kidney stones while taking topiramate. Some patients who are also taking other drugs, like sedatives, antidepressants, and oral contraceptives, are often monitored for side effects due to drug interactions.

Effects
Common side effects of  topiramate that may be observed include weight loss, dizziness, frequent tiredness, and numbness of the extremities. Some patients may experience memory impairment, vision changes, speech problems and coordination difficulty. Other patients also present with tongue swelling, increased salivation, dryness of the mouth, and taste changes. Many patients taking anti-epileptic drugs have increased tendency to develop suicidal thoughts, thus, they should be monitored frequently and observed for behavioral changes.

1 in 50 people who take Topamax develop kidney stones. Rashes are common side effects of Topamax. See your doctor if a rash occurs to be sure it is not a sign of a more serious side effect. Children taking Topamax for seizures may have problems with sweating. Children taking this medication should be carefully observed when outdoors in warmer weather so they do not overheat.

Weed Killers That Contain Triclopyr

Weeds are one of the most common problems faced by gardeners and homeowners. They appear in unwanted places–woods, parks, agricultural areas and private lawns–growing quickly and interfering with the growth and propagation of desirable plants. Not all herbicides are created equal. Some herbicides kill indiscriminately, while others target certain plants.

Triclopyr, registered for use in 1979, targets broadleaf weeds and woody brush without killing grasses and conifers. Herbicides containing triclopyr are particularly useful over large areas such as golf courses and roadsides, where targeting individual weeds would be inefficient.

Effectiveness
Triclopyr weed killers eliminate unwanted weeds and plants. Their efficiency is unaffected by rain or watering. Ortho weed killers eliminate thistle, English daisies, spurges, chickenweed, plantain, clovers, dandelions, henbits, wild onions and numerous other weeds.

Application
Triclopyr weed killers are sold in concentrated form (they require additional dilution) and in ready-to-spray bottles. They are most effective when applied in temperatures between 45 degrees Fahrenheit and 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Appropriate safety precautions are required during application. It is recommended you wear gloves, goggles and a face protection.

Dow AgroSciences Multiple Formulation Products
Dow AgroSciences manufactures three products that combine triclopyr with additional active ingredients. Access herbicide contains picloram in addition to triclopyr. Crossbow specialty herbicide is a formulation of triclopyr and 2,4-D ester. Confront specialty herbicide uses a combination of triclopyr and clopyralid. According to the product profiles on the Dow AgroSciences website, Access herbicide is for use in commercial and industrial areas; Crossbow specialty herbicide is for use in livestock grazing areas; and Confront specialty herbicide is for weed control in parks and golf courses.

Scotts Miracle-Gro Company Products
While the Dow AgroSciences tridopyr products are labeled for use in commercial and industrial applications, there are other products suitable for home use. According to the Scotts Miracle-Gro Company’s website, it makes two products that contain triclopyr and are recommended for home use. Ortho Weed-B-Gon contains 8 percent triclopyr in the form of triethylamine(also known as TETN or Triethyl Amine, CAS No. 121-44-8) salt. Weed-B-Gone kills broadleaf weeds without harming certain lawn grasses.

Ortho MAX Poison Ivy and Tough Brush Killer contains 0.7 percent triclopyr and is formulated to kill woody plants and vines. According to the product labeling, Ortho MAX Poison Ivy and Tough Brush Killer is effective on plants such as poison ivy, poison oak and kudzu.

Purchase Information
These weed killers are available online, at local gardening retailers and the nursery section of large department stores.

Plexiglass Introduction

In general, glass is cheaper to purchase than plexiglass, is more scratch resistant and more easily recycled. Plexiglass, on the other hand, is stronger, more shatter-resistant and resistant to the elements and erosion than glass. Plexiglass (also commonly spelled “plexiglas”) is a transparent, synthetic polymer used mostly as an alternative to glass. It also has a wide variety of other applications.

Composition
Plexiglass is a synthetic polymer (plastic). Its scientific name is polymethyl methacrylate, and is frequently abbreviated to PMMA and classified as a transparent thermoplastic. Since plexiglass is a plastic, it is a petroleum-based product. Glass is a amorphous (non-crystalline) solid, an inorganic compound that has cooled from a liquid to a solid without passing through a crystalline state. Glass is brittle, transparent and composed primarily of silicas.

History
Methacrylic acid was first synthesized in 1865. In 1877, German chemists discovered how to transform methyl methacrylate into polymethyl methacrylate. The substance was patented in 1933, and three years later mass production began. It immediately became popular and has remained so ever since.

Function
Acrylic glasses like Plexiglass are created using relatively complex chemical processes. Basically speaking, the synthesis process occurs through one of three separate methods: emulsion polymerization, bulk polymerization or solution polymerization. All of these processes can produce high-quality Plexiglas.

Uses
Plexiglass is widely used as a durable, shatter-resistant alternative to glass. It is also used in medical applications, such as in prostheses. You will find it in a wide range of consumer products, such as picture frames, musical instruments and fashion accessories.

Cost
Standard glass is cheaper than clear acrylic sheets. However, prices will depend not just on size and thickness, but also on added features such as UV-cut and glare-reduction coatings. In general, when comparing sheets of glass and plexiglass offering the same benefits, the glass option will be cheaper. However, given that methyl methacrylate(C5H8O2, CAS No. 80-62-6) is more resistant to weathering and erosion than glass, long-term maintenance and replacement costs can become significantly cheaper with plexiglass.

Others
Clear acrylic sheets are much easier to cut than glass sheets. Plexiglass can be cut a wide variety of shapes to fit the user’s needs. Glass can be recycled cheaply numerous times. Plexiglass (since it involves the use of petrochemicals) is more difficult, and therefore more expensive, to recycle.

Chemicals For Pest Control

A pest is a broad term to define any entity that threatens the health or safety of the environment or people. Pesticides are the means of removing, preventing or killing pests. There is a great deal of focus on the use of chemicals in pest control. Part of the concern is the overall residual effects of these chemicals on both human and environmental health.

Economic Advantages
There is a long history of using chemicals for pest control in agriculture. In fact, farmers are the strongest proponents for chemical pest control methods. There are several reasons for this. One of the main advantages of using chemical pest control in agriculture is cost. Protecting large growing areas from pest infestations is an expensive undertaking, and the cost in crop losses due to infestations is enormous as well.

Farmers must spend a significant part of their operating capital each year to control insects, and broadcast spraying of chemicals is still the least expensive method to use. This includes the use of application machinery for the spraying, which only requires a small work force to operate. Both of these aspects do allow farmers to save money each year in their pest control efforts.

Toxicity
Since 1979, the EPA has recorded pesticide usage in the United States. It estimates that more than 300 million pounds of pesticides are applied each year. A look at the 27 most commonly used pesticides reveals some startling facts. Of these 27, 15 are considered carcinogens by the EPA. Others have been associated with genetic disabilities, deaths in children and farm workers, as well as pet deaths.

Risks
The Pesticide Action Network (PAN) provides information about pesticide toxicity. Acetochlor(CAS No. 34256-82-1) is another common pesticide found in its database. It is categorized at the highest level of concern because of its toxicity. Other highly toxic pesticides include malathion, metolachlor and mancozeb. All are in this same high category, and all are among the most commonly used pesticides. Clearly, a balance of the risks and the benefits must be part of the decision to apply these toxic chemicals.

Regulation
Because they are agents of destruction, all pesticides carry some risks. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) established the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the governing agency for the regulation of pesticides. Pesticides must be registered with the agency. Application of pesticides is also regulated at the state level. Illinois, for example, requires individuals to pass an exam before being licensed.