Efficacy Of Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen(C13H18O2) is a drug that belongs to the class of drugs known as NSAIDS, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is a drug which is recommended for mild to moderate pain, soreness, swelling, and fever. This can be risky, as there are dangers to excessive use, and it is possible to overdose on the drug, potentially causing severe health problems. However, when used safely, the drug can be a very effective and useful pain management tool.

Description
The drug was developed in the 1960s by the Boots Chemical Company, and it is marketed under a number of names. Motrin, Nurofen, and Advil are all forms of ibuprofen. The generic name of the drug is a shortening of its chemical name, iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid. The drug is considered a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) medication. Unlike a steroidal drug, it can be safely used in the long term, as it does not carry as many harmful side effects as steroidal drugs do. When pain and inflammation are not severe, the drug can also be perfectly effective.

Function
Scientifically, the way that ibuprofen works is that it inhibits an enzyme known as COX-2. By inhibiting this enzyme, which is the enzyme responsible for feeling pain, the human body does not feel the pain and the muscles do not swell as they would had this drug not been ingested. You can experience pain in virtually any location of your body; therefore wherever the pain is, the enzyme will also be, so you can take it and it will find and numb the pain. Basically, the COX-2 enzyme is blocked when the medication is ingested.

Side Effects
An overdose can result in severe gastrointestinal distress, characterized by nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. By taking low doses of the medicine which conform with the recommended doses on the label, these symptoms can generally be avoided. If you find yourself taking ibuprofen(CAS No. 15687-27-1) for an extended period of time, you should consult a doctor, as you may have a serious condition which requires professional medical attention.

Warnings
Combining aspirin with ibuprofen may also be dangerous; the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) highly recommends discussing its use with a doctor for this reason. Extended or excessive use can carry risks to the heart. It should not be used by people with serious heart conditions before being discussed with a doctor, and most surgeons recommend that it not be used when a patient is about to have heart surgery.

Uses Of Anastrozole

Generally speaking, the primary use of anastrozole for men is to suppress the production of estrogen, the main female sex hormones. This drug is a medication used as hormonal therapy for the treatment of certain types of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Usage of this drug for men is also often observed in bodybuilders who want to maintain their masculine and muscular physique, especially for those who may be taking steroids.

Anastrozole(C17H19N5) is an aromatase inhibitor, which means it blocks the activity of the aromatase enzyme and reduces the amount of estrogen that is produced. This in turn reduces the supply of estrogen available to breast cancer cells, and it can slow the growth of the cancer and even cause tumors to shrink. With this hormone therapy, the best results are achieved in post-menopausal women who have early-stage estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Late-stage cancer sometimes is less responsive to this type of hormone therapy.

Hormone therapy medications are synthetic hormones or hormone inhibitors that either mimic or suppress hormone activity in the body. For example, women who are going through menopause can opt for hormone replacement therapy. Symptoms of menopause are caused by lack of estrogen, so the hormone replacement therapy provides additional estrogen to relieve symptoms.

The suppression of estrogen, specifically the hormone estradiol, is often necessary for men who have hormone disorders. Elevated levels of the female hormone in men can be manifested in gynecomastia or growth of breasts in males and hypogonadism or the reduced function of the testes. In worse cases, excessive estrogen may put men at higher risk for having prostate cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Prescribing anastrozole for men in these situations has shown significant decrease of estradiol levels and, therefore, a decrease in symptoms and risks.

Another use of anastrozole (CAS No. 120511-73-1) for men is to maintain a powerfully-built and bulky physique among bodybuilders, especially those who take anabolic steroids. One function of steroids is that it mimics the actions of naturally occurring testosterone, resulting in the increase of protein levels, muscle buildup, and strength improvement.

Ironically, the excessive levels of testosterone and testosterone-like drugs signal the body to convert the male hormones into estradiol, which can lead to development of female features such as breasts and fat retention. Bodybuilders counter this hormone conversion by using anastrozole, but usage is often mishandled and may produce more adverse effects.

 

The Positive Effects of BHT

Butylated hydroxytoluene (C15H24O, BHT), also known as butylhydroxytoluene or Antioxidant BHT, is a widely used food preservative in some nations, and banned in others that is derived from petroleum and has many other uses, such as in the production of cosmetics, plastic packaging, and jet fuel.  A white, crystallized molecule, BHT antioxidant prevents oxidation of rubber, resins, and plastic while preserving color.

BHT is also approved by health and safety agencies for use in animal feed to preserve vitamin content and taste. One study found adding BHT antioxidant to chicken feed prevented Newcastle disease, a viral infection that causes death in poultry. This study prompted researchers to theorize BHT antioxidants might prevent viruses in humans. Some people use BHT antioxidants to treat simplex herpes, but no human trials prove its effectiveness.

Food items, like potato flakes and dry cereals, typically contain the additive. It might also be added to pasteboard food cartons and plastic bags inside the boxes to help packaging materials last longer on the shelf. BHT is typically used in combination with butylated hydroxyanisole(BHA)antioxidants, citric acid, and other preservatives. It also helps chewing gum retain its elastic properties.

The benefits of BHT as an anti-viral agent have been known for over 25 years. People with herpes who have taken antioxidant supplements that contain it in the range of 250 to 1,000 milligrams a day have also shown faster-than-normal recovery from the virus and an ability to suppress its reoccurrence. Research over the years has shown that BHT is effective against a range of different viruses, including cytomegalovirus, genital herpes, and a usually fatal disease in livestock such as sheep and cattle known as pseudorabies.

Most of these findings are based on laboratory testing and animal studies, however, as little research into human use of Antioxidant BHT to treat disease has been done, as the compound is known to be detrimental to health in high doses or potentially dangerous with prolonged exposure to low doses.

It is not restricted in the US or Canada, though advisory warnings to its presence have been issued. The European nations of the UK, Sweden, and Romania as well as Australia have all banned its use. One animal study showed the antioxidant impaired the blood’s ability to clot and led to tumors when used over a long period of time at high doses. Researchers found anti-carcinogenic properties in BHT antioxidants in lower doses. They concluded the amounts found in food are likely harmless.

Barbiturates Information

Barbiturates are a class of drugs which have historically been used as sedatives and anesthetics. It produce a calming effect by acting on your central nervous system, thus controlling convulsions, causing you to get drowsy and inducing sleep. A lot of people turn to drugs to cope with stress, anxiety, seizure disorders and insomnia. There are a lot of medications that have barbiturates in them. You may have taken barbiturates and not even been aware of it.

History
Barbiturates, derived from barbituric acid, were introduced in the early 1900s. In those days, science and medicine were not very advanced, and many people became addicted to the drug. Barbiturates have since been replaced by benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines are more widely used and preferred because tolerance develops more slowly, reduces the risk of a lethal dose and has a wider therapeutic index.

Function
These drugs are formulated on a base of barbituric acid, which acts on the central nervous system. In low doses, barbiturates can have a sedative effect, which is one reason they were historically used to address anxiety and sleeplessness. These drugs are also used in the control of seizures, as their depressive effect on the central nervous system appears to help with controlling seizures. In higher doses, barbiturates cause a loosening of inhibitions, and they can have an anesthetic effect.

Types
Some examples of barbiturates include sodium pentathol, phenobarbital, and secobarbital, primodone and butalbital.Barbiturates are not illegal, as long as you have a prescription. Drugs that are prescribed for people suffering from headaches, seizures, insomnia or gastro-intestinal complications all have barbiturates in them and could cause you to flunk a drug test. Diethyl malonate(CAS No. 105-53-3) is used in the production of these drugs.

Warning
The reduction in prescriptions of barbiturates has radically lowered rates of abuse, and has contributed to a significant decline in deaths or serious injuries due to overdose. However, individuals who abuse drugs can still seek out alternatives, which may be more or less dangerous than this class of drugs. People who are attempting to curb abusive habits may opt to attend a residential treatment facility so that they can be helped with their addiction and the unpleasant side effects associated with the cessation of drug use.

Alendronate Sodium For Bones In A Body

Alendronate sodium(C4H12NNaO7P2.3(H2O)), also known as alendronic acid, is a drug that is used in the treatment and prevention of the degenerative bone disease osteoporosis in women and men. This medication also is used in the treatment of a bone-weakening condition called Paget’s disease. There is also a very specific way to take the drug as well as important side effects to note.

Function
These drugs work by reducing the rate at which bone material is absorbed from bones. Bone is not a static material; it is in constant turnover, with cells called osteoblasts depositing new bone and cells called osteoclasts absorbing bone. Bisphosphonates reduce bone absorption by causing osteoclasts to die prematurely. This helps prevent loss of bone density caused by osteoporosis and reduces the risk of bone fractures. This medication can help to strengthen the bones in a body. It has Vitamin D that absorbs calcium, which is needed to make bones strong.

Fosamax
Fosamax is the brand name of the most popular alendronate sodium. It is such a popular brand that many people actually refer to it as Fosamax. Possible side effects are the same as alendronate sodium and it is advised that Fosamax not be used by those who have an esophagus disorder, can not stand or sit up for 30 minutes, kidney disease or a low amount of blood calcium.

Usage
Like many other medications, it has some specific directions that must be followed when taking the daily dose. First, it must be taken first thing upon waking in the morning, along with a glass of plain water. The second important aspect of taking this medication is that at least 30 minutes must elapse between taking alendronate sodium(CAS No. 121268-17-5) and eating or drinking. This includes taking any other medications, particularly antacids and calcium supplements. Finally, someone who is using this medication should not lie down for at least 30 minutes after taking a dose.

Adverse Effects
Even when taken correctly, alendronate sodium can cause some unpleasant side effects. The most common side effect for women is abdominal pain. Others include pain in muscle, bone or joint, nausea, dyspepia, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence, headache, acid regurgitation. For men the most common side effect of this medicine is acid regurgitation.

Proline For Human Body

Proline (C5H9NO2, abbreviated as Pro or P) is an alpha-amino acid that is necessary for the functioning of the human body, one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. It is not an essential amino acid, which means that the human body can synthesize it. It is unique among the 20 protein-forming amino acids in that the alpha-amino group is secondary. With the proper diet, both glutamate and, therefore, proline are produced naturally by humans.

Description
It occurs naturally as colorless crystals, and is soluble in water. Unlike most other amino acids, it is also soluble in alcohol. It is also one of only two amino acids — the other being glycine — that does not follow what is known as the Ramachandran Plot. This describes several typical angles which occur in the structure of amino acids, in a protein structure. Both it and glycine have angles that do not conform to the plot. This amino acid was first found in the compound casein in 1901, and its discovery is credited to Hermann Emil Fischer, a German chemist. It occurs naturally as colorless crystals, and is soluble in water. The most common natural sources of this compound are meat and dairy products, as they contain high levels of glutamate.

Benefits
This amino acid is necessary for proper muscle tissue maintenance. Without a sufficient source of glutamic acid, the precursor to proline, the body will consume its own muscle tissue for energy, limiting or completely negating any muscle gains from exercise. Endurance runners and competitive bodybuilders often experience a lack of the acid, which can lead to a decrease in muscle tissue.

One of the most common medical uses of this acid is to treat a serious tissue injury, as additional proline in the body promotes skin regrowth and elasticity. It is also used in treatments for back pain and arthritis, owing to its joint-cushioning effects. In addition, proline(CAS No. 344-25-2) is also assists in breaking down proteins in the body, which allows the formation of new cells. It is also key in maintaining healthy skin as well as its underlying connective tissue. Both it and lysine are essential in the formation of collagen, a substance which cushions joints and helps to heal cartilage.

Considerations
The daily recommended dosage for this amino acid is between 500 and 1,000 milligrams (mg). Research has also shown an increase in effectiveness when it is combined with vitamin C. A person consuming limited amounts of protein, or on a strict vegetarian diet, is at risk of deficiency and should consider a supplement. Proline supplements are most commonly found as part of combination amino acid formulas.

Glycerol Uses

Glycerol(sometimes known as glycerine, glycerin or 1,2,3-Propanetriol) is a simple polyol compound. It is a thick liquid that is colorless and sweet tasting. It has a high boiling point and freezes to a paste. Glycerin’s most common use is in soap and other beauty products like lotions, though it is also used, in the form of nitroglycerin, to create dynamite.

Where we get glycerol has changed over time. In 1889, for example, commercial candlemaking was the only way to obtain the chemical. At that time, candles made from animal fat which served as the source. Extraction is a complicated process and there are various ways of going about it. The simplest way is to mix fat with lye. When the two are mixed, soap is formed and it is then removed. Still, a small amount of glycerol remains in the soap.

Used In Beauty Products
Its ability to absorb and hold moisture makes it perfect for use in many beauty products. It can leave skin dry and irritated in its natural state, but it helps to keep skin soft and healthy when diluted with water and other chemicals. Many soaps, hair gels, facial scrubs, lotions, and shaving creams are made with liquid glycerin. Shampoos and conditioners also commonly contain the substance, as do toothpastes and liquid mouthwashes.

As A Sweetener
In its normal state, liquid glycerol is a colorless, sweet gel. It is commonly used in food laboratories and kitchens as a type of sweetener or preservative. Some cooks and consumers use it as a substitute for table sugar, as it is nearly as sweet as sucrose with fewer calories per serving. Since liquid glycerol is hygroscopic, it helps to preserve moisture in a number of different food products, including cake icing and candy. The compound is also an effective fruit preservative, as it prevents excess water from escaping from fruit through evaporation.

Used In Health Products
When used as a suppository, liquid 1,2,3-Propanetriol(CAS No. 56-81-5) can provide lubrication to dry membranes and act as a laxative by irritating the colon, thus encouraging bowel movements. It is especially useful in cough syrups and expectorants to help sooth sore throats. Many oral gel tablets are comprised partially of glycerin, as it makes pills easy to swallow and allows medicine to be released quickly.

While production levels increase, many researchers and companies are looking for further uses for the substance. Two big areas being investigated are as a 5% additive to chicken and other livestock feed, and as a suitable substitute for the propylene glycol market.

Carvedilol For High Blood Pressure

The prescription drug carvedilol is used for the treatment of high blood pressure and congestive heart failure. A sufficient dose is affected by factors such as the patient’s responsiveness to the treatment, the condition that the drug is being used to treat and the type of pill the patient is being given. The drug has not gained approval for administration to children, but has been used in children to slow down the widening of the aorta that occurs with Marfan’s syndrome.

Function
This chemical also attaches to muscles surrounding arteries, which can increase the blood pressure, and fighting to get blood into that pressurized system increases the strain on the heart. When a sufficient carvedilol dose is taken, the drug blocks the receptors on the heart as well as some of those on the arteries. This action reduces the blood pressure and the rate of the heartbeat. The medication operates largely on the adrenergic nervous system within the body, blocking the receptors it uses on the heart. The system usually releases norepinephrine, a type of adrenaline, which attaches to the heart’s receptors and causes it to beat faster and harder.

Usage
For example, a patient who is taking carvedilol for hypertension ordinarily has 12.5 milligrams of the treatment split across two doses, but this can be increased to 50 milligrams per day if the patient’s blood pressure doesn’t show improvement. If the drug is being taken for congestive heart failure, the initial dose is 6.25 milligrams per day, but this can increase to a maximum of 100 milligrams in patients who weigh more than 187 pounds (85 kilograms). If the patient weighs less, the maximum sufficient dose is 50 milligrams per day.

Administration
Administration of carvedilol(CAS No. 72956-09-3) following a heart attack helps treat heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction. Taking the medication on a daily basis has been shown to decrease the chance of death after a heart attack by 23 percent. The danger of another heart attack occurring was decreased by 40 percent by taking the drug. Consumers can opt to purchase carvedilol as a brand name or choose a generic form. Users should always avoid alcohol consumption when taking the medication, because alcohol causes the time-release actions of the drug to become accelerated.

PABA In Sunscreen

PABA is an abbreviation for the organic compound para-aminobenzoic acid, which also called as 4-aminobenzoic acid. This compound was once a main sunblock ingredient, though it is no longer added to sunblock. PABA can also be used to treat a number of different ailments ranging from female infertility to skin lesions. Foods that contain PABA include sunflower seeds, liver, brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, eggs and molasses.

Sunscreen
Sunblock manufacturers once added para-aminobenzoic acid to sunblock in order to block ultraviolet rays, though the theory behind this was largely disproved. In fact, numerous studies have shown that PABA may increase a person’s chances of absorbing ultraviolet rays, which is why this ingredient is no longer included in most sunblock formulas. Throughout the world, various sunblock manufacturers may still add this ingredient to sunblock formulas. Thus, it is important to read a product’s ingredient list prior to using any type of sunblock.

Sources
While para-aminobenzoic acid is frequently found in manufactured products, this compound can also be found naturally. Various grains, including wheat germ and other unrefined grains, include PABA. Animal products such as liver and some kidney types have a small percentage of this compound.

Health Risks
Some nutritionists believe that para-aminobenzoic acid is essential to human health, though most do not agree. Since this compound is slightly acidic, some people may experience an adverse stomach reaction to products containing PABA.

4-aminobenzoic acid(CAS No. 150-13-0) is not considered overly important to one’s health, so it is not recommended that people ingest supplements containing the ingredient unless otherwise directed by a medical doctor. Still, various supplements containing this ingredient can be found across the world.

PABA can be taken as a dietary supplement, usually as part of multi-vitamins or mineral preparations and taken in capsule or pill form. Side effects from ingesting it in such a manner can include diarrhea, fever, nausea or vomiting and skin rash. Some people who have taken a daily regimen of PABA have also experienced low blood sugar, even if they are not normally prone to such things.

Valsartan For Hypertension

Valsartan(C24H29N5O3) is a prescription medication used to fight high blood pressure. Administered orally in the form of capsules, it is a common medication for individuals who have previously suffered from a heart attack. Usually, the dose for a patient is largely determined by the condition being treated. Other factors like liver conditions, kidney damage, or tolerance may also create changes in dosing.

This drug prevents a certain protein called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) from constricting blood vessels and subsequently raising blood pressure, making valsartan part of a drug class called ACE inhibitors. When taken, the drug attaches itself to receptors on the walls of blood vessels. These receptors, called angiotensin receptors, are in large part responsible for creating blockages in the vessels. Without the presence of it in the blood, a chemical called angiotensin attaches itself to these receptors and, when present in mass quantities, narrows the space available in the vessel for the transport of blood back to the heart.

This narrowing of the blood vessels increases blood pressure and the chance that an individual will suffer from heart failure or a fatal heart attack. Valsartan has been shown to be successful in lowering blood pressure in addition to keeping blood vessels open and clear. The drug has been deemed safe for use in teenagers and older children above the age of six for treatment of the same conditions.

A different valsartan dose schedule may be used to treat congestive heart failure. The dosing schedule for heart failure also uses initial and maintenance doses, however. At the outset, a patient will take 40 mg of valsartan(CAS No. 137862-53-4), twice a day. Patients then work up to taking 80 mg to 160 mg of this medication twice a day. Doctors try to bring this dose up to the highest dosage they can handle without experiencing side effects in order to let this drug provide maximum benefits to the patient.

The side effects of valsartan are generally mild, although serious reactions such as loss of consciousness, swelling of the face, hands, and feet, as well as difficulty breathing, have been reported. The manifestation of these side effects could result in stopping the administration of the drug. Milder, more typical side effects will usually go away once the body adjusts to the drug, and include headaches, constipation, drowsiness, back or joint pain, and diarrhea. Some individuals have an allergic reaction to the drug, and may break out in a rash. Any side effects should be reported to the medical professional that prescribed the drug.

 

Propionic Acid Description

Propanoic, or propionic acid, is a simple compound often used as a preservative in the feed and food industries. In low doses, manufacturers use the acid as a preservative and as an antimicrobial agent in foods produced for human consumption. These preservative properties of this carboxyl acid also make the compound’s use in foods created for livestock and poultry.

Properties
Propionic acid is a saturated fatty acid with three carbon molecules and is produced naturally by certain bacteria during fermentation. The compound may also be synthetically created using ethylene or natural gas. In their natural state, propionates are a colorless, oily liquid having a pungent odor. When used as a calcium or sodium salt, the acid may be colorless, white and crystallized, or in a powdered form that readily dissolves in water or alcohol.

Structure
Propanoic acid has the following molecular formula: C3H6O2. The three carbons form a chain; the carbon at the end of the chain has an oxygen atom double-bonded to it and an -OH group attached to it as well. This group of atoms or functional group is collectively called a carboxyl group, and compounds like propanoic acid are called carboxylic acids because they are relatively acidic. Acetic acid, also known as vinegar, is another example of a carboxylic acid.

Synthesis
Propanoic acid can be produced in different ways. For one, propanal can be oxidized to yield the carboxylic acid. Just like other carboxylic acids, it could be prepared by adding hot base or acid to propanenitrile followed by an acid-water workup, or by carbonating the Grignard reagent formed from magnesium and 1-bromopropane. It can also be made from propanoic anhydride by hydrolysis or alcoholysis; the hydrolysis would form two molecules of the acid, while the alcoholysis would form an ester and the acid.

Uses
Researchers believe that propionic acid can also inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. Pharmaceutical companies commonly include it as an ingredient in NSAIDS. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and other over-the-counter and prescription anti-inflammatory preparations commonly contain propionic acid(CAS No. 79-09-4) as an ester. In this form, the compound attaches to the medication’s active ingredients.

The acidic properties of propionates provide antimicrobial activity against some bacteria. Propionic acid is more commonly used for fungal and mold growth prevention. Its acidic nature allows it to penetrate the cells of microorganisms, and after gaining entrance into the cytoplasm, the acid decreases the cellular pH. This inhibits normal cell function and growth, causing death. These properties make the substance useful for preserving food products.

What Can Zinc Sulfate Be Used For?

Zinc sulfate, ZnSO4·7H2O, occurs in nature as goslarite. It is a chemical compound that is used in many industries, including pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agricultural and manufacturing.

Agriculture
A solution of zinc sulphate and hydrated lime, 3.63 kg of each to 440.5 L of water, is used as a spray to control bacterial spot disease of peaches. A 50 percent solution of zinc sulphate in water is applied to lactating dairy cows to prevent facial eczema. Zinc sulfate monohydrate is used in animal feeds and as a micronutrient in fertilizers for crops such as beans and corn. Zinc is an important component of certain enzymes.

Industry
Zinc sulfate is used in making lithopone, a mixture of barium sulfate and zinc sulfide, for specialty paints. Lithopone is considerably cheaper than titanium dioxide.

Galvanizing is the process of dipping steel in molten zinc. The outer surface of the zinc layer oxidizes in air and absorbs carbon dioxide to form zinc carbonate, which prevents degradation of the steel. Zinc sulfate and other zinc salts are used by the electroplating industry as substitutes for the galvanizing process and in conjunction with copper to brass plate wire.

Manufacturing
Zinc sulfate is used as a component of spinning bath in rayon manufacture, a reagent for paper bleaching and in manufacture of glue, an agent in printing and textile dyeing, a depressant in froth flotation for lead-zinc ores, a component of zinc plating baths and a chemical intermediate for manufacture of the pigment lithopone(BaO5S2Zn2, CAS No. 1345-05-7), carbamate fungicides, zinc metal and other zinc compounds (such as zinc stearate).

Others
Zinc sulfate is used as a human ophthalmic astringent, a veterinary astringent, an emetic and an accelerating agent in dental impression material. It is also used as a component of cosmetics (such as skin fresheners) and an ingredient in some deodorants.

Copper Fact Sheets

Copper — the “Red Metal — is a naturally occurring element.  It is a reddish brown nonferrous mineral which has been used for thousands of years by many cultures. Modern life has a number of applications, ranging from coins to pigments, and demand for it remains high, especially in industrialized nations. Many consumers interact with the metal in various forms on a daily basis.

History And Properties
The name for the metal comes from Kyprios, the Ancient Greek name for Cyprus, an island which had highly productive copper mines in the Ancient world. The atomic number is 29, placing it among the transition metals. The metal is highly conductive of both electricity and heat, and many of its uses take advantage of this quality. Copper can be found in numerous electronics and in wiring.

Archaeological evidence suggests that copper is among the earliest metals used by humans. Numerous digs all over the world indicate that it was used to make utensils, jewelry, and weapons. The metal is highly ductile, meaning that it can be easily worked and pulled into wire.

Uses
In addition to being useful in manufacturing, copper is also a vital dietary nutrient, although only small amounts of the metal are needed for well-being. This metal is a popular metal used in cookware because it is highly conductive, evenly transferring heat through foods. The metal will prevent hot spots that can burn food on one side of the pan. Its cookware is also very attractive and stands out in a kitchen. Some people use copper pots for decoration and not for cooking.

One interesting property is its naturally-occurring germicidal effect. Many pathogens are killed by any alloy containing more than 65 percent within a period of eight hours. Colder temperatures cause this time frame to be extended. This fact is highly useful in settings such as hospitals, which are responsible for many cases of acquired infections each year. By simply covering surfaces with copper(CAS No. 7440-50-8) alloys, the rate of infection can be decreased.

Warnings
In a natural state, copper is rarely found pure. It is compounded with other elements, and the material must be treated before it can be sold. This can lead to serious environmental problems, especially when mining companies engage in unsound practices. The chemicals used to extract it can be toxic, as can the discarded elements and runoff associated with the purification. Many countries attempt to regulate their industries, to prevent widespread pollution and the problems associated with it.

Hibiscus Leaves Information

Aphrodisiac plants, also known as androgenic plants, are those that exhibit anabolic properties — they help enhance sexual abilities and protein synthesis.  Hibiscus rosasinensis, or hibiscus, is one such plant.  Every hibiscus leaf is so nutrient rich, it’s used to make shampoo, tea and medications. Identify the leaves of the next hibiscus you spot using the following description.

Description
Hibiscus leaves are bright green and flat. Each connects to the plant stem via a petiole. The hibiscus leaf is delivery system, manufacturing plant food via the process of photosynthesis and then pushing nutrients throughout the stem, flower and root system. A signature rib or vein runs throughout each leaf and there are also minute openings, called stoma, on leaves for transpiration.

Medicinal Uses
The hibiscus leaf has various medicinal uses. According to the authors of the book “Green Remedies,” hibiscus leaf extract/juice makes an effective antidote to skin rashes and allergies. The authors report that the juice is a major ingredient of many hair care concoctions, including anti-dandruff shampoos and conditioners.

Researchers from the Monash University Sunway Campus in Malaysia report that leaves of six hibiscus species exhibit antioxidant properties by producing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds that reduce the harmful effects of UV radiation.

Constituents
Fresh hibiscus leaves are primarily comprised of moisture (more than 85 percent), researchers from the Department of Pharmacognosy of the ISF College of Pharmacy report. Other physiochemical constituents include fat, ash, fiber, phosphorus, thiamine and calcium. Chemical constituents of the leaves include anisaldehyde, isoamyl alcohol, methanol, malic acid, benzyl alcohol, iso-propyl alcohol, niacin and 3-methyl-1-butanol(C5H12O, CAS No. 123-51-3).

Potential Uses
There are also some other amazing benefits that have been proved. Hibiscus leaves have aphrodisiac, antiseptic, cholagogue, astringent, emollient, diuretic, resolvent, refrigerant, sedative and stomachic properties. Hibiscus leaf extract is also used to treat menstrual problems in women and to regulate the menstrual cycle.

Glyphosate Facts

Glyphosate is a herbicide used to kill many different types of weeds. It is a very common product used in both commercial and residential applications. Monsanto, the manufacturer of this substance, claims it is the world’s best-selling herbicide. Over time, high use can result in a buildup of the chemical in the soil.

Description
Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicide, and is effective in killing all plant types, including grasses, perennials and woody plants. Because it gets absorbed into the plant mainly through its leaves, and also through its soft stalk tissue, the entire plant will be affected. It travels through the plant, affecting its metabolism and killing the entire plant slowly. Once sprayed, plants display stunted growth, loss of green coloration, leaf wrinkling or malformation and finally, tissue death.

Resistance
Crops with genetically engineered resistance to glyphosate are being developed so that weeds can be controlled in fields where the crops are growing without harming the crops. However, there’s also concern that the genes that display the resistance may be transferred to non-crop species including weeds. Weed experts are concerned that some weeds such as rye grass are becoming resistant to glyphosate-containing herbicides, rendering conventional chemical farming practices useless.

Controversy
There are different schools of thought on whether glyphosate leaches into soil, and what that means to plants. Some researchers report that there is little danger when it is absorbed into soil because it dissipates. Others disagree.

Over time, so much chemical could accumulate in the soil that the soil could become toxic to anything that people want to seed in it. This is put forward as a possibility due to the ever increasing use of the herbicide when spraying genetically engineered crops that are designed to become glyphosate(C3H8NO5P, CAS No. 1071-83-6) resistant. With the crops resisting the spray, more of it can be used to attack the weeds, which results in a larger buildup in the soil.

The higher the concentrations of the chemical, the longer it will have a chance to last long enough to be washed into the water supply. The quality of the soil also affects the risk of water contamination. The coarser the soil material, the higher the risk that high levels of glyphosate in soil will eventually travel into the ground water supply.

Fenfluramine — Past Popular Weight-loss Drugs

Fenfluramine was a weight-loss drug that was introduced to the market in the early 1970s under the brand names Pondimin, Ponderax, and Adifax.  It quickly became one of the most popular weight-loss drugs of the day because of its claimed effectiveness. However, in 1997, the discovery of a link between fenfluramine use and heart disease led to a world-wide ban.

History
Pondimin began marketing in the United States in 1973. Prior to Pondimin’s introduction, most diet pills were amphetamine-based. Pondimin was considered an improvement, as it did not lend itself to the same kind of user abuse that amphetamines were known for. Later, it was combined with the drug phentermine to create the appetite suppressant drug combination fen-phen. In 1997, the results of a Mayo Clinic study appeared in the Aug. 28, 1997 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine and noted a suspected correlation between pulmonary hypertension and appetite-suppressing drugs.

Function
The compound 3-trifluoromethyl-N-ethylamphetamine works in the brain performing different functions to fool the neurological system into weight loss. The chemical, fenfluramine, is an anorectic that releases an elevated amount of serotonin into a person’s system and suppresses the appetite of the user. The amphetamine in the combination helps to increase the metabolic rate so that the user burns calories faster, which also assists in weight loss.

Side Effects
Shortly after the introduction of fenfluramine, it was combined with another popular weight-loss drug known as phentermine. The combination of the two drugs, called Fen-phen, was supposed to cancel out the side effects of the other. The side effects of phentermine included difficulty sleeping, nervousness, irritability, and agitation. The combination of these two drugs proved problematic for a number of people primarily due to this medication. 3-Bromobenzotrifluoride (with the CAS number 401-78-5, has the IUPAC name of 1-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzene) is mainly used in the production of weight-loss drugs fenfluramine and so on.

Banned
In 1997, Pondimin and Redux were banned from the U.S. market due to its connection with heart disease. Other countries have since followed suit, and fenfluramine is currently banned world-wide. According to the New York Times, there have been about 40,000 lawsuits lawsuits filed against its manufacturer, American Home Products Corp. AHP changed its name to Wyeth in 2002. In 1999, American Home Products Corp. agreed to a $3.75 billion settlement.

Ethylparaben Used As Parabens

Ethylparaben(C9H10O3) is a ethyl eter of hydroxybenzoic acid. Though considered safe in the very low concentrations of 0.04% to 0.08% generally used in products, several studies suggest a link between parabens and breast cancer.

Ethylparaben is a paraben and preservative found in many skin care products, ranging from skin cream to body lotion to deodorant. It can be found in essential oils used to treat dry skin and in primrose oil serving as an anti-septic. Although parabens are generally considered safe when used in low percentages (0.04% – 0.08%), many studies have found a link between parabens and breast cancer.

Propylparaben is another paraben-related compound used as a fungicide, with the unique characteristic that is a naturally occurring chemical found in many plants and some species of insect. Butylparaben is often used in medicines as another derivative of the paraben family of compounds. Several compounds related to ethylparaben are also used as fungicide-based preservatives. It is a related chemical preservative that is often used to inhibit the growth of Drosophila larva, commonly known as fruit flies, in foods.

Ultimately, the cosmetics industry has found the low levels of parabens in cosmetics to be safe and the connection between parabens and breast cancer to be weak. The FDA finds that although parabens can mimic estrogen, the actual effects of this low level of activity on the body do not cause cancer in a higher incidence than naturally occurring estrogen. Nonetheless, many paraben-free products are being created to avoid the possible dangers of ethylparaben and other paraben-based preservatives.

Evidence suggests, however, that this effect is negligible and does not increase natural estrogen levels. Despite such positive scientific findings as to the safety and tolerance of ethylparaben(CAS: 120-47-8) at the concentration levels currently used, it is one of many synthetic preservatives of which manufacturers are trying to reduce the use. Many cosmetics products are now being marketed as paraben-free in order to avoid any possible dangers the chemicals pose.

Controversy over the safety of products containing ethylparaben may continue for some time since studies of its adverse effects are small and limited in scope. A 2004 study published in the Journal of Applied Toxicology found that 60% of breast tumors were centered in a small area near the underarm, where deodorant is most often applied. Out of the 20 cases of malignant breast tumors studied, 18 had high concentrations of parabens in tumor cells. Not all deodorants contain parabens; however, many beauty products in addition to deodorant contain parabens, including face cream, body lotions, cleansers and shampoos.

Gabapentin Used for Seizures

Gabapentin is a prescription medication used for the treatment of epilepsy and seizures. It was developed by the drug company Pfizer, and first approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1994. Doctors may also prescribe this drug for migraines or chronic pain conditions, but undoubtedly the drug’s most controversial use is in the treatment of bipolar disorder.

Certain medical conditions and treatments can interact with or worsen as a result of taking gabapentin. It is important that you disclose your full medical history to your physician before taking this medicine. Do not take it if you have a history of kidney, heart or liver disease without first discussing your condition with your doctor. It is important that you tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant before taking. It can pass into breast milk and cause negative effects on a breastfeeding child.

There are numerous dosage amounts of gabapentin, and it can often be prescribed in high doses, exceeding 1200 mg. It is not recommended for pregnant or nursing women because effects on the fetus or nursing babies have not been studied significantly. Use in children needs to be watched carefully, as some children may develop memory loss, depression, hyperactivity, mood changes, or challenges concentrating. These symptoms in children necessitates contacting the prescribing physician immediately. There is also some indication that gabapentin may increase risk for suicidal behavior in children, teens, and young adults.

Some medications may interact with gabapentin hydrochloride(CAS No. 60142-96-3). Common drugs include hydrocodone (Vicodin), most antacids, morphine and naproxen sodium (Aleve). Taking these medications doesn’t necessarily mean that a person can’t take it also, but dosages may need to be adjusted, or timing of taking these meds might need to be carefully scheduled.

Certain conditions can worsen as a result of taking gabapentin, and side effects can last for several hours, days, weeks or even longer. Some side effects of the medication can be fatal. It is very important that you seek emergency treatment if you experience any severe side effects as a result of taking gabapentin. There may be evidence that a very small percentage of patients find some benefit from this drug as adjunct therapy for bipolar disorder, but there is little evidence this medicine should be viewed as first, or even second-line treatment for the condition.

How To Dissolve Charcoal?

When wood is anaerobically burn, it turns black as water is driven off leaving charcoal or carbon behind. It is used as fuel, purification and discoloration of liquids and gases. It is produced through slow pyrolysis. Active charcoals are produced by the carbonization of various carbon substrates, such as wood, coal or polymers, which are subjected to an activation treatment giving them a high porosity and adsorbing capacity.

Properties
Charcoal is a form of nearly pure carbon. It is created through burning organic matter in an oxygen deprived inert atmosphere and siphoning or leaching out any impurities. Nutshells, peat, wood or coal can be heated to between 600 and 900 degrees Fahrenheit while surrounded by argon or nitrogen. The end product is either powdered or granulated charcoal (carbon). It has a very high surface area and is extremely porous. A single gram can feature between 300 and 2,000 square meters of surface area.

Uses
Charcoal has been used for generations in many societies as a form of fuel. It is used to cook food and to undertake other operations, such as distillation. It however presents a danger when used in a house without ventilation, as carbon monoxide may build up inside the house and cause the death of people.

Charcoal can be packed into a cylinder or special screen that will not restrict the flow of air or liquid through the filtration device. The ideal application for a filter depends on the specific blend of carbon used (standard, activated or impregnated). The quality and amount of charcoal used affects the efficiency of the filter.

Removing
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It exists as a colorless gas or as a fuming liquid. Hydrogen fluoride also can be released when other fluoride-containing compounds, such as ammonium fluoride(NH4F, CAS No. 12125-01-8), are combined with water. It is used to make refrigerants, electrical components, gasoline, plastics and fluorescent light bulbs. It is also used in the etching of glass and metals.

Dissolving charcoal involves the reaction of the carbon in the charcoal with the hydrofluoric acid to produce carbon fluoride and water. Its ability to dissolve iron oxide as well as silica contaminants has made it to be used in precommissioning boilers that produce steam. Hydrofluoric acid cleans impurities from stainless steel by pickling and similarly this occurs in carbon, which is the element in charcoal. When charcoal is heated at high temperatures, a lot of carbon is emitted and combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.

Sodium Benzoate Fact Sheets

Benzoates are salt compounds which are often chosen over acid compounds because of their much greater solubility in water. Sodium benzoate(also known as Ucephan or Sobenate) is a commonly used chemical preservative in food, although it only works well in foods which are naturally acidic or which have been acidified. If too much is added, food may take on a very bitter taste.

Sodium benzoate is found in several common fruits like apples, plums and cranberries. A few sweet spices contain small amounts of this compound, including cloves and cinnamon. The presence of the salt in these foods does not necessarily act to preserve them.

The chemical is so well-known because it works very well at killing bacteria, yeast and fungi. You will most commonly see it used as a preservative in foods with a high acid content, since sodium benzoate will only work when the pH balance of foods is less than 3.6. It is therefore effective in most sodas, vinegar, fruit juice, and in mixed ingredients like salad dressing. It is additionally used to stop the fermentation process in wines.

You may be able to taste sodium benzoate in foods to which it is added — approximately 75% of people can taste it. But, they people who taste this salt would describe it in different ways that they think right. Some call it bitter or salty while others think the taste is more on the sweet side. Since many of us drink soft drinks on a regular basis, we are fairly used to tasting this preservative and generally think nothing of it.

Sodium benzoate on its own is not considered a carcinogen, and you would have to consume a huge amount of it in order to have toxic levels in your body. However, there have been some health concerns about the combination of sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid or vitamin C. In mice studies where the animals were fed sodium benzoate(CAS No. 532-32-1), no adverse effects were reported, and the mice’s life expectancies were not shortened, nor was their health affected in any way.

It may just be a good idea to at least cut down on the amount of soft drinks you consume, and especially to limit soft drink consumption for kids. Scientists have called for the US Food and Drug Administration to retest the potential dangers of sodium benzoate and citric acid in soft drinks, because the tests proving its safety are quite old. The same cannot be said of benzene, which researchers now show has the ability to affect mitochondria in cells and cause cell death.