Willow Used for Ornamental Landscaping

A willow tree is a tree in the genus Salix, which contains around 400 distinct species of trees and shrubs native to the Northern hemisphere. While the weeping willow is one of the most common species, there are many other varieties, all sharing several things in common. They have a number of commercial uses, and the trees are also frequently planted as ornamentals, since some species have quite attractive growth habits.

Taxonomy
Willow trees are scientifically classified in the genus Salix, of the larger family Salicacae, which also encompasses poplar and aspen. They typically have narrow leaves, while their cousins, the poplar, have rounded leaves. There are approximately 400 distinct species of these trees worldwide. Among the approximately 75 species found in North America. All are woody, meaning they occur as trees or shrubs.

Habitat
A willow which has evolved in cooler regions of the world tends to take the form of a creeping shrub, rather than a tree, reflecting a desire to protect itself from severe weather and cold. Willows which develop in warmer regions will be much larger, often with very delicate branches which easily snap off, allowing the tree to propagate itself.

The trees prefer cool, moist soil. They are commonly found near streams, rivers, ponds, wetlands and floodplains. They occur in a wide range of climate zones, but are most common in the temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere up to the arctic regions. They can occur farther north than any other angiosperm tree.

Uses
Willow wood can be used in a wide variety of projects, and the bark has historically been used to make medicines, as it contains salicylic acid, the original aspirin. Because they  grow quickly and establish extensive root systems, they have also historically been used to control erosion. The trees are also quite popular among butterflies, leading some people to plantm the trees to attract butterflies to their yards and gardens. 1,4-Dimethoxybenzene, also called as hydroquinone dimethyl ether having the molecular formula C8H10O2, occurs naturally in willow and it appears to attract bees as it has a powerful response in their antenna.

Willow wood is too soft for lumber usage, but the pulp is occasionally used for paper. The branches are frequently used for baskets and wickerwork. Historically, the bark of trees have also been used for medicinal purposes as a predecessor to aspirin. Today, many willow varieties are used for ornamental landscaping. Additionally, they are sometimes purposely planted along riverbanks for erosion control.

What Is 1,2-Dichloroethane?

1,2-dichloroethane, commonly known as ethylene dichloride nowdays, is a liquid organic compound classified as an organochloride. Just like ethylene dichloride is considered an outdated name for 1,2-dichloroethane, it was also once called as Dutch oil in honor of the Dutch scientists who first synthesized this compound from ethylene and chlorine gases in the late 18th century. The chemical structure of ethylene dichloride consists of a covalent bond between its hydrogen atoms and two chlorine atoms, meaning that they share electron pairs between them.

Market Condition
Today, the compound is produced in large quantities from the same basic materials using either chlorinated iron or copper as a catalyst. In fact, the commercial production of this solvent in the US, which began in 1922, eventually earned a place in the top 50 highest volume industrial chemicals produced in the country. In addition, large amounts of this chemical are imported into the US each year from Japan and several Western European countries.

Specific Uses
The famous use of ethylene dichloride is applied in industry to produce vinyl chloride, used to manufacture polyvinyl chloride (PVC). It is also used to make polystyrene, a thermoplastic, and styrene butadiene (SBR) latex, an adhesive coating used to bond cement, concrete, and asphalt. In addition, the chemical is used as an industrial solvent to remove oil and grease, as well as in the manufacturing of other chlorinated solvents, such as perchloroethylene, otherwise known as dry cleaning fluid.

As a good apolar aprotic solvent, 1,2-dichloroethane is used as degreaser and paint remover. As a useful ‘building block’ reagent, it is used as an intermediate in the production of various organic compounds such as ethylenediamine. In the laboratory it is occasionally used as a source of chlorine, with elimination of ethene and chloride. Via several steps, 1,2-dichloroethane is a precursor to 1,1,1-trichloroethane, which is used in dry cleaning. At one time, 1,2-dichloroethane was used as an anti-knock additive in leaded fuels.

Toxcity
A small amount ot exposure to Ethane,1,2-dichloro- (CAS: 107-06-2) was once thought to be primarily an occupational hazard, the EPA has discovered that this solvent is also present in significant amounts in rural air, as well as in surface water and groundwater. As might be expected, the World Health Organization (WHO) reports similar findings in Western Europe in regions where this chemical is manufactured. In addition, according to the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), this substance has been detected in human breast milk. In terms of environmental impact, 1,2-dichloroethane persists in the ground, but biodegrades in the air within 300 days. However, this substance is toxic to fish and contributes to acid rainfall.

Fruit Trees Borer Control

Insect larvae, depending on the species, injure fruit trees by feeding on their foliage, sucking their sap or by drilling holes in the wood. Borers do the latter. Susceptible fruit trees include pears, apple, quince and peach trees. Among the variety of borers that attack fruit trees, peachtree borer larvae causes the most damage to stone fruit trees. Controlling the population of fruit tree borers requires keen observation, immediate action, regular maintenance and long-term monitoring to prevent further infestations.

Fruit tree borers lay their eggs beneath the bark of peach trees. A gummy substance at the base of the tree indicates the presence of these insects, which feed on the interior of the tree and weaken it, making it more susceptible to other diseases and pest problems. Peach tree borers cause the tree’s growth to decline, and severe infestations can become fatal, especially in young or weak peach trees. Drought- and winter-related injuries make trees more likely to contract them.

Prevention
Keep trees in full vigor by cultivating and fertilizing where necessary. Wrapping the trunk (from ground level to the lower branches) with burlap or several thicknesses of old newspapers before the adults start to emerge in the spring can be very helpful in preventing egg-laying on the bark of newly planted trees. Apply the wrapping in May and maintain it during the first season or two, or until the trees are making good growth.

Spray insecticide
One of the most important parts of controlling peach tree borers is the use of preventative pesticide sprays. Applying a spray in the early spring helps prevent peach tree borer larvae from surviving inside the bark of the peach tree, reducing the population and stopping the insects from damaging the tree.

Crystallized Fumigant
A crystallized fumigant placed in the soil is an effective treatment for severe infestations, but it can damage the tree as well. Clear away organic matter from the top of the soil and bury the fumigant crystals 1 to 2 inches from the base of the tree and cover them with dirt. According to Colorado State University, the 1,4-dichlorobenzene(C6H4Cl2, also called as para-dichlorobenzene or p-DCB) moth crystals produce a gas that kills off the larvae of peach tree borers.

Pesticides
Pesticide sprays are vital if a peach tree borer infestation is discovered. The larvae can be found by cutting back a section of the bark; they appear as small, white insects beneath the bark. The adult insects look like wasps. Pheromone traps are effective for catching and killing male peach tree borers. Pesticide sprays applied to the peach trees help kill off female and male borers, reducing the population and stopping them from reproducing.

How to Remove the Smell of Mothballs?

Mothballs are those funny smelling things that are typically encased in a plastic container and hung in the closet to ward off moths and silverfish. Earlier mothballs were made with naphthalene, which is a crystalline, solid hydrocarbon. It has a pungent smell and a flammable nature, which is one reason it is no longer used in making mothballs.

The smell of moth balls is so characteristic that most of us can recognize it even months after moth balls have been removed from a home. The good thing about the smell of moth balls that lingers for so long that it keeps protecting clothes even after the ball itself has dissolved. The bad thing is that the smell of moth balls will usually stay on clothes even after they have been washed repeatedly.

Then how to get rid of the strong unpleasant smell of it?

It may be possible to remove the smell of moth balls by sealing the clothes in a plastic bag together with a powerful deodorizer, such as dryer sheets or a sachet of dry lavender. Lavender is also a natural moth repellent, and it can be used instead of moth balls in the first place.

Baking soda and charcoal may help absorb the smell from the inside of drawers or cupboards, and furniture polish can sometimes help with the outside. The best solution, however, is to let the wood breathe. If you have a chance to put the furniture outside, do it, but make sure it won’t get wet. Water will embed the odor even further into the wood grain.

In addition, the most common way of doing is to hang the clothes in the sun on and off for at least a week. This seems to work especially well if the clothes are hung dry, before attempting to wash them even once. After the smell has dissipated, it could also help to wash the clothes with a little vinegar added to the water.

The best thing you can to avoid the smell of moth balls is to use them as little as possible. Choose natural scents like lavender, mint, and rosemary, which are natural moth repellents. Moth balls are extremely toxic to pets and children, and should be avoided in houses trying to keep their surroundings green.

Warnings
Mothballs are solid pesticides composed of naphthalene, paradichlorobenzene, or 1,4-dichloro benzene and are all toxic carcinogens. Subsequently, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene replaced naphthalene as an ingredient in mothballs. It is an organic compound that is a colorless solid with a scent similar to camphor. Both the naphthalene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene help to kill moths and the larvae by the chemicals’ potent fumes. Both are solids that transition to a gas that is toxic to moths. In addition, the telltale scent of mothballs is a combination of the thalene or benzene with camphor, itself an irritant and toxic if ingested.